1.Li, Y, Ai, C & Liu, L (2018) Mud crab, Scylla paramamosain China’s leading maricultured crab. In Aquaculture in China, pp. 226–233 [Gui, J-F, Tang, Q, Li, Z, Liu, J and De Silva, SS, editors]. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
2.Zhao, J, Wen, X, Li, S, et al. (2015) Effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, feed utilization, body composition and antioxidants of juvenile mud crab Scylla paramamosain (Estampador). Aquaculture 435, 200–206.
3.Ye, H, Tao, Y, Wang, G, et al. (2011) Experimental nursery culture of the mud crab Scylla paramamosain (Estampador) in China. Aquacult Int 19, 313–321.
4.Marichamy, R & Rajapackiam, S (2001) The aquaculture of Scylla species in India. Asian Fish Sci 14, 231–238.
5.Keenan, CP (1999) Aquaculture of the mud crab, genus Scylla – past, present and future. Aciar Proc 78, 9–13.
6.Le Vay, L (2001) Ecology and management of mud crab Scylla spp. Asian Fish Sci 14, 101–111.
7.FCAD FBoCAD (2019) China Fishery Statistical Yearbook. Beijing, China: China Agriculture Press.
8.Jin, M, Zhou, Q, Zhang, W, et al. (2013) Dietary protein requirements of the juvenile swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus. Aquaculture 414–415, 303–308.
9.Dong, L, Tong, T, Zhang, Q, et al. (2017) Effect of dietary protein level on growth performance, body composition, and digestive enzyme activities in green mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) juveniles. J Fish Sci China 24, 524–532.
10.Kader, MA, Bulbul, M, Asaduzzaman, M, et al. (2017) Effect of phospholipid supplements to fishmeal replacements on growth performance, feed utilization and fatty acid composition of mud crab, Scylla paramamosain (Estampador 1949). J Sustain Sci Manag 2017, 47–61.
11.Xu, H, Wang, J, Han, T, et al. (2019) Effects of dietary phospholipids levels on growth performance, lipid metabolism, and antioxidant capacity of the early juvenile green mud crab, Scylla paramamosain (Estampador). Aquac Res 50, 513–520.
12.National Research Council (2011) Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
13.Chitturi, R, Baddam, VR, Prasad, L, et al. (2015) A review on role of essential trace elements in health and disease. J NTR Univ Health Sci 4, 75–85.
14.Salgueiro, MJ, Zubillaga, M, Lysionek, A, et al. (2000) Zinc as an essential micronutrient: a review. Nutr Res 20, 737–755.
15.Muralisankar, T, Bhavan, PS, Radhakrishnan, S, et al. (2014) Dietary supplementation of zinc nanoparticles and its influence on biology, physiology and immune responses of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Biol Trace Elem Res 160, 56–66.
16.Tan, B & Mai, K (2001) Zinc methionine and zinc sulfate as sources of dietary zinc for juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Aquaculture 192, 67–84.
17.Wu, K, Luo, Z, Hogstrand, C, et al. (2018) Zn stimulates the phospholipids biosynthesis via the pathways of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the intestine of freshwater teleost yellow catfish. Environ Sci Technol 52, 9206–9214.
18.Yuan, Y, Luo, J, Zhu, T, et al. (2020) Alteration of growth performance, meat quality, antioxidant and immune capacity of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei in response to different dietary dosage forms of zinc: comparative advantages of zinc amino acid complex. Aquaculture 522, 735120.
19.Rink, L (2000) Zinc and the immune system. Proc Nutr Soc 59, 541–552.
20.Musharraf, M & Khan, MA (2019) Dietary zinc requirement of fingerling Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton). Aquaculture 503, 489–498.
21.Davis, DA & Gatlin, DM (1996) Dietary mineral requirements of fish and marine crustaceans. Rev Fish Sci 4, 75–99.
22.Watanabe, T, Kiron, V & Satoh, S (1997) Trace minerals in fish nutrition. Aquaculture 151, 185–207.
23.Li, W, Gong, Y, Jin, X, et al. (2010) The effect of dietary zinc supplementation on the growth, hepatopancreas fatty acid composition and gene expression in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis (H. Milne-Edwards) (Decapoda: Grapsidae). Aquac Res 41, e828–e837.
24.Sun, S, Chen, M, Chen, LQ, et al. (2011) Optimal dietary copper and zinc requirements for juvenile Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. J Isr J Aquacult Bamid 63, 580–587.
25.Luo, Z, Tan, X, Zheng, J, et al. (2011) Quantitative dietary zinc requirement of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, and effects on hepatic intermediary metabolism and antioxidant responses. Aquaculture 319, 150–155.
26.Wu, Y, Feng, L, Jiang, W, et al. (2015) Influence of dietary zinc on muscle composition, flesh quality and muscle antioxidant status of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.). Nutr Res 46, 2360–2373.
27.Jiang, M, Wu, F, Huang, F, et al. (2016) Effects of dietary Zn on growth performance, antioxidant responses, and sperm motility of adult blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala. Aquaculture 464, 121–128.
28.Dekani, L, Johari, SA & Joo, HS (2019) Comparative toxicity of organic, inorganic and nanoparticulate zinc following dietary exposure to common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Sci Total Environ 656, 1191–1198.
29.Shiau, S & Jiang, L (2006) Dietary zinc requirements of grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and effects on immune responses. Aquaculture 254, 476–482.
30.Davis, DA, Lawrence, AL & Gatlin, DM III (1993) Evaluation of the dietary zinc requirement of Penaeus vannamei and effects of phytic acid on zinc and phosphorus bioavailability. J World Aquacult Soc 24, 40–47.
31.Zhang, H (2015) Effects of Zn sources and dietary Zn levels on growth performance, biochemical and immunity indices and tissue Zn content for Litopenaeus vannamei. Master’s thesis, Guangdong Ocean University.
32.Lin, S, Lin, X, Yang, Y, et al. (2013) Comparison of chelated zinc and zinc sulfate as zinc sources for growth and immune response of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquaculture 406–407, 79–84.
33.Sun, P, Jin, M, Jiao, L, et al. (2020) Effects of dietary lipid level on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in juvenile swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus. Brit J Nutr 123, 149–160.
34.Shelley, C & Lovatelli, A (2011) Grow-out design options and construction. In Mud Crab Aquaculture - A Practical Manual, pp. 47–52. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 567. Rome: FAO.
35.Yuan, Y, Jin, M, Xiong, J, et al. (2019) Effects of dietary dosage forms of copper supplementation on growth, antioxidant capacity, innate immunity enzyme activities and gene expressions for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Fish Shellfish Immunol 84, 1059–1067.
36.Sun, S, Qin, J, Yu, N, et al. (2013) Effect of dietary copper on the growth performance, non-specific immunity and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila of juvenile Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. Fish Shellfish Immunol 34, 1195–1201.
37.Lin, Z, Qiao, J, Zhang, Y, et al. (2012) Cloning and characterisation of the SpToll gene from green mud crab, Scylla paramamosain. Dev Comp Immunol 37, 164–175.
38.Guo, T, Huang, X, Su, M, et al. (2011) Effects of zinc supplementation in diet on the immunity, Vibrio-resistant ability, lysozyme mRNA and Toll receptor mRNA expressions in the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). J Fish Sci China 35, 1081–2089.
39.Houng-Yung, C, Yu-Chun, C, Li-Chi, H, et al. (2014) Dietary zinc requirements of juvenile grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus. Aquaculture 432, 360–364.
40.Li, MR & Huang, CH (2016) Effect of dietary zinc level on growth, enzyme activity and body trace elements of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus, fed soya bean meal-based diets. Aquacult Nutr 22, 1320–1327.
41.Dall, W & Moriarty, DJ (1983) Functional aspects of nutrition and digestion. J Crustac Biol 5, 215–261.
42.Fang, Y, Yang, S & Wu, G (2002) Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition. Nutrition 18, 872–879.
43.Fattman, CL, Schaefer, LM & Oury, TD (2003) Extracellular superoxide dismutase in biology and medicine. Free Radical Bio Med 35, 236–256.
44.Tang, Q, Feng, L, Jiang, W, et al. (2013) Effects of dietary copper on growth, digestive, and brush border enzyme activities and antioxidant defense of hepatopancreas and intestine for young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Biol Trace Elem Res 155, 370–380.
45.Nozik-Grayck, E, Suliman, HB & Piantadosi, CA (2005) Extracellular superoxide dismutase. Int J Biochem Cell B 37, 2466–2471.
46.Feng, L, Tan, LN, Liu, Y, et al. (2011) Influence of dietary zinc on lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and antioxidant defence of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Aquacult Nutr 17, e875–e882.
47.Rodríguez-Ariza, A, Peinado, J, Pueyo, C, et al. (1993) Biochemical indicators of oxidative stress in fish from polluted littoral areas. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 50, 2568–2573.
48.Huang, F, Jiang, M, Wen, H, et al. (2015) Dietary zinc requirement of adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed semi-purified diets, and effects on tissue mineral composition and antioxidant responses. Aquaculture 439, 53–59.
49.Devasena, T, Lalitha, S & Padma, K (2001) Lipid peroxidation, osmotic fragility and antioxidant status in children with acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Clin Chim Acta 308, 155–161.
50.Bonaventura, P, Benedetti, G, Albarède, F, et al. (2015) Zinc and its role in immunity and inflammation. Autoimmun Rev 14, 277–285.
51.Murakami, M & Hirano, T (2008) Intracellular zinc homeostasis and zinc signaling. Cancer Sci 99, 1515–1522.
52.Bagchi, D, Carryl, OR, Tran, MX, et al. (1997) Protection against chemically-induced oxidative gastrointestinal tissue injury in rats by bismuth salts. Digest Dis Sci 42, 1890–1900.
53.Bray, TM & Bettger, WJ (1990) The physiological role of zinc as an antioxidant. Free Radical Bio Med 8, 281–291.
54.Zago, MP & Oteiza, PI (2001) The antioxidant properties of zinc: interactions with iron and antioxidants. Free Radical Bio Med 31, 266–274.
55.Jiravanichpaisal, P, Lee, BL & Söderhäll, K (2006) Cell-mediated immunity in arthropods: hematopoiesis, coagulation, melanization and opsonization. Immunobiology 211, 213–236.
56.Wang, J, Jiang, K, Zhang, FY, et al. (2015) Characterization and expression analysis of the prophenoloxidase activating factor from the mud crab Scylla paramamosain. Genet Mol Res 14, 8847–8860.
57.Cao, J, Miao, X, Xu, W, et al. (2014) Dietary copper requirements of juvenile large yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus. Aquaculture 432, 346–350.
58.Cousins, RJ (1985) Absorption, transport, and hepatic metabolism of copper and zinc: special reference to metallothionein and ceruloplasmin. Physiol Rev 65, 238–309.
59.Coleman, JE (1992) Structure and mechanism of alkaline phosphatase. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 21, 441–483.
60.do Carmo e Sá, MVc, Pezzato, LE, Ferreira Lima, MMB, et al. (2004) Optimum zinc supplementation level in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles diets. Aquaculture 238, 385–401.
61.Moazenzadeh, K, Rajabi Islami, H, Zamini, A, et al. (2018) Effects of dietary zinc level on performance, zinc status, tissue composition and enzyme activities of juvenile Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii (Brandt 1869). Aquacult Nutr 24, 1330–1339.
62.Li, F & Xiang, J (2013) Signaling pathways regulating innate immune responses in shrimp. Fish Shellfish Immunol 34, 973–980.
63.Blander, JM & Medzhitov, R (2004) Regulation of phagosome maturation by signals from Toll-like receptors. Science 304, 1014–1018.
64.Kumar, N, Krishnani, KK, Kumar, P, et al. (2017) Dietary zinc promotes immuno-biochemical plasticity and protects fish against multiple stresses. Fish Shellfish Immunol 62, 184–194.
65.Gharekhani, A, Azari Takami, G, Tukmechi, A, et al. (2015) Effect of dietary supplementation with zinc enriched yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on immunity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Iran J Vet Res 16, 278–282.
66.Song, Z-X, Jiang, W-D, Liu, Y, et al. (2017) Dietary zinc deficiency reduced growth performance, intestinal immune and physical barrier functions related to NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2, JNK and MLCK signaling pathway of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol 66, 497–523.
67.Auman, JT, Boorman, GA, Wilson, RE, et al. (2007) Heat map visualization of high-density clinical chemistry data. Physiol Genomics 31, 352–356.
68.Pleil, JD, Stiegel, MA, Madden, MC, et al. (2011) Heat map visualization of complex environmental and biomarker measurements. Chemosphere 84, 716–723.