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To investigate the association between the Metabolic Score for Visceral Fat (METS-VF) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and compare the predictive value of the METS-VF for T2DM incidence with other obesity indices in Chinese people. A total of 12,237 non-T2DM participants aged over 18 from the Rural Chinese Cohort Study of 2007-2008 were included at baseline and followed up during 2013-2014. The cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between baseline METS-VF and T2DM risk. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the association between METS-VF and T2DM risk. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was used to evaluate the ability of METS-VF to predict T2DM incidence. During a median follow-up of 6.01 (5.09-6.06) years, 837 cases developed T2DM. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the adjusted HR (95% CI) for the highest versus lowest METS-VF quartile was 5.97 (4.28-8.32), with a per 1-standard deviation increase in METS-VF positively associated with T2DM risk. Positive associations were also found in the sensitivity and subgroup analyses, respectively. A significant nonlinear dose–response association was observed between METS-VF and T2DM risk for all participants (Pnonlinearity = 0.0347). Finally, the AUC value of METS-VF for predicting T2DM was largest among six indices. The METS-VF may be a reliable and applicable predictor of T2DM incidence in Chinese people regardless of sex, age, or body mass index.
The majority of plant viral disease is transmitted and spread by insect vectors in the field. The small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), is the only efficient vector for rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a devastating plant virus that infects multiple grain crops, including rice, maize, and wheat. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate in various biological processes. However, little is known about whether ABC transporters affect virus infection in insects. In this study, RBSDV accumulation was significantly reduced in L. striatellus after treatment with verapamil, an effective inhibitor of ABC transporters. Thirty-four ABC transporter genes were identified in L. striatellus and expression analysis showed that LsABCF2 and LsABCG9 were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, after RBSDV infection. LsABCF2 and LsABCG9 were expressed during all developmental stages, and LsABCG9 was highly expressed in the midgut of L. striatellus. Knockdown of LsABCF2 promoted RBSDV accumulation, while knockdown of LsABCG9 suppressed RBSDV accumulation in L. striatellus. Our data showed that L. striatellus might upregulate the expression of LsABCF2 and downregulate LsABCG9 expression to suppress RBSDV infection. These results will contribute to understanding the effects of ABC transporters on virus transmission and provide theoretical basis for virus management in the field.
High dietary fiber intake has been associated with a lower risk of diabetes, but the association of dietary fiber with prediabetes is only speculative, especially in China, where the supportive data from prospective studies is lacking. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of incident prediabetes among Chinese adults. We performed a prospective analysis in 18,085 participants of the TCLSIH cohort study who were free of diabetes, prediabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease at baseline. Dietary data were collected using a validated 100-item food frequency questionnaire. Prediabetes was defined based on the American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 63,175 person-years of follow-up, 4,139 cases of incident prediabetes occurred. The multivariable HRs (95% CIs) of prediabetes for the highest versus lowest quartiles were 0.85 (0.75, 0.98) (P for trend =0.02) for total dietary fiber, 0.84 (0.74, 0.95) (P for trend <0.01) for soluble fiber, and 1.05 (0.93, 1.19) (P for trend =0.38) for insoluble fiber. Fiber from fruits, but not from cereals, beans, and vegetables was inversely associated with prediabetes. Our results indicate that intakes of total dietary fiber, soluble fiber, and fiber derived from fruit sources were associated with a lower risk of prediabetes.
The present work was performed to analyse the association of dietary patterns with glycaemic control (Hb A1c < 7 %) in a large group of Chinese adults aged between 45 and 59 years.
Habitual dietary intakes in the preceding 12 months were assessed by well-trained interviewers using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Factor analysis with principal component method was used to obtain the dietary patterns, and the associations between dietary patterns and glycaemic control were determined using multivariable logistic regression models. Poor glycaemic control was defined as HbA1c ≥ 7·0.
Despite decades of research, data on the relationship between dietary patterns and glycaemic control (HbA1c < 7 %) in China are sparse.
A total of 1739 participants aged 45–59 years from Hangzhou were included in the final analysis.
Three dietary patterns were ascertained and labelled as traditional southern Chinese, Western and grains-vegetables patterns. After controlling of the possible confounders, participants in the highest quartile of Western pattern scores had greater OR for HbA1c ≥ 7·0 (OR = 1·05; (95 % CI 1·000, 1·095); P = 0·048) than did those in the lowest quartile. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of grains-vegetables pattern, participants in the highest quartile had lower OR for HbA1c ≥ 7·0 (OR = 0·82; (95 % CI 0·720, 0·949); P = 0·038). Besides, no significant relationship between the traditional southern Chinese pattern and HbA1c ≥ 7·0 was observed (P > 0·05).
This study indicated that the Western pattern was associated with a higher risk, and the grains-vegetables pattern was associated with a lower risk for HbA1c ≥ 7·0. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.
The motion of a pair of bubbles rising side by side under the influence of external magnetic fields is numerically examined. Through solving the fully three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations, the results reveal that the bubble interactions are rather sensitive to the field direction and strength. At first, we identify that, in a hydrodynamic flow, whether the two bubbles will bounce or coalesce depends on the developments of the counter-rotating streamwise vortices during the collision. In particular, for an originally bouncing bubble pair, a streamwise magnetic field tends to promote their coalescence by weakening the strengths of the standing streamwise vortices, and such a weakening effect is caused by the asymmetric distribution of the Lorentz force in the presence of another bubble such that a torque is induced to offset the original streamwise vortices. Under a horizontal magnetic field, on the other hand, the influences are highly dependent on the angle between the bubble centroid line and the field: a transverse field or a moderate spanwise field always leads the bubble pair to coalescence while a strong spanwise field has the opposite effect. This anisotropic effect comes from the Lorentz force induced flow diffusion along the magnetic field, which not only produces two pairs of streamwise vortices at the bubble rear, but also homogenizes the pressure along the magnetic lines. As the competition between the two mechanisms varies with the magnetic direction and strength, the interaction between the bubble pair also changes. We show that the external magnetic fields control the bubble interaction through reconstructing the vortex structures, and hence the core mechanisms are identified.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
The effect of vitamin D (VD) on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) is uncertain. Few of previous studies focused on the relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk. Therefore, we conducted this 1:1 matched case–control study to explore the association of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk in Chinese pregnant women. A total of 440 pairs of participants were recruited during March 2016 to June 2019. Dietary information was obtained using a seventy-eight-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem MS. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate OR and 95 % CI. Restricted cubic splines (RCS) were plotted to evaluate the dose–response relationship of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the OR of the highest quartile were 0·45 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·71, Ptrend = 0·001) for VD dietary intake and 0·26 (95 % CI 0·11, 0·60, Ptrend = 0·003) for serum levels after adjusting for confounders. In addition, the RCS analysis suggested a reverse J-shaped relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0·02). A similar association was also found between serum concentrations of total 25(OH)D and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0·02). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that higher dietary intake and serum levels of VD are associated with the lower risk of PE in Chinese pregnant women.
No relevant studies have yet been conducted to explore which measurement can best predict the survival time of patients with cancer cachexia. This study aimed to identify an anthropometric measurement that could predict the 1-year survival of patients with cancer cachexia. We conducted a nested case–control study using data from a multicentre clinical investigation of cancer from 2013 to 2020. Cachexia was defined using the Fearon criteria. A total of 262 patients who survived less than 1 year and 262 patients who survived more than 1 year were included in this study. Six candidate variables were selected based on clinical experience and previous studies. Five variables, BMI, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, calf circumference and triceps skin fold (TSF), were selected for inclusion in the multivariable model. In the conditional logistic regression analysis, TSF (P = 0·014) was identified as a significant independent protective factor. A similar result was observed in all patients with cancer cachexia (n 3084). In addition, a significantly stronger positive association between TSF and the 1-year survival of patients with cancer cachexia was observed in participants aged > 65 years (OR: 0·94; 95 % CI 0·89, 0·99) than in those aged ≤ 65 years (OR: 0·96; 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99; Pinteraction = 0·013) and in participants with no chronic disease (OR: 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·97) than in those with chronic disease (OR: 0·97; 95 % CI 0·94, 1·00; Pinteraction = 0·049). According to this study, TSF might be a good anthropometric measurement for predicting 1-year survival in patients with cancer cachexia.
Drawing from social exchange theory, this study proposes the effects of perceived leader narcissism on employees' voice behaviors (promotive voice and prohibitive voice) via organizational justice depending on the conditions of employees' trust in leader. Through investigating 257 employees and conducting a scenario study in China, this research shows that perceived leader narcissism is negatively related to prohibitive voice. The relationships between perceived leader narcissism and voice behaviors are moderated by trust in leader, and perceived leader narcissism is positively related to employees' voice behaviors when trust in leader is low. Results also show that organizational justice mediates the relationships between perceived leader narcissism and voice behaviors. The indirect effect of perceived leader narcissism on voice behaviors via organizational justice is moderated by trust in leader. This study has important implications for explaining the relationships between perceived leader narcissism and employees' voice behaviors and contributes to the social exchange theory by illustrating trust in the partner in exchange relationship as a boundary condition of norm reciprocity violation.
Environmental responsibility has been increasingly emphasized in the management field. Perceived organizational environmental support is generally considered desirable within organizations. Nonetheless, both scholars and practitioners doubt that it is a panacea for enhancing employee green behavior (EGB), an important workplace behavior benefiting the environment and corporate sustainability. From a congruence perspective, this research explores when and why perceived organizational environmental support fails to increase EGB effectively. Drawing upon cue consistency theory and the corporate hypocrisy literature, we propose that perceived organizational environmental support backfires when it is incongruent with another critical cue signaling an organization's environmental stance – perceived supervisory environmental support (particularly when perceived organizational environmental support is higher than perceived supervisory environmental support). This is because the inconsistent signals of environmental support from the organization (in the form of policy commitment) and supervisor (in the form of supportive behaviors) arouse employees’ perception of corporate hypocrisy, which in turn inhibits EGB. Both the scenario experiment results (Study 1) and the polynomial regression results of the field survey data (Study 2) support our hypotheses. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications are discussed.
The buoyancy-driven motion of two identical gas bubbles released in line in a liquid at rest is examined with the help of highly resolved simulations, focusing on moderately inertial regimes in which the path of an isolated bubble is vertical. Assuming first an axisymmetric evolution, equilibrium configurations of the bubble pair are determined as a function of the buoyancy-to-viscous and buoyancy-to-capillary force ratios which define the Galilei ($Ga$) and Bond ($Bo$) numbers of the system, respectively. The three-dimensional solutions reveal that this axisymmetric equilibrium is actually never reached. Instead, provided $Bo$ stands below a critical $Ga$-dependent threshold determining the onset of coalescence, two markedly different evolutions are observed. At the lower end of the explored $(Ga, Bo)$-range, the tandem follows a drafting–kissing–tumbling scenario, which eventually yields a planar side-by-side motion. For larger $Ga$, the trailing bubble drifts laterally and gets out of the wake of the leading bubble, barely altering the path of the latter. In this second scenario, the late configuration is characterized by a significant inclination of the tandem ranging from $30^\circ$ to $40^\circ$ with respect to the vertical. Bubble deformation has a major influence on the evolution of the system. It controls the magnitude of vortical effects in the wake of the leading bubble, hence the strength of the attractive force acting on the trailing bubble. It also governs the strength and even the sign of the lateral force acting on this bubble, a mechanism of particular importance when the tandem is released with a small angular deviation.
Essential tremor (ET) is a common movement disorder with ˜5% prevalence in individuals above the age of 65, but in rare cases, it arises during childhood. Growing evidence suggests the role of cerebellum in the disease mechanism. ET is highly heritable, however, poor replication of risk loci point to its significant heterogeneity. Thus, it is important to genetically investigate kindreds with a strong aggregation of ET.
We conducted a clinical and whole-genome investigation of a large Caucasian Canadian family, in which six out of eight patients are affected by childhood-onset ET in four consecutive generations. Eight family members were available for study, including three patients affected by ET. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was conducted for the four most informative individuals, followed by Sanger sequencing in the entire kindred.
We searched for rare variants absent in the eldest unaffected individual, but present in the patients (two siblings and their third-degree relative). Our stringent whole-genome filtering approach revealed a rare heterozygous p. Arg90Gln substitution in TCP10L (rs151233771) in all three investigated patients. Sanger sequencing confirmed the p. Arg90Gln variant and revealed its absence in the rest of the family members.
Whole-genome data of the family with ET resulted in a single candidate gene mapped to 21q22.11 locus (TCP10L) with the highest brain expression in cerebellum. Our study encourages future replication studies to validate the genetic link between TCP10L and ET, and suggests the p. Arg90Gln variant for functional investigation.
Although vaccines have become available, emergence and rapid transmission of new variants have added new paradigm in the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Weather, population and host immunity have been detected as the regulatory elements of COVID-19. This study aims to investigate the effects of weather, population and host factors on the outcome of COVID-19 and mutation frequency in Japan. Data were collected during January 2020 to February 2021. About 92% isolates were form GR clades. Variants 501Y.V1 (53%) and 452R.V1 (24%) were most prevalent in Japan. The strongest correlation was detected between fatalities and population density (rs = 0.81) followed by total population (rs = 0.72). Relative humidity had the highest correlation (rs = −0.71) with the case fatality rate. Cluster mutations namely N501Y (45%), E484K (30%), N439K (16%), K417N (6%) and T478I (3%) at spike protein have increased during January to February 2021. Above 90% fatality was detected in patients aged >60 years. The ratio of male to female patients of COVID-19 was 1.35:1. This study will help to understand the seasonality of COVID-19 and impact of weather on the outcome which will add knowledge to reduce the health burden of COVID-19 by the international organisations and policy makers.
The impact of baseline hypertension status on the BMI–mortality association is still unclear. We aimed to examine the moderation effect of hypertension on the BMI–mortality association using a rural Chinese cohort.
In this cohort study, we investigated the incident of mortality according to different BMI categories by hypertension status.
Longitudinal population-based cohort.
17 262 adults ≥18 years were recruited from July to August of 2013 and July to August of 2014 from a rural area in China.
During a median 6-year follow-up, we recorded 1109 deaths (610 with and 499 without hypertension). In adjusted models, as compared with BMI 22–24 kg/m2, with BMI ≤ 18, 18–20, 20–22, 24–26, 26–28, 28–30 and >30 kg/m2, the hazard ratios for mortality in normotensive participants were 1·92 (95% CI 1·23, 3·00), 1·44 (95% CI 1·01, 2·05), 1·14 (95% CI 0·82, 1·58), 0·96 (95% CI 0·70, 1·31), 0·96 (95% CI 0·65, 1·43), 1·32 (95% CI 0·81, 2·14) and 1·32 (95% CI 0·74, 2·35), respectively, and in hypertensive participants were 1·85 (95% CI 1·08, 3·17), 1·67 (95% CI 1·17, 2·39), 1·29 (95% CI 0·95, 1·75), 1·20 (95% CI 0·91, 1·58), 1·10 (95% CI 0·83, 1·46), 1·10 (95% CI 0·80, 1·52) and 0·61 (95% CI 0·40, 0·94), respectively. The risk of mortality was lower in individuals with hypertension with overweight or obesity v. normal weight, especially in older hypertensives (≥60 years old). Sensitivity analyses gave consistent results for both normotensive and hypertensive participants.
Low BMI was significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality regardless of hypertension status in rural Chinese adults, but high BMI decreased the mortality risk among individuals with hypertension, especially in older hypertensives.
Anticipatory pleasure deficits are closely correlated with negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and may be found in both clinical and subclinical populations along the psychosis continuum. Prospection, which is an important component of anticipatory pleasure, is impaired in individuals with social anhedonia (SocAnh). In this study, we examined the neural correlates of envisioning positive future events in individuals with SocAnh.
Forty-nine individuals with SocAnh and 33 matched controls were recruited to undergo functional MRI scanning, during which they were instructed to simulate positive or neutral future episodes according to cue words. Two stages of prospection were distinguished: construction and elaboration.
Reduced activation at the caudate and the precuneus when prospecting positive (v. neutral) future events was observed in individuals with SocAnh. Furthermore, compared with controls, increased functional connectivity between the caudate and the inferior occipital gyrus during positive (v. neutral) prospection was found in individuals with SocAnh. Both groups exhibited a similar pattern of brain activation for the construction v. elaboration contrast, regardless of the emotional context.
Our results provide further evidence on the neural mechanism of anticipatory pleasure deficits in subclinical individuals with SocAnh and suggest that altered cortico-striatal circuit may play a role in anticipatory pleasure deficits in these individuals.
Seaweeds have numerous biologically active ingredients, such as polysaccharides, polyphenols and carotenoids, that are beneficial to human health. Although these benefits might be related to the synthesis, secretion or reabsorption of uric acid, no studies have explored the relationship between seaweeds consumption and hyperuricaemia (HUA) in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate whether seaweeds consumption is related to HUA in a large-scale adult population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 32 365 adults (17 328 men and 15 037 women) in Tianjin, People’s Republic of China. Frequency of seaweeds consumption was assessed by a validated self-administered FFQ. HUA was defined as serum uric acid levels >420 μmol/L in men and >350 μmol/L in women. The association between seaweeds consumption and HUA was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Restricted cubic spline functions were used for non-linearity tests. The prevalence of HUA in men and women was 21·17 % and 5·93 %, respectively. After adjustments for potential confounding factors, the OR (95 % CI) for HUA across seaweed consumption (g/1000 kcal per d) were 1·00 (reference) for level 1, 0·91 (95 % CI 0·81, 1·02) for level 2; 0·90 (95 % CI 0·81, 1·01) for level 3; 0·86 (95 % CI 0·78, 0·97) for level 4 in men and 0·90 (95 % CI 0·73, 1·10) for level 2; 0·82 (95 % CI 0·67, 1·00) for level 3; 0·84 (95 % CI 0·68, 1·03) for level 4 in women, respectively. A negative correlation between seaweeds consumption and HUA in males but not in females was observed. Further studies are needed to explore the causal relationship.
Based on a cohort from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), we aimed to evaluate the relationship between sleep duration and the incidence of cognitive impairment among older Chinese adults.
We conducted a prospective analysis based on 3692 participants from the CLHLS at baseline (in 2011), and as a 3-year follow-up (till 2014), 531 participants (14.4%) had cognitive impairment, which was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score <24. Sleep duration was classified into three groups: short (≤5 hours/day), normal (>5 but <10 hours), and long (≥10 hours/day). A logistic regression model was used to examine the association between baseline sleep duration and cognitive impairment after adjusting for sociodemographic data, living habits, and health conditions.
Five hundred sixty-two participants (15.2%) were in the short-duration group, and 608 participants (16.5%) were in the long-duration group. After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, compared with normal sleep duration, long sleep duration was associated with the incidence of cognitive impairment (OR = 1.309, 95% CI: 1.019–1.683), especially among men (OR = 1.527, 95% CI: 1.041–2.240) and those having a primary and above education level (OR = 1.559, 95% CI: 1.029–2.361). No significant association was observed between short sleep duration and cognitive impairment (OR = 0.860, 95% CI: 0.646–1.145).
Excessive sleep may increase the risk of cognitive impairment in older individuals. It may be a suggestive sign of early neurodegeneration and may be a useful clinical tool to identify those at a higher risk of progressing to cognitive impairment.
When a water droplet is deposited within a sparsely miscible liquid medium, such as certain oils, the droplet surprisingly vanishes, even in a confined geometry. Such a phenomenon has crucial consequences for multiphase flows in which confined nano- and/or picolitre droplets are considered. We report here experiments of microdroplet dissolution in microchannels that reveal an enhancement of the shrinkage of confined water microdroplets in oil due to the permeability of the walls – made of polydimethilsiloxane (PDMS) – and a delay when collective effects are present. The system is first modelled assuming that the dissolution of the droplet in its surrounding liquid follows the Epstein–Plesset solution of the diffusion equation. The dissolution of small isolated droplets can indeed be described by this solution of the diffusion equation, while the vanishing of droplets larger than a certain critical value and those closer to other droplets requires numerical simulations. Experimental measurements and simulations compare well only when the boundary conditions of the confined system, the neighbouring droplets and, interestingly, the evaporative water vapour flux through the PDMS are all taken into account in the numerical model. Our results thus reveal the important role of the water solubility in oil and, most remarkably, of the water vapour transport through permeable walls.
Anxiety disorders are widespread across the world. A systematic understanding of the disease burden, temporal trend and risk factors of anxiety disorders provides the essential foundation for targeted public policies on mental health at the national, regional, and global levels.
The estimation of anxiety disorders in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 using systematic review was conducted to describe incidence, prevalence and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 204 countries and regions from 1990 to 2019. We calculated the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) to quantify the temporal trends in anxiety disorders burden by sex, region and age over the past 30 years and analysed the impact of epidemiological and demographic changes on anxiety disorders.
Globally, 45.82 [95% uncertainty interval (UI): 37.14, 55.62] million incident cases of anxiety disorders, 301.39 million (95% UI: 252.63, 356.00) prevalent cases and 28.68 (95% UI: 19.86, 39.32) million DALYs were estimated in 2019. Although the overall age-standardised burden rate of anxiety disorders remained stable over the past three decades, the latest absolute number of anxiety disorders increased by 50% from 1990. We observed huge disparities in both age-standardised burden rate and changing trend of anxiety disorders in sex, country and age. In 2019, 7.07% of the global DALYs due to anxiety disorders were attributable to bullying victimisation, mainly among the population aged 5–39 years, and the proportion increased in almost all countries and territories compared with 1990.
Anxiety disorder is still the most common mental illness in the world and has a striking impact on the global burden of disease. Controlling potential risk factors, such as bullying, establishing effective mental health knowledge dissemination and diversifying intervention strategies adapted to specific characteristics will reduce the burden of anxiety disorders.
With the rapid rise in the prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) diseases across the world, the microbiological diagnosis of NTM isolates is becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis and treatment of NTM disease. In this study, the clinical presentation, species distribution and drug susceptibility of patients with NTM disease visiting the Chongqing Public Health Medical Centre during March 2016–April 2019 were retrospectively analysed. Among the 146 patients with NTM disease, eight NTM species (complex) were identified. The predominant NTM species in these patients were identified to be Mycobacterium abscessus complex (53, 36.3%), M. intracellulare (38, 26%) and M. fortuitum (17, 11.7%). In addition, two or more species were isolated from 7.5% of the patients. Pulmonary NTM disease (142, 97.3%) showed the highest prevalence among the patients. It was observed that 40.1% of the patients with pulmonary NTM disease had chronic pulmonary obstructive disease and bronchiectasis, while 22.5% had prior tuberculosis. Male patients showed more association with the conditions of cough and haemoptysis than the female patients. In an in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing, most of the species showed susceptibility to linezolid, amikacin and clarithromycin, while M. fortuitum exhibited low susceptibility to tobramycin. In conclusion, the prevalence of NTM disease, especially that of the pulmonary NTM disease, is common in Southwest China. Species identification and drug susceptibility testing are thus extremely important to ensure appropriate treatment regimens for patient care and management.