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Let X be a non-singular irreducible complex projective curve of genus g ≥ 2. The concept of stability of coherent systems over X depends on a positive real parameter α, given then a (finite) family of moduli spaces of coherent systems. We use (t, ℓ)-stability to prove the existence of coherent systems over X that are α-stable for all allowed α > 0.
Although many mental health care systems provide care interventions that are not related to direct health care, little is known about the interfaces between the latter and core health care. ‘Core health care’ refers to services whose explicit aim is direct clinical treatment which is usually provided by health professionals, i.e., physicians, nurses, psychologists. ‘Other care’ is typically provided by other staff and includes accommodation, training, promotion of independence, employment support and social skills. In such a definition, ‘other care’ does not necessarily mean being funded or governed differently. The aims of the study were: (1) using a standard classification system (Description and Evaluation of Services and Directories in Europe for Long Term Care, DESDE-LTC) to identify ‘core health’ and ‘other care’ services provided to adults with mental health problems; and (2) to investigate the balance of care by analysing the types and characteristics of core health and other care services.
The study was conducted in eight selected local areas in eight European countries with different mental health systems. All publicly funded mental health services, regardless of the funding agency, for people over 18 years old were identified and coded. The availability, capacity and the workforce of the local mental health services were described using their functional main activity or ‘Main Types of Care’ (MTC) as the standard for international comparison, following the DESDE-LTC system.
In these European study areas, 822 MTCs were identified as providing core health care and 448 provided other types of care. Even though one-third of mental health services in the selected study areas provided interventions that were coded as ‘other care’, significant variation was found in the typology and characteristics of these services across the eight study areas.
The functional distinction between core health and other care overcomes the traditional division between ‘health’ and ‘social’ sectors based on governance and funding. The overall balance between core health and other care services varied significantly across the European sites. Mental health systems cannot be understood or planned without taking into account the availability and capacity of all services specifically available for this target population, including those outside the health sector.
We determined the molecular epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis isolates to evaluate its potential impact on pertussis reemergence in a population of Mexico. Symptomatic and asymptomatic cases were included. Pertussis infection was confirmed by culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Selected B. pertussis isolates were further analysed; i.e. clonality was analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ptxP-ptxA, prn, fim2 and fim3 typing was performed by PCR and sequencing. Out of 11 864 analysed samples, 687 (5.8%) were positive for pertussis, with 244 (36%) confirmed by both culture and PCR whereas 115 (17%) were positive only by culture and 328 (48%) were positive only by PCR. One predominant clone (clone A, n = 62/113; 55%) and three major subtypes (A1, A2 and A3) were identified by PFGE. All 113 selected isolates had the allelic combination ptxP3-ptxA1. The predominant clone A and the three major subtypes (A1, A2 and A3) corresponded to the emerging genotypes ptxP3-ptxA1-prn2-fim2-1-fim3-2 and ptxP3-ptxA1-prn2-fim2-1-fim3-1. In conclusion, the presence of an endemic clone and three predominant subtypes belonging to the genotypes ptxP3-ptxA1-prn2-fim2-1-fim3-2 and ptxP3-ptxA1-prn2-fim2-1-fim3-1 were detected. This finding supports the global spread/expansion reported for these outbreaks associated genotypes.
Gold nanoparticles can be used as ultimate electrical materials for storing electrons or controlling their flow for the next generation nano-electronic devices. These particles are the core element of assemblies where the electrical current is reduced to the smallest possible since electrons are controlled one by one by using the Coulomb blockade phenomenon. We prepared colloidal gold nanoparticles beteween 4 and 15 nm and grafted them on a grafted organic monolayer (GOM) on silicon. GOM are highly ordered monolayers prepared by hydrosilylation of alkene molecules and subsequently modified with an amine group so that gold nanoparticles can be firmly immobilized on top of the layer. We discuss several electrical properties at a single electron level. Using the conductive tip of KPFM, we were also able to reveal the spontaneous charging behavior of the gold nanoparticles so that the local work function of a 10 nm gold nanoparticle is only 3.7 eV. By placing an STM tip above a nanoparticle, Coulomb blockade allows controlling the number of electrons simultaneously injected in the nanoparticle. This opens the way for new kinds of single electron memories or single electron transistors.
I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6–7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable.
In vitro gas production studies are routinely used to assess the metabolic capacity of intestinal microbiota to ferment dietary fibre sources. The faecal inocula used during the in vitro gas production procedure are most often obtained from animals adapted to a certain diet. The present study was designed to assess whether 19 days of adaptation to a diet are sufficient for faecal inocula of pigs to reach a stable microbial composition and activity as determined by in vitro gas production. Eighteen multiparous sows were allotted to one of two treatments for three weeks: a diet high in fibre (H) or a diet low in fibre (L). After this 3-week period, the H group was transferred to the low fibre diet (HL-treatment) while the L group was transferred to the diet high in fibre (LH-treatment). Faecal samples were collected from each sow at 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 and 19 days after the diet change and prepared as inoculum used for incubation with three contrasting fermentable substrates: oligofructose, soya pectin and cellulose. In addition, inocula were characterised using a phylogenetic microarray targeting the pig gastrointestinal tract microbiota. Time after diet change had an effect (P<0.05) on total gas production for the medium–fast fermentable substrates; soya pectin and oligofructose. For the more slowly fermentable cellulose, all measured fermentation parameters were consistently higher (P<0.05) for animals in the HL-treatment. Diet changes led to significant changes in relative abundance of specific bacteria, especially for members of the Bacteroidetes and Bacilli, which, respectively, increased or decreased for the LH-treatment, while changes were opposite for the HL-treatment. Changing the diet of sows led to changes in fermentation activity of the faecal microbiota and in composition of the microbiota over time. Adaptation of the microbiota as assessed by gas production occurred faster for LH-animals for fast fermentable substrates compared with HL-animals. Overall, adaptation of the large intestinal microbiota of sows as a result of ingestion of low and high fibre diets seems to take longer than 19 days, especially for the ability to ferment slowly fermentable substrates.
Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed coats are a rich source of natural compounds with potential beneficial effects on human health. Beans exert hypolipidaemic activity; however, this effect has not been attributed to any particular component, and the underlying mechanisms of action and protein targets remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify primary saponins and flavonoids extracted from black bean seed coats, and to study their effects on lipid metabolism in primary rat hepatocytes and C57BL/6 mice. The methanol extract of black bean seed coats, characterised by a HPLC system with a UV–visible detector and an evaporative light-scattering detector and HPLC–time-of-flight/MS, contained quercetin 3-O-glucoside and soyasaponin Af as the primary flavonoid and saponin, respectively. The extract significantly reduced the expression of SREBP1c, FAS and HMGCR, and stimulated the expression of the reverse cholesterol transporters ABCG5/ABCG8 and CYP7A1 in the liver. In addition, there was an increase in the expression of hepatic PPAR-α. Consequently, there was a decrease in hepatic lipid depots and a significant increase in bile acid secretion. Furthermore, the ingestion of this extract modulated the proportion of lipids that was used as a substrate for energy generation. Thus, the results suggest that the extract of black bean seed coats may decrease hepatic lipogenesis and stimulate cholesterol excretion, in part, via bile acid synthesis.
Protozoan parasites of genus Leishmania are the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Leishmania promastigotes primarily infect macrophages in the host, where they transform into amastigotes and multiply. Lipophosphoglycan (LPG), the most abundant surface molecule of the parasite, is a virulence determinant that regulates the host immune response. Promastigotes are able to modulate this effect through LPG, creating a favourable environment for parasite survival, although the mechanisms underlying this modulation remain unknown. We analysed the participation of TLR2 and TLR4 in the production of cytokines and explored the possible phosphorylation of ERK and/or p38 MAP kinase signalling cascades in human macrophages stimulated with Leishmania mexicana LPG. The results show that LPG induced the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12p40, IL-12p70 and IL-10 and led to phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAP kinase. Specific inhibitors of ERK or p38 MAP kinases and mAbs against TLR2 and TLR4 reduced cytokine production and phosphorylation of both kinases. Our results suggest that L. mexicana LPG binds TLR2 and TLR4 receptors in human macrophages, leading to ERK and MAP kinase phosphorylation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
The density, Vickers microhardness and crystallization fraction of glass-ceramic materials synthesized from parent glasses are determined in which CaO is gradually substituted by SrO. The chemical composition (in mol.%) of the parent glasses is 54SiO2-(23-X)CaO-12MgO-5Al2O3-6CaF2-XSrO, where X is the employed CaO substitution level (X = 0, 3, 6 and 9 mol.%, with X = 0 corresponding to the reference material). In order to determine the type of crystallization occurring in the glass-ceramic samples, as well as the crystalline phases formed in them, these are characterized by both Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM/EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Independently of the CaO substitution level employed, the glass-ceramics show the formation of a solid solution corresponding to diopside-type pyroxene, with chemical formula Ca(Mg,Al)(Al,Si)2O6, as a single crystalline phase. The synthesized glass-ceramic materials with the reference composition show the highest Vickers microhardness and crystallization fraction, as well as the lowest density.
Using the transfer matrix method and the Ben Daniel-Duke equation for variable mass electrons propagation, we calculate the transmittance for a finite superlattice where the potential barriers height follows a linear dependence like that of an inverted “V” letter. The energy dependence of the transmittance presents intervals of stopbands and nearly flat passbands. We calculate these properties for several numbers of barriers as well as for different barrier and wells widths and compare those with a regular superlattice.
This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of the ZrO2:Co nanosystem, by incorporation of Co nanoparticles (CoNP) into tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia. ZrO2 was synthesized by a sol-gel process, while cobalt nanoparticles were obtained through a colloidal method by chemical reduction of a metal precursor. CoNP were incorporated by two different approaches: during the synthesis of the ZrO2 and by classical impregnation of CoNP on zirconium oxide. The size of Cobalt nanoparticles was controlled through the concentration of reducing agent (NaBH4) and passivanting agent (1-dodecanethiol). According to SEM and TEM analysis, the diameter of the zirconium oxide particles depends on the CoNP concentration added; the particle size for pure zirconia treated at 500°C is 200 nm and 180 nm for ZrO2:Co. X-Ray diffraction showed presence of the tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia, but the abundance of each one depends on the Co nanoparticles and thermally treatment.
The paper presents the analysis of Raman scattering spectra of non-conjugated and bio-conjugated CdSe/ZnS core–shell quantum dots in the range of Raman shifts of 80 - 2000 cm-1. Commercial CdSe/ZnS QDs covered by polymer and characterized by color emission with the maxima at 605 and 655 nm (1.89 and 2.04 eV) were used. Raman scattering spectra were measured at 300K and the excitation by the line 785.0 nm of a solid state LED. The analysis of Raman spectra has shown that the QD bio-conjugation to the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies of the Pseudorabies virus is accompanied by the changes of the intensity of Raman lines related to the CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs, PEG polymer covered QDs, the Si substrate and/or some organic groups of antibody molecules. The comparison of Raman spectra of CdSe/ZnS QDs with different sizes in non-conjugated and bio-conjugated states gives the opportunity to detect the bio-conjugation without mistake.
Zirconia nanopowders doped with different concentrations of Eu were prepared by the solgel method followed by a thermal treatment at 500°C. Morphological and crystallographic characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and UV spectroscopoy. Results showed a modification of the size of nanopowder particles when the concentration of Eu is increased from 0.0 to 4.0 wt%. Also, at lower concentration of Eu the tetragonal ZrO2 is the most abundant phase while high concentrations of Eu lead to the formation of the monoclinic phase. The UV spectroscopy of ZrO2 samples shows two main absorption peaks at 228 and 214 nm. The novel characteristics of the ZrO2 nanopowders doped with Eu allow us to propose them for use as solar UV radiation detectors.
In the present work an alternative nanoparticle synthesis technique was developed, where the nanoparticles nucleate and grow inside the pores of the nanostructured porous silicon (NPS). Employing green method for the nanoparticle synthesis, yeast extract is used as a reducing agent. The porous layers were prepared by electrochemical etching of Boron-doped (100) Si substrate (0.01-0.02Ohm·cm). The NPS support was immersed into the reactive colloid for different times, then withdrawn, cleaned and dried. SEM and XRD measurements were carried out to characterize the NPS substrate and the immobilized catalyst nanoparticles. EDX mapping shows a homogeneous deposition of nanoparticles on the porous support. The average particle size, calculated from XRD diffractograms (using the Scherrer`s formula), was found between 6 to 10 nm. This method provides a good incorporation and distribution of nanoparticles, also an alternative environment-friendly technique to develop catalytic devices fabricated on silicon substrate with an additional advantage of being integrated with the silicon based microelectronic circuits.
Dispersions of carbon nanotube polymer composites were characterized by Raman mapping.Single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), double-walled nanotubes (DWNTs), multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs), and XD-grade carbon nanotubes (XD-CNTs) were dispersed in a vinyl ester (VE) resin using an ultrasonic probe at a fixed frequency. SWNTs were functionalized with succinic acid peroxide (SAP) to enhance dispersion. Increasing ultrasonication energy was found to improve the distribution of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and decrease the size of ropes, whereas excessive amounts of energy were found to result in damage. The quality of dispersion was verified through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Two technological processes of synthesis of nanopowders containing Al2O3, AlN, and AlON have been investigated. It has been established that AlN nanoparticles formed on the base of ablation products (Al and N2) during laser irradiation of AlN targets are coated with AlON films of different composition and have a complex surface defective structure. In composite powders obtained by carbothermal reduction of Al2O3, along with AlN and AlON, initial oxide Al2O3 is present, which indicates the incompleteness of the process.
In this work we present the bases to perform investigation on the effects on the morphology and size of nanostructures of silver, owed to the modification of synthesis factors in a polyol process such as temperature, concentration, time of reaction, injection speed and time of injection. It is claimed that control over Ag nanostructures shape could be improved and significant information about the synthesis process can be obtained. The design of experiments was done aimed to obtain useful information about how to yield as much as possible specific structures of interest.
We present the propagation properties of Dirac-electrons in multilayered Period-Doubling (MPDGS) and Silver-Mean (MSMGS) graphene structures. The multilayered graphene structures are built arranging breaking and non-breaking symmetry substrates such as SiC and SiO2 following a given quasirregular substitution rule locating on them a graphene sheet. We have implemented the Transfer Matrix technique to calculate the transmittance of these multilayered graphene structures. This technique allows us to analyze readily the main differences of the transmission properties between MPDGS and MSMGS.