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To assess the current status of disease-related knowledge and to analyze the relationship among the general condition, illness perception, and psychological status of patients with COVID-19.
A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 118 patients using convenience sampling. The general questionnaire, disease-related knowledge questionnaire of COVID-19, Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) were used to measure the current status of participants.
The overall average score of the disease-related knowledge of patients with COVID-19 was (79.19 ± 14.25), the self-care situation was positively correlated with knowledge of prevention and control (r=0.265, P=0.004) and total score of disease-related knowledge (r= 0.206, P= 0.025); the degree of anxiety was negatively correlated with the knowledge of diagnosis and treatment (r= -0.182, P= 0.049). The score of disease-related knowledge was negatively correlated with negative cognition (volatility, consequences, emotional statements) and negative emotions (tension, fatigue, depression) (P<0.05); positively correlated with positive cognition (disease coherence) and positive emotion (self-esteem) (P<0.05).
It was recommended that we should pay more attention to the elderly and low-income groups, and increase the knowledge about diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 and self-care in the future health education for patients.
Reintroductions aim to re-establish a viable population within the indigenous range of living organisms, especially of threatened species. The population of the Asian Crested Ibis Nipponia nippon, a well-known ‘Endangered’ bird species, has increased over 100 times since wild populations were rediscovered in 1981, and several reintroduction projects were subsequently carried out in its former range. An experimental release of the Asian Crested Ibis was conducted in Qianhu National Wetland Park located in the southern part of the Loess Plateau, China. It is vitally important to monitor released birds (at least their survival and breeding), to inform subsequent releases in other suitable sites. During extensive post-release monitoring, data on capture-recapture and reproductive status were obtained using banding, radiotelemetry, and field observations. Using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (C-J-S) model, the average annual survival rates were estimated to be 0.569 (95% CI: 0.353–0.762) for released individuals and 0.643 (95% CI: 0.038–0.987) for all individuals. From 2014 to 2018, a total of 14 breeding pairs produced 28 eggs and 10 fledglings with successful reproduction of the second generation. The mean clutch size was 2.07 ± 0.25 (n = 29), and the breeding success was 34.5%. Predation and poor habitat quality have been shown to be the main factors affecting the reintroduced population at establishment stage. Some management suggestions at the metapopulation and ecosystem levels, including further release, predator control and habitat improvement, have been proposed.
A number of microorganisms were hypothesised as an aetiology of the Kawasaki disease. Unfortunately, no specific agent that provides reproducible evidence has yet been reported. We report two cases of extremely rare Kawasaki disease with tsutsugamushi disease. These case reports suggest that Kawasaki disease can rarely occur concurrently or immediately after a rickettsial illness such as tsutsugamushi disease.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary Zn level on growth performance, Zn bioaccumulation, antioxidant capacity and innate immunity in juvenile mud crabs (Scylla paramamosain). Six semi-purified diets were formulated to contain dietary Zn levels of 44·5, 56·9, 68·5, 97·3, 155·6 or 254·7 mg/kg. Dietary Zn level significantly influenced percentage weight gain (PWG), with the highest observed in crabs fed the diet containing 97·3 mg/kg Zn. Tissue Zn concentrations significantly increased as dietary Zn levels increased from 44·5 to 254·7 mg/kg. Retention of Zn in hepatopancreas increased with dietary Zn levels up to 68·5 mg/kg and then significantly decreased. Moreover, inadequate dietary Zn (44·5 and 56·9 mg/kg) reduced antioxidation markers including total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu/Zn SOD activities and total antioxidant level. Crabs fed the diet with 44·5 mg/kg Zn also showed significantly lower expression of genes involved in antioxidant status, such as Cu/Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and thioredoxin than those fed diets containing 68·5 and 97·3 mg/kg Zn. The highest activities of phenoloxidase and alkaline phosphatase were recorded in crabs fed the diets containing 68·5 and 97·3 mg/kg Zn. Expression levels of prophenoloxidase and toll-like receptor 2 were higher in crabs fed the 97·3 mg/kg Zn diet compared with crabs fed the other diets. Based on PWG alone, the optimal dietary Zn level was estimated to be 82·9 mg/kg, with 68·5 to 97·3 mg/kg recommended for maintaining optimal Zn bioaccumulation, oxidation resistance and innate immune response of juvenile mud crabs.
The Chinese leadership announced the China Goes Global strategy (CGG) in 2000, an announcement followed by extensive publicity and mobilization campaigns inside the country. At the time, however, foreign observers were preoccupied with China’s pending admission to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and paid little attention to the CGG. It was only in the mid-2000s, when Chinese outbound investment rapidly increased, did the strategy begin to generate interest, debate, and serious discussion abroad. Scholarly research on China’s outbound investment has since adopted three approaches: the economic statecraft framework that underscores the Chinese government using economic means to achieve diplomatic goals; the state capitalism model that focuses on powerful SOEs shaping the country’s foreign policy for their own commercial interests; and finally, a world development approach that asks whether Chinese outgoing capital helps or hinders industrialization in underdeveloped regions.
Ambitious strategies launched by the political leadership, such as the WDP, CGG, and BRI, mobilized local governments to implement them in their jurisdictions. Local governments, however, drawing on the strategies ambiguity, improvise projects and program that often diverge from the rhetoric at the strategies and yet conform to their local economic needs. It is in this process of subnational reinterpretation that proclaimed nationalist intent in the strategies is replaced by economic imperatives in the localities. This chapter investigates three cities – Chongqing, Ningbo, and Wenzhou – to evaluate local reinterpretation, diverse implementation, and economic effects in local development, realized and ongoing.
Companies, private and state-owned, are the main commercial actors, employers, and revenue generators in China; they are of central concern in studies of China and globalization. How they approach nationalist strategies sheds light on the nature of Chinese capitalism, the characteristics of business–government interactions, and the prospect – distant or otherwise – of political liberalization in China. China specialists have conducted in-depth research on corporate behaviors in 1990s China, including Bruce Dickson’s surveys on “red capitalists,” Kellee Tsai’s informal adaptation of private capital, and Scott Kennedy’s work on business lobbying across different sectors. In the new millennium, political studies seemed to focus less on companies, while burgeoning business studies have primarily concerned themselves with technology and management issues.
In 2012–2013, the Chinese state was in a state of crisis. It had just experienced a political storm in relation to the abrupt downfall of political giant Bo Xilai, who had built a formidable power base and political movement in western China. Newly minted president Xi Jinping forced an aggressive anticorruption campaign that targeted incumbent state officials. There were widespread economic troubles, with shrinking exports, loss-making state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and industrial overcapacities. On top of all this, America’s diplomatic “encirclement” of China was succeeding – the US-led Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) had signatures from twelve major economies in the Asia Pacific region, and China was being excluded. Facing these challenges, Chinese officials and state-affiliated researchers were concerned and gloomy. They had workable proposals to address these challenges; but none of them, in 2012–2013, gained enough traction to rally cross-agency support and societal approval.
President Xi Jinping announced the Belt and Road in late 2013. By late 2018, dozens – if not hundreds – of related volumes were on sale in the Amazon marketplace, many of which were produced by long-term observers of China or global politics. Representing different disciplines and national interests, they invariably portray the BRI as the “centerpiece” of China’s strategy to project power abroad. Robert Kaplan predicts that the new Silk Road will propel China’s return to dominance. Tom Miller also paints a picture of a future world in which global power shifts from Anglo-Saxon capitals to Beijing. In Central, South, and Southeast Asia, strategic observers have been concerned about China’s expansion at the expense of the existing order. From a regional perspective, Nadege Rolland examines the BRI’s political and strategic implications in Eurasia.