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Background: Pertussis continues to be an important health issue in Vietnam despite infant vaccination programs. In Vietnam, the incidence rates of pertussis per 100,000 population rose from 0.09 in 2014 to 0.33 in 2015 and to 0.58 in 2017. Macrolides, especially erythromycin, are the treatment of choice. However, erythromycin-resistant cases, caused by transition at A2047G position in 23S rRNA, have been reported in the region. Few data are available on antimicrobial resistance in Bordetella pertussis to guide treatment in Vietnam. We report antimicrobial susceptibility of the circulating strains in southern Vietnam during 2015–2017. Methods: Tracheal aspirates from 263 suspected pertussis cases were subject to multiplex real-time PCR to identify B. pertussis and Bordetella spp. Samples were cultured on Regan Lowe agar with 10% sheep blood containing cephalexin (40 µg/mL) and incubated at 37°C for 10 days. The antimicrobial susceptibilities to erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were determined using the disc diffusion method (CLSI-2017) on Regan Lowe and Mueller Hinton agar. Erythromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using an E-test. The results were recorded after days 3 and 7 of incubation. Sequencing of the 23S rRNA gene was performed to detect mutations conferring macrolide resistance. Results: Of 263 cases, 119 were positive for B. pertussis (45.2%) by real-time PCR, and 15 of 263 strains (5.7%) were successfully cultured. All 15 isolates were susceptible to macrolides and no heterogeneous phenotype was recorded after 7 days; erythromycin MICs were ≤0.094 µg/mL (Fig. 1). We observed no difference in results generated on Regan Lowe and Mueller Hinton media. However, for testing trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, results on were superior, as those on Regan Lowe media were unclear. Sequencing of 23S rRNA identified no mutations known to confer macrolide resistance. Conclusions: None of 15 B. pertussis isolates tested were nonsusceptible to erythromycin and macrolides. Similarly, no mutation at the erythromycin-binding site in the 23S rRNA gene was identified. The low isolation rate of B. pertussis by culture means that few positive specimens were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. To overcome this limitation, detection of resistance directly from clinical specimens needs to be investigated. Ongoing screening for B. pertussis and antimicrobial susceptibility is recommended to support efforts to control the spread of this respiratory tract infection agent.
Background: Antibiotic overuse has led to increasing rates of antibiotic resistant infections and unnecessary antibiotic costs. Clinical pharmacists can play a key role in optimizing appropriate use of antimicrobials and reducing antimicrobial resistance. However, the role of clinical pharmacists in antimicrobial stewardship is new and not well established in Viet Nam. Objective: We evaluated the use of clinical pharmacists for improved antimicrobial prescribing. Methods: We assembled an antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) team consisting of a clinical pharmacist and a specialist in infection prevention and control in a 60-bed medical intensive care unit (MICU) at Hue Central Hospital in central Viet Nam. During January–September 2018, the ASP team collected baseline antibiotic prescribing days of therapy (DOT) for all antibiotics administered in the MICU. Then, from October 2018 through June 2019, the ASP team reviewed daily positive clinical bacterial cultures and susceptibility results for all patients present in the MICU. They reviewed medical charts, including antimicrobial prescriptions, during week days and only if patient was still in the ICU at the time of ASP rounds. The team recommended changes to antibiotic therapy verbally to physicians and left the decision to change antibiotic therapy to their discretion. The ASP team documented whether their recommendations were accepted or rejected. Statistical significance was determined using the Student t test. Results: The ASP team reviewed 160 medical charts and made 169 ASP recommendations: 122 (72%) to continue current treatment; 24 (14%) to monitor drug levels or obtain diagnostic tests; 10 (6%) to discontinue therapy; 6 (4%) to de-escalate therapy; 5 (3%) to adjust doses; and 2 (1%) to broaden therapy. Only 8 of the recommended changes (5%) were declined by the clinicians. The average monthly DOT for all types of antibiotics declined significantly from 2,213 to 1,681 (24% decrease; P = .04). Reductions in DOT for the most common broad-spectrum antibiotics included colistin from 303 to 276 (P = .75); imipenem-cilastatin 434 to 248 (P = .06); doripenem 150 to 144 (P = .85). Piperacillin-tazobactam increased from 122 to 142 (P = 0.75). Conclusions: We demonstrated that daily review of cultures and antibiotic use decreased overall antibiotic prescribing. Given that few recommendations included discontinuation of therapy, ASP rounds likely raised awareness for clinicians to optimize antibiotic use.
Background: Whooping cough is a serious respiratory illness in infants caused by Bordetella pertussis. In spite of the vaccination program, the incidence rates of whooping cough per 100,000 population in Vietnam increased from 0.33 in 2015 to 0.58 in 2017. If this represents a pertussis resurgence, contributors may include pathogen adaptation, the spread of specific variants, vaccine failure, and failure to effectively treat cases and contacts. There has been little research in Vietnam on B. pertussis strains. Therefore, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of circulating B. pertussis strains in Southern Vietnam by applying multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for 7 housekeeping genes and 4 antigenic determinant genes as components in the acellular vaccine including prn, ptxP, ptxS1, and fim3. Methods: DNA was extracted from 15 isolates collected from 263 case patients during 2015–2017 and was subject to MLST using primers and cycling conditions from the Bordetella pubMLST website (www.Pubmlst.org/Bordetella/). The products were analyzed using BioEdit version 7.2.5 software and then were aligned and compared to reference sequences of each genotype in the database. The evolutionary relationship among sequence types (STs) from housekeeping genes was performed as a minimum spanning tree via the goeBURST algorithm, whereas the correlation of different variants from 4 antigenic determinant genes was built up and clarified with phylogenetic trees based on the UPGMA method by MEGA 7 program. Results: The 15 isolates were all classified as ST2 (100%) by MLST of housekeeping genes, and they belonged to a common global clonal group (Fig. 1). Sequencing of antigenic determinant genes prn2 – ptxP3 – ptxS1-1 – fim3-1 determined that all were identical to each another and the reference sequences (Fig. 2). Conclusions:B. pertussis isolates circulating in Southern Vietnam appeared to be the same as the common global strain. Few isolates were available for testing; therefore, continued surveillance is important to confirm these findings and to monitor population changes over time.
This study contributes to a growing literature body of studies aimed at explaining socio-economic-related health inequality in non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with a focus on older people who are commonly affected by socio-economic gradient in later life. It identifies factors associated with self-reported NCDs and examines socio-economic-related health inequality in self-reported NCDs between rural and urban Vietnamese older people. This cross-sectional study utilised data from the Viet Nam Ageing Survey. A sample of 2,682 older people aged 60 and over (urban = 703, rural = 1,979) was analysed. Concentration indices were computed to measure socio-economic inequalities in self-reported NCDs. Concentration index decomposition analysis was performed to determine the relative contributions of the determinants to explaining those inequalities. Significant socio-economic inequalities in self-reported NCDs favouring the rich were found, in which the degree of inequality was more pronounced in urban areas than in their rural counterparts. Household wealth and social health insurance were the main drivers contributing to increased socio-economic inequalities in self-reported NCDs in urban and rural areas, respectively. Among disadvantaged groups, older people living alone, with lowest wealth and with social health insurance had highest probability of reporting at least one NCD for both areas. Public policies aimed at narrowing wealth gaps and expanding and improving principle roles of social health insurance should prioritise the most disadvantaged groups in order to achieve health equality.
Neonates are at high risk of bleeding after open-heart surgery. We sought to determine pre-operative and intra-operative risk factors for increased bleeding after neonatal open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of neonates (0–30 days old) who underwent open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass from January, 2009, to March, 2013. Cardiac diagnosis; demographic and surgical data; and blood products, haemostatic agents, and anti-thrombotic agents administered before, during, and within 24 hours after surgery were abstracted from the electronic health record and anaesthesia records. The outcome of interest was chest tube output (in ml/kg body weight) within 24 hours. Relationships between chest tube output and putative associated factors were evaluated by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression.
The cohort consisted of 107 neonates, of whom 79% had a Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (STAT) Mortality Category of 4 or 5. Median chest tube output was 37 ml/kg (range 9–655 ml/kg). Age, African-American race, and longer durations of surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass each had statistically significant associations with increased chest tube output in unadjusted analyses. In multivariable analysis, African-American race retained an independent, statistically significant association with increased chest tube output; the geometric mean of chest tube output among African-American neonates was 71% higher than that of Caucasians (95% confidence interval, 29–125%; p = 0.001).
Among neonates with CHD undergoing open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, African-American race is independently associated with greater chest tube output over the first 24 hours post-operatively.
Our research proposes ‘mixed legal transplant’ as a new concept in theories of legal transplantation. While the concept of legal transplantation is real, the phenomenon is much more complicated than what is often depicted and discussed by the academic community. In modern times, legal transplantation is often an informed reception by independent sovereign nations or people of two or more sets of rules from different jurisdictions, rather than a simplistic and passive reception of rules from one country to another. Using Vietnam as a case study, this article analyzes the deliberate consideration of two different models of precedent in the civil and common law traditions by Vietnamese lawmakers, and their choice of a mixed legal transplant in the hope that it would be best suited to the needs of a socialist country in transition. Its methods and results, however, are still in doubt and have been criticized as possibly creating uncertainty due to their structural incoherence. This article therefore concludes by proposing recommendations based on legal tradition to correct the misuse of the mixed legal transplant in Vietnam, and we hope that these recommendations can serve as a model for other countries.
In engineering applications, it is pretty often to have domain heat source involved inside. This article proposes an approach using the boundary element method to study thermal stresses in 3D anisotropic solids when internal domain heat source is involved. As has been well noticed, thermal effect will give rise to a volume integral, where its direct evaluation will need domain discretization. This shall definitely destroy the most distinctive notion of the boundary element method that only boundary discretization is required. The present work presents an analytical transformation of the volume integral in the boundary integral equation due to the presence of internal volume heat source. For simplicity, distribution of the heat source is modeled by a quadratic function. When needed, the formulations can be further extended to treat higher-ordered volume heat sources. Indeed, the present work has completely restored the boundary discretization feature of the boundary element method for treating 3D anisotropic thermoelasticity involving volume heat source.
Since 1945, smallholders in Vietnam have been buffeted by three major sets of policies: communist-inspired land reform policies; a collectivization movement that created agricultural cooperatives dating from 1958; and reform policies that were progressively introduced from the early 1980s. Today, smallholders in Vietnam face shrinking landholdings, land fragmentation, and an ageing agricultural labour force. To address these, and other challenges, smallholders have adopted a variety of strategies including diversifying their livelihoods into non-agricultural activities, letting out land to enterprises, accumulating land through rental agreements, shifting production from the household to farm scale, and letting agricultural land lie fallow. These strategies reflect the persistence and transformation of the smallholder against the backdrop of changing Vietnamese economy and society.
Keywords: agricultural cooperatives, land reform, reform policy, smallholder, Vietnam
Vietnam has long been a predominantly agricultural country. Many researchers (Đặng Kim Sơn 2010: p. 331-358; Nguyen Van Khanh 2014: p. 11) assert that agriculture, peasants, and the countryside are the three constant features linked closely with the development of Vietnam. In traditional Vietnamese society, agricultural production was considered essential. There is even an old local saying which goes “agricultural production is the root of society” (dĩ nông vi bản).
Throughout much of its recorded history, the ups and downs of agricultural production in Vietnam have depended partly on natural conditions, but mainly on state policies. In the early twentieth century, during the colonial period under French rule, Vietnam was one of the world's top rice-exporting countries (Nguyen Van Khanh 2014: p. 11). However, around 1945, as a result of the policies of the Japanese and French rulers, agricultural production in Vietnam stagnated. This led to famine in 1945, leaving millions of victims faced with starvation. During the collectivization period from 1958 in the north to the reform period in the 1980s, agricultural production in Vietnam became increasingly underdeveloped (Nguyen Van Khanh 2014: p. 12). Consequently, Vietnam went from being one of the top rice-exporting countries to a country which had to import large amounts of food every year. In 1976, Vietnam imported 1.2 million tons of food. This figure increased to 2.2 million tons in 1979 (Nguyễn Sinh Cúc 1991: p. 9). To address this issue, initial experimental agricultural reforms were conducted in 1980 and official reforms started in January 1981 (Đặng Phong 2014: p. 238, 245).
The last two decades have witnessed a remarkable reinvention of the role of the neurologist, from an outpatient consultant to a critical presence in the inpatient setting. Spotting a neurologist in an emergency room or intensive care unit is no longer incongruous, rather an expectation of their relatively new roles as acute stroke doctors and neurointensivists. With this shift in patient care setting came a shift in research and many questions that have plagued the neurologic community for decades have resurfaced. The groundbreaking neurophysiologic discoveries of the previous century have armed us with an understanding of how the normal neuron functions. Now, in the inpatient, critically ill population, we once again find ourselves wondering what is happening within the shroud of the skull.
Biological fish can create high forward swimming speed due to change of thrust/drag area of pectoral fins between power stroke and recovery stroke in rowing mode. In this paper, we proposed a novel type of folding pectoral fins for the fish robot, which provides a simple approach in generating effective thrust only through one degree of freedom of fin actuator. Its structure consists of two elemental fin panels for each pectoral fin that connects to a hinge base through the flexible joints. The Morison force model is adopted to discover the relationship of the dynamic interaction between fin panels and surrounding fluid. An experimental platform for the robot motion using the pectoral fin with different flexible joints was built to validate the proposed design. The results express that the performance of swimming velocity and turning radius of the robot are enhanced effectively. The forward swimming velocity can reach 0.231 m/s (0.58 BL/s) at the frequency near 0.75 Hz. By comparison, we found an accord between the proposed dynamic model and the experimental behavior of the robot. The attained results can be used to design controllers and optimize performances of the robot propelled by the folding pectoral fins.
After MRI studies suggested the efficacy of ethyl-EPA in reducing the progressive brain atrophy in Huntington disease (HD), trials were conducted to test its efficacy as a treatment for HD. Trials that continued for 6 months did not find any significant improvement, urging discontinuation of the drug. However, trials that continued for 12 months indicated improvement of motor functions in these patients.
We searched 12 electronic databases to find randomised clinical trials relevant to our inclusion criteria. After screening, only five papers were included. Continuous and binary variables were analysed to compute the pooled mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR), respectively. Quality effect model meta-analysis was used as a post hoc analysis for studies at 12 months.
Meta-analysis indicated that ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has no significant effect on any scale of HD at 6 months. At 12 months, two studies suggested significant improvements of the Total Motor Score and Total Motor Score–4 in both fixed and quality effect models [MD = −2.720, 95% CI (−4.76, –.68), p = 0.009; MD = −2.225, 95% CI (−3.842, −0.607), p = 0.007], respectively. Maximal chorea score showed significant results [MD = −1.013, 95% CI (−1.793, −0.233), p = 0.011] in only fixed-effect model, while no improvement was detected for Stroop colour naming test or symbol digit modality.
Meta-analysis indicated a significant improvement of motor scores only after 12 months. These results should be interpreted cautiously because only two studies had assessed the efficacy of ethyl-EPA after 12 months with one of them having a 6-month open-label phase.
This experimental study investigates the effect of a uniform lateral inflow on the aerodynamic characteristics of flapping wings. Seven designated sideward ratios in the hovering condition and in the presence of a contralateral wing and a body were taken into account as variables in order to secure a better understanding of wing–wing and/or wing–body interactions under the lateral inflow. Our results from the single-wing cases clarified that an inflow running from the wingroot strengthened the leading-edge vortex, thereby augmenting the aerodynamic force/moment. The inflow running in the opposite direction drastically bent the leading-edge vortex to the trailing edge, but the cycle-averaged aerodynamic force/moment was barely changed. This led to substantial imbalances in the force/moment on the two wings. The roll moment on a centre of gravity and the static margin suggested flight instability in the lateral direction, similar to previous studies. We found that the wing–wing interaction was not completely negligible overall under a lateral inflow. A massive downwash induced by the wing on the windward side nearly neutralized the aerodynamic force/moment augmentations on the other wing with lower effective angles of attack. The wing–wing interaction also gave rise to a low-lift high-drag situation during the pitching-up wing rotation, resulting in greater side force derivatives than the theory of flapping counterforce. Further calculations of the roll moment and the static margin with the centre of gravity showed that the wing–wing interaction can improve static stability in the lateral direction. This mainly stemmed from both the attenuation of the lift augmentation and the elimination of the positive roll moment of the flapping-wing system.
During the course of development, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are seen as the cornerstone of a national economy and significant contributors to the prosperity of a country. SMEs play an important role in a wide spectrum of industries in a country. The number of SMEs dominates that of large and very large enterprises. They contribute significantly to a country's economic growth and employment creation of most countries. Most governments view the SME sector as a key engine of the economy and a source of employment creation (Harvie 2010).
The role of SMEs, however, was not recognized until the mid-1970s. Before that concentration and centralization of economic activities were seen as the main evidence of a firm's competitiveness and large firms received much attention. SMEs’ contributions to economic activity only began to be a priority after the Bolton Report in the UK (1971) and the Wiltshire Report in Australia (1971) on the role of SMEs in the economies of the UK and Australia, respectively were published (Al-Qirim 2004).
In Europe, two-thirds of all new jobs are created by SMEs and more than 99 per cent of all enterprises are SMEs. In the United States, more than 99 per cent of all independent enterprises employ fewer than 500 employees, which is the definition of an SME in the United States. These SMEs employ 52 per cent of all U.S. workers (Devos et al. 2014).
In Australia, SMEs is a substantial sector, making up 95 per cent of all enterprises (Chau and Turner 2004). These enterprises contribute A$530 billion to the economy in 2010–11, more than half of private sector economic activities, and employed over 7 million people, generating more than two thirds of private sector employment (Deloitte 2013).
In East Asia, SMEs account for about 98 per cent of all enterprises, equivalent to between 20 and 30 million businesses. In the three largest economies of East Asia — Japan, China and Korea — SMEs account for 70 per cent of enterprises in the region (China: 8 million; Japan: 5 million; and Korea: 2.6 million). The intensity ratio of SMEs is only 20 people per SME in developed countries.
Nguyen Ngoc Anh, Chief Economist, Development and Policies Research Center (DEPOCEN, Vietnam),
Nguyen Thi Tuong Anh, Vice Dean, Faculty of International Economics, Foreign Trade University, Hanoi,
Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Senior Researcher, Development and Policies Research Center (DEPOCEN, Vietnam),
Nguyen Thi Phuong Mai, Deputy Director, Development and Policies Research Center (DEPOCEN, Vietnam)
During the last decade, Asian countries, especially East and Southeast Asia countries, have witnessed an ever increasing trend of regional integration with the dramatic proliferation of regional free trade agreements (FTAs), both concluded and still in the process of negotiation. This process of regional economic integration has been driven by the mutually reinforcing market forces and trade agreements (regional and preferential). According to data from the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the number of FTAs involving at least one Asian country has almost doubled, from 124 in 2005 to 220 in 2016. In addition, there are 67 FTAs being proposed and pending negotiation. This phenomenon is referred to as the “Asian noodle bowl” with the economies of ASEAN and East Asia becoming increasingly integrated. According to data from ADB, the 16 ASEAN+6 countries (10 ASEAN members plus Australia, PRC, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea and New Zealand) account disproportionately for over 62 per cent of total FTAs (being in effect and in negotiation) of the total 48 ADB member countries/economies in Asia.
The most important market force that drives international trade in recent years is the rise of global production networks operated by multinationals in which firms slice up a production chain into small production stages and then assigning them each to the most cost effective location across borders (ADB 2010; Helpman 2011). Globally operating firms have been taking advantage of these factors to exploit differences in factor prices (i.e. inputs and low-skilled labour) around the world (Blinder 2006; Baldwin-Edwards 2011) and multinationals are at the forefront of global production networks taking advantage of reductions of trade barriers, rapid advancements in production technology, and a decrease in transport and communication costs as explained by Athukorala (2013). He explains that firstly “rapid advancements in production technology have enabled the industry to slice up the value chain into finer, ‘portable’, components” (i.e. modular production technology with “standard fragments”); secondly “technological innovations in communication and transportation have shrunk the distance that once separated the world's nations, and improved speed, efficiency and economy of coordinating geographically dispersed production process”, and thirdly the “liberalization policy reforms across the world over the past four decades have considerably removed barriers to trade and foreign direct investment (FDI)”.
Oscar Salemink, Professor of anthropology at the University of Copenhagen and adjunct professor at the Institute of Religion, Politics and Society of the Australian Catholic University (Melbourne).,
Nguyen Tuan Anh, Faculty of Sociology, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vietnam National University, Hanoi.
On a hot October day in 1987 one of the authors (Salemink) had the rare opportunity, as a Vietnamese language student at what was then Hanoi University, to join a group of Australian diplomats on a trip to Chùa Hương, the famous Perfume Pagoda in Mỹ Đức district, some 50 km from Hanoi city. In 1987 Vietnam had just embarked on the road to economic reforms known as Đổi Mới (Renovation), but had barely started to open up, as having contact with foreigners was suspect, and most religious activity was banned as superstitious and/ or counterrevolutionary. In this context, any trip out of the city was a rare treat. The trip to Chùa Hương brought the group in a bus to Bến Đục village, where we boarded small boats rowed by young women to follow the Yến stream through fairytale landscape to the foot of the limestone mountain range known as Hương Sơn. Near the landing place was a renovated wooden temple, from where a steep, narrow and ill- maintained path led up the mountain to the Hương Tích cave. There were only few other visitors, and the mountain path was mostly used by local farmers transporting forest produce and by goats. The spacious cave at the end of the path housed statues of the Buddha and Quan Âm, the female bodhisattva better known by the Chinese name Guanyin, and was filled with the smoke of incense. The incense sticks were lit by women who came there as pilgrims, to venerate Quan Âm, even though it was not the time of the Chùa Hương festival, which begins in the week after Vietnamese New Year. When asked about their reasons for the pilgrimage, they answered that they came to pray for hạnh phúc, usually translated as happiness. One of the women patiently explained to Salemink— a novice student of Vietnamese at the time— that hạnh phúc denoted having children; in other words, the women had come to pray to Quan Âm, requesting the deity to gift them a child [cầu con or cầu tự].
In spite of the suppression of things religious at the time, they spent considerable efforts and resources to come to Chùa Hương to make their dream of having offspring come true; without that, they could not become truly happy.
This paper deals with nonnegative solutions of the one-dimensional degenerate parabolic equations with zero homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition. To obtain an existence result, we prove a sharp estimate for |ux|. Besides, we investigate the qualitative behaviours of nonnegative solutions such as the quenching phenomenon, and the finite speed of propagation. Our results of the Dirichlet problem are also extended to the associated Cauchy problem on the whole domain ℝ. In addition, we also consider the instantaneous shrinking of compact support of nonnegative solutions.
Over the past 20 years, research on quality of experience (QoE) has been actively expanded even to cover aesthetic, emotional and psychological experiences. QoE has been an important research topic in determining the perceptual factors that are essential to users in keeping with the emergence of new display technologies. In this paper, we provide in-depth reviews of recent assessment studies in this field. Compared to previous reviews, our research examines the human factors observed over various recent displays and their associated assessment methods. In this study, we first provide a comprehensive QoE analysis on 2D display including image/video quality assessment (I/VQA), visual preference, and human visual system-related studies. Second, we analyze stereoscopic 3D (S3D) QoE research on the topics of I/VQA and visual discomfort from the human perception point of view on S3D display. Third, we investigate QoE in a head-mounted display-based virtual reality (VR) environment, and deal with VR sickness and 360 I/VQA with their individual approach. All of our reviews are analyzed through comparison of benchmark models. Furthermore, we layout QoE works on future display and modern deep-learning applications.
The Annamite mountains of Viet Nam and the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao) are an area of exceptional mammalian endemism but intensive poaching has defaunated much of the region, creating an extinction crisis for the endemic species. To make efficient use of limited conservation resources, it is imperative that conservation stakeholders obtain basic information about poorly known and threatened endemics. We present the first comprehensive information on the ecology, distribution and status of the little-known endemic Annamite striped rabbit Nesolagus timminsi. We used a systematic camera-trapping design to study the species in five areas in Viet Nam and Lao. In 29,180 camera-trap-nights we recorded 152 independent events at 36 of 266 stations. We obtained an additional 143 independent detections across 12 stations from a supplementary non-systematic survey. We analysed activity patterns and social behaviour. We also used single-species occupancy models to assess factors that influence occupancy at the landscape scale. We used N-mixture models to obtain local abundance estimates in one target area. The Annamite striped rabbit was found to be nocturnal and primarily solitary. Species occupancy was best explained by a proxy for past hunting pressure, with no significant relationships to current anthropogenic or environmental factors. Local abundance was 0.57 individuals per camera-trap station for one of our sites, and estimated to be zero at the other site where hunting appears to have been more intense. Our results provide information on priority areas for targeted anti-poaching efforts and give the first conservation baseline for the species.
Soil salinity is a major limitation to legume production in many areas of the world. Identification of the genetic source of salt tolerance is critical in soybean breeding for improving soybean production in salt-affected regions. Vietnam has unique sources of soybean germplasm and varieties are grown in the area where exposure to salinity is frequent. However, there is little research on the identification of salt tolerant sources in the Vietnamese gene pool. The present study compared 18 Vietnamese soybean cultivars for their differences in salt tolerance. Under a range of NaCl stress from 0 to 200 mM NaCl, there was a large variation in salt tolerance among the 18 soybean lines evaluated. The soybean accession PI 675847 A (Vietnamese variety DT2008), was identified as a useful source of salt tolerance. During vegetative growth, PI 675847 A had lower leaf scorch scores, higher cell membrane stability, better photosynthesis and biomass accumulation under NaCl stress than the other 17 strains evaluated. In addition, PI 675847 A maintained better growth and seed yield in salt-affected soils compared with the sensitive lines. Analyses of ion contents in plant leaves under saline conditions showed that PI 675847 A was able to limit uptake and transport of Na+ and Cl−. Because of its higher productivity under saline conditions, PI 675847 A will be a useful germplasm source in soybean improvement programs for salt tolerance.