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Material interaction during integration of tungsten gate stack for 1 Gb DRAM was investigated by Transition Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction analysis (XRD) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). During selective side-wall oxidation tungsten gate conductor undergoes a structural transformation. The transformation results in the reduction of tungsten crystal lattice spacing, re-crystallization of tungsten and/or growth of grains. During a highly selective oxidation process, a relatively small but noticeable amount of oxygen was incorporated into the tungsten layer. The incorporation of oxygen is attributed to the formation of a stable WO x (x<2) composite.
AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with multiple quantum wells were grown by plasmaassisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). Structural and optical properties of the heterostructures were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, cathodoldminescence, and photoluminescence. Interband transitions were clearly observed in the GaN quantum wells at both room- and liquid-helium temperatures. The efficiency of the interband recombination due to the confinement effect was greatly enhanced in the thinner quantum wells. The functional dependence of the interband peaks on the well thickness is shown to be in good agreement with the calculated positions of the quantized levels in the wells.
p-type GaN films were grown on a (0001) sapphire substrate by the plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. A low-contamination, high-power efficiency inductively coupled radio frequency plasma source was used, which was developed at the University of Illinois. Using an MBE system equipped with this plasma source, high-quality p-type GaN films were grown without post-growth treatment. X-ray rocking curve measurements for (0002) diffraction showed a full width at half maximum of less than 7 arcmin. The highest room-temperature hole concentration obtained was 1.4× 1020 cm−3, and for the same sample, the mobility was 2.5 cm2/Vs It is believed that the Mott-Anderson transition occurred in this sample resulting in a metallictype conductivity in the impurity subband. Low-temperature photoluminescence had a blue emission band and no deep-level transitions, indicating the high quality of the grown films. Uniformity of the Mg doping was confirmed by secondary ion mass spectrometry.
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