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The sixth edition of Camden’s Britannia was published in 1607 with over fifty county maps printed from engraved plates. It was a pioneering work. In 1611, John Speed published his Theatre of The Empire of Great Britaine, again with over fifty county maps, many of them engraved by Jodocus Hondius from Amsterdam, and with an abridged version of Camden’s text. These books established a model that was followed later in Amsterdam itself in the great atlases of Blaeu and Janssonius. One of the ways Camden sought to augment the authority of his work was by using Anglo-Saxon types in his text for county names and the occasional passage in Anglo-Saxon (Old English). As the practice persisted, the progress of these type-designs is examined in relation to the development of the atlases. While Hondius’ map-making skills were imported to add to the English text, when the English text was brought to Amsterdam to add to the Dutch maps, the Dutch printers had to use their own skills to reproduce the Anglo-Saxon characters.
Depression and obesity are highly prevalent, and major impacts on public health frequently co-occur. Recently, we reported that having depression moderates the effect of the FTO gene, suggesting its implication in the association between depression and obesity.
To confirm these findings by investigating the FTO polymorphism rs9939609 in new cohorts, and subsequently in a meta-analysis.
The sample consists of 6902 individuals with depression and 6799 controls from three replication cohorts and two original discovery cohorts. Linear regression models were performed to test for association between rs9939609 and body mass index (BMI), and for the interaction between rs9939609 and depression status for an effect on BMI. Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were performed using METASOFT.
In the replication cohorts, we observed a significant interaction between FTO, BMI and depression with fixed effects meta-analysis (β=0.12, P = 2.7 × 10−4) and with the Han/Eskin random effects method (P = 1.4 × 10−7) but not with traditional random effects (β = 0.1, P = 0.35). When combined with the discovery cohorts, random effects meta-analysis also supports the interaction (β = 0.12, P = 0.027) being highly significant based on the Han/Eskin model (P = 6.9 × 10−8). On average, carriers of the risk allele who have depression have a 2.2% higher BMI for each risk allele, over and above the main effect of FTO.
This meta-analysis provides additional support for a significant interaction between FTO, depression and BMI, indicating that depression increases the effect of FTO on BMI. The findings provide a useful starting point in understanding the biological mechanism involved in the association between obesity and depression.
The analysis of multilayer networks is among the most active areas of network science, and there are several methods to detect dense “communities” of nodes in multilayer networks. One way to define a community is as a set of nodes that trap a diffusion-like dynamical process (usually a random walk) for a long time. In this view, communities are sets of nodes that create bottlenecks to the spreading of a dynamical process on a network. We analyze the local behavior of different random walks on multiplex networks (which are multilayer networks in which different layers correspond to different types of edges) and show that they have very different bottlenecks, which correspond to rather different notions of what it means for a set of nodes to be a good community. This has direct implications for the behavior of community-detection methods that are based on these random walks.
The first scholars interested in Anglo-Saxon had to learn it by direct contact with original sources. Work on a dictionary preceded that on a grammar, notably through the efforts of John Joscelyn, Archbishop Parker's Latin Secretary. Like Parker, Sir Henry Spelman (1563/4–1641) found that many of his sources for early English history were in Anglo-Saxon. Consequently he encouraged the study of Old English by establishing a Lectureship in Anglo-Saxon at Cambridge University and worked closely with its first (and only) holder, Abraham Wheelock. Together with Wheelock's pupil, William Retchford, and possibly drawing on some earlier work by Joscelyn (since lost), these scholars attempted to formulate the rudiments of Anglo-Saxon grammar. This pioneering work, basically a parts-of-speech grammar, survives in three versions, two of them incomplete. In this article I discuss the contents and methodology used and present for the first time an edited text of the first modern Old English grammar. It was a remarkable achievement.
Observational studies have suggested that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are associated with inflammatory markers. Most trials reporting significant associations between vitamin D intake and inflammatory markers used specific patient groups. Thus, we aimed to determine the effect of supplementary vitamin D using secondary data from a population-based, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial (Pilot D-Health trial 2010/0423). Participants were 60- to 84-year-old residents of one of the four eastern states of Australia. They were randomly selected from the electoral roll and were randomised to one of three trial arms: placebo (n 214), 750 μg (n 215) or 1500 μg (n 215) vitamin D3, each taken once per month for 12 months. Post-intervention blood samples for the analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, IL-10, leptin and adiponectin levels were available for 613 participants. Associations between intervention group and biomarker levels were evaluated using quantile regression. There were no statistically significant differences in distributions of CRP, leptin, adiponectin, leptin:adiponectin ratio or IL-10 levels between the placebo group and either supplemented group. The 75th percentile IL-6 level was 2·8 pg/ml higher (95 % CI 0·4, 5·8 pg/ml) in the 1500 μg group than in the placebo group (75th percentiles:11·0 v. 8·2 pg/ml), with a somewhat smaller, non-significant difference in 75th percentiles between the 750 μg and placebo groups. Despite large differences in serum 25(OH)D levels between the three groups after 12 months of supplementation, we found little evidence of an effect of vitamin D supplementation on cytokine or adipokine levels, with the possible exception of IL-6.
The non-axisymmetric structure of an unstable Stewartson shear layer generated via a differential rotation between flush disks and a cylindrical enclosure is investigated numerically using both three-dimensional direct numerical simulation and a quasi-two-dimensional model. Previous literature has only considered the depth-independent quasi-two-dimensional model due to its low computational cost. The three-dimensional model implemented here highlights the supercritical instability responsible for the polygonal deformation of the shear layer in the linear and nonlinear growth regimes and reveals that linear stability analysis is capable of accurately determining the preferred azimuthal wavenumber for flow conditions near the onset of instability. This agreement is lost for sufficiently forced flows where nonlinear effects encourage the coalescence of vortices towards lower-wavenumber structures. Time-dependent flows are found for large Reynolds numbers defined based on the Stewartson layer thickness and azimuthal velocity differential. However, this temporal behaviour is not solely characterized by Reynolds number but is rather a function of both the Rossby and Ekman numbers. At high Ekman and Rossby numbers, unsteady flow emerges through a small-scale azimuthal destabilization of the axial jets within the Stewartson layers; at low Ekman numbers, unsteady flow emerges through a modulation in the strength of one of the axial vortices rolled up by non-axisymmetric instability of the Stewartson layer.
It is unclear whether there is a direct link between economic crises and changes in suicide rates.
The Lopez-Ibor Foundation launched an initiative to study the possible impact of the economic crisis on European suicide rates.
Data was gathered and analysed from 29 European countries and included the number of deaths by suicide in men and women, the unemployment rate, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the annual economic growth rate and inflation.
There was a strong correlation between suicide rates and all economic indices except GPD per capita in men but only a correlation with unemployment in women. However, the increase in suicide rates occurred several months before the economic crisis emerged.
Overall, this study confirms a general relationship between the economic environment and suicide rates; however, it does not support there being a clear causal relationship between the current economic crisis and an increase in the suicide rate.
Several studies demonstrating that central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are preventable prompted a national initiative to reduce the incidence of these infections.
We conducted a collaborative cohort study to evaluate the impact of the national “On the CUSP: Stop BSI” program on CLABSI rates among participating adult intensive care units (ICUs). The program goal was to achieve a unit-level mean CLABSI rate of less than 1 case per 1,000 catheter-days using standardized definitions from the National Healthcare Safety Network. Multilevel Poisson regression modeling compared infection rates before, during, and up to 18 months after the intervention was implemented.
A total of 1,071 ICUs from 44 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, reporting 27,153 ICU-months and 4,454,324 catheter-days of data, were included in the analysis. The overall mean CLABSI rate significantly decreased from 1.96 cases per 1,000 catheter-days at baseline to 1.15 at 16–18 months after implementation. CLABSI rates decreased during all observation periods compared with baseline, with adjusted incidence rate ratios steadily decreasing to 0.57 (95% confidence intervals, 0.50–0.65) at 16–18 months after implementation.
Coincident with the implementation of the national “On the CUSP: Stop BSI” program was a significant and sustained decrease in CLABSIs among a large and diverse cohort of ICUs, demonstrating an overall 43% decrease and suggesting the majority of ICUs in the United States can achieve additional reductions in CLABSI rates.
Few studies have investigated the effects of infant nutrition on later bone health in term infants, although low sn-2 palmitate in infant formulas has been shown to result in the formation of stool fatty acid soaps, reduced Ca absorption and lower bone mass in the short term. To investigate the effect of (1) breast-feeding (BF) and (2) the type of infant formula (standard fat blend v. high-sn-2 fat blend) on bone mass at age 10 years, anthropometry and bone mass (from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE Lunar Prodigy); lumbar spine (LS) and total body less head; adjusted for size (bone mineral apparent density standard deviation score (SDS) and regression)) were measured in 10-year-old subjects born at term and either breast-fed (n 34) or randomised to a standard control formula (n 27) or a high-sn-2 palmitate formula (n 30) for the first 12 weeks of life. At follow-up, previously BF children were older but lighter (by 0·5 SDS, P= 0·03) than formula-fed children with a lower LS bone mineral density SDS (by 0·44, P= 0·03), but size-adjusted bone mass did not differ. There were no significant differences in bone mass between the formula-fed groups. These findings suggest that there is no significant effect of BF or high-sn-2 infant formula on size-adjusted bone mass in mid-childhood, and that the effects of infant nutrition on bone mass previously reported may be confined to the short term. A larger study would be required to exclude smaller effects.
Renewable energy can provide a host of benefits to society. In addition to the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, governments have enacted renewable energy (RE) policies to meet a number of objectives including the creation of local environmental and health benefits; facilitation of energy access, particularly for rural areas; advancement of energy security goals by diversifying the portfolio of energy technologies and resources; and improving social and economic development through potential employment opportunities. Energy access and social and economic development have been the primary drivers in developing countries whereas ensuring a secure energy supply and environmental concerns have been most important in developed countries.
An increasing number and variety of RE policies–motivated by a variety of factors–have driven substantial growth of RE technologies in recent years. Government policies have played a crucial role in accelerating the deployment of RE technologies. At the same time, not all RE policies have proven effective and efficient in rapidly or substantially increasing RE deployment. The focus of policies is broadening from a concentration almost entirely on RE electricity to include RE heating and cooling and transportation.
RE policies have promoted an increase in RE capacity installations by helping to overcome various barriers. Barriers specific to RE policymaking (e.g., a lack of information and awareness), to implementation (e.g., a lack of an educated and trained workforce to match developing RE technologies) and to financing (e.g., market failures) may further impede deployment of RE.
By measuring the intensity profiles along the crystal truncation rods of a Si(001) substrate, we obtain the depth sensitivity necessary for x-ray diffraction measurements of the structure of its interface with a thick GaAs overlayer which is epitaxial to, but not in registry with the substrate. By comparing the diffraction with a model based on a grid of misfit dislocations, we find that the atoms at the interface have a root mean square displacement of 1.09±0.1Å from this ideal structure, and that the interface has a roughness of 2.9±1 Å. The diffraction indicates an anomalously small strain perpendicular to the interface in the GaAs near the interface.
Annealing of defects in proton irradiated bulk n-type 6H- and semi-insulating 4H-SiC has been investigated by positron lifetime spectroscopy and Doppler-broadening measurements. For the n-type sample radiation induced defects in dependence of the proton fluence were studied. Three or four annealing stages were found, during which the formation of larger defect complexes could be observed.
The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), currently under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is expected to employ a Hg target encased in a stainless steel. Little is known about the metallurgical behavior of this materials engineering system, which will occur in a service environment involving elevated temperatures and intense radiation. Under normal equilibrium conditions, however, Hg is known to be insoluble in and non-reactive with solid Fe and Cr but to form one or more intermetallics with Ni. Hg has been implanted into alloy 304L. After implantations at 400 and 500 °C to a fluence of 3×1016 cm−2 sub-micron sized precipitates of Hg are formed, as judged, for example, from their solidification behavior on cooling during TEM observation. The formation of such a system of microtargets and possible studies employing them as in situ TEM specimens are discussed, which can provide useful empirical information in conjunction with SNS target development.
This chapter and the next focus on measurements of the physical and chemical attributes of potential foods that primates select or reject. The major reason for analysing primate diets in this manner is to understand the basis for their food choice. Observing primates as they feed quickly raises questions in the observer's mind about the possible foraging strategies that the animals might be following in order to survive. How do primates distinguish food from what is otherwise scenery? Can we measure the attributes of potential foods in the form in which primates are actually sensing them? What do primates get out of the foods they choose and are their choices, based on sensory capabilities, optimal in terms of nutrients? Tests of hypotheses that address these questions will require objective dietary analysis (e.g. for colour: Osorio et al., 2004). It is important to tailor your measurements to the questions being asked.
The physicochemical characteristics of foods may form The physicochemical characteristics of foods may form important sensory cues for their detection, selection and subsequent processing by primates, but all these characteristics are affected to some extent by specimen storage. Physical characteristics, such as colour, geometry and mechanical properties, may change drastically and rapidly, so it is often important and sometimes vital to make measurements almost immediately, while the specimen is fresh.
The preceding chapter introduced dietary analysis and discussed physical aspects of potential foods as they might influence feeding behaviour. Here, we deal with chemical aspects of potential foods. From the outset though, we should point out that attempts to explain the influence of chemical factors on primate nutrition, and the dietary factors that promote or deter the uptake of nutrients, are limited by our understanding of how the primate gut operates. It is unclear what the optimal dietary requirements are even for humans. Gut research is developing on both theoretical (see, for example, Jumars, 2000) and practical levels (Dominy et al., 2004), but it is important to point out that the effective rate of uptake is not simply a question of enzymatic action. The quantity of plant fibre that a primate ingests has a major influence on the rate of passage of food through the gut and thus digestibility (Lambert, 2002). Variable gut populations of microorganisms and parasites also play a large positive or negative role, particularly in relation to specializations in the stomach or large intestine. The situation is even less clear when it comes to chemical compounds that act as feeding deterrents, toxins or anti-nutritional factors. These have largely been bred or processed out of the agricultural products on which humans feed, so they have received relatively little attention in food science.