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The 2012 Supreme Court decision in National Federation of Independent Business v Sebelius gave states the option to adopt the Medicaid expansion as part of the Affordable Care Act. Many states, especially those under Republican control, have since grappled with their decision to implement the expansion. We conduct a comparative analysis of how Republican governors framed their stance on the Medicaid expansion. We analyze public statements on the Medicaid expansion published in two major in-state newspapers from all Republican governors from June 2012 through June 2018. In total we collected, coded and analyzed 3277 statements from 66 newspapers. Several key themes emerge from our analysis. While every Republican governor used oppositional framing as part of their rhetorical response to the Medicaid expansion, the policy had a destabilizing effect on the previously unified opposition to health reform. We find that Republican framing split after the results of the 2012 election and that overall Republican governors shifted towards more supportive framing prior to the 2016 presidential election. Republican governors transformed how they framed their stance towards Medicaid expansion after Donald Trump was elected in 2016, with both supportive and oppositional moral-based framing of expansion increasing. These findings inform how policymakers use rhetoric to support their stance on controversial policies in a hyper-partisan and polarized political environment.
Rapidly-rising jökulhlaups, or glacial outburst floods, are a phenomenon with a high potential for damage. The initiation and propagation processes of a rapidly-rising jökulhlaup are still not fully understood. Seismic monitoring can contribute to an improved process understanding, but comprehensive long-term seismic monitoring campaigns capturing the dynamics of a rapidly-rising jökulhlaup have not been reported so far. To fill this gap, we installed a seismic network at the marginal, ice-dammed lake of the A.P. Olsen Ice Cap (APO) in NE-Greenland. Episodic outbursts from the lake cause flood waves in the Zackenberg river, characterized by a rapid discharge increase within a few hours. Our 6 months long seismic dataset comprises the whole fill-and-drain cycle of the ice-dammed lake in 2012 and includes one of the most destructive floods recorded so far for the Zackenberg river. Seismic event detection and localization reveals abundant surface crevassing and correlates with changes of the river discharge. Seismic interferometry suggests the existence of a thin basal sedimentary layer. We show that the ballistic part of the first surface waves can potentially be used to infer medium changes in both the ice body and the basal layer. Interpretation of time-lapse interferograms is challenged by a varying ambient noise source distribution.
Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is one of the leading photovoltaic technologies with a market share of around 5%. However, there still exist challenges to fabricate a rear contact for efficient transport of photogenerated holes. Here, etching effects of various iodine compounds including elemental iodine (I2), ammonium iodide (NH4I), mixture of elemental iodine and NH4I (I−/I3− etching), and formamidinium iodide were investigated. The treated CdTe surfaces were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The CdTe devices were completed with or without treatments and tested under simulated AM1.5G solar spectrum to find photoconversion efficiency (PCE). Based on Raman spectra, XRD patterns, and surface morphology, it was shown that treatment with iodine compounds produced Te-rich surface on CdTe films, and temperature-dependent current–voltage characteristics showed reduced back barrier heights, which are essential for the formation of ohmic contact and reduce contact resistance. Based on current–voltage characteristics, the treatment enhanced open-circuit voltage (VOC) up to 841 mV, fill factor (FF) up to 78.2%, and PCE up to 14.0% compared with standard untreated CdTe devices (VOC ∼ 814 mV, FF ∼ 74%, and PCE ∼ 12.7%) with copper/gold back contact.
To determine whether deep surgical site infection (dSSI) rate exhibits temporal variability, dSSI rates following 98,068 cases were analyzed. The overall dSSI rate decreased significantly between 2009 and 2018. Summer had a significantly greater rate of dSSI than winter. There was no difference in dSSI rate in July versus other months.
A high prevalence of dementia among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders has been reported but knowledge of underlying causes and associations remains limited.
To identify the prevalence of factors that may be associated with the categories of Major neurocognitive disorders (Major NCDs) in Aboriginal people living in residential aged care facilities in Alice Springs in the Northern Territory (NT).
Design and Setting:
This descriptive cross-sectional study analysed clinical file and cognitive assessment data of participants who were identified as having cognitive impairment between January and June 2016.
Screening for the presence of cognitive impairment using the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment (KICA) was undertaken and 58 of 84 Aboriginal people were admitted to the study. Using a clinical file audit, diagnoses of Major NCDs consistent with the DSM-5 classification were made and the prevalence of factors possibly associated with these diagnoses described.
Fifty of the 58 participants were diagnosed with a Major NCD. The most frequent diagnoses were Major NCD due to vascular disease (30%), Major NCD due to Alzheimer’s Disease (26%) and Major NCD due to brain injury (20%). Hypertension, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and alcohol misuse were commonly reported together with hypothyroidism, hypoglycaemia and vitamin D deficiency.
This study identified possible associations with Major NCDs in this population as well as a different spread of Major NCD diagnoses to previous studies in Aboriginal populations. There is a need for further research to understand the causes of dementia in Australian Aboriginal people and to use this information to appropriately tailor treatment and prevention programmes.
The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams.
The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here.
The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020.
Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.
Kochia is one of the most problematic weeds in the United States. Field studies were conducted in five states (Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota) over 2 yr (2010 and 2011) to evaluate kochia control with selected herbicides registered in five common crop scenarios: winter wheat, fallow, corn, soybean, and sugar beet to provide insight for diversifying kochia management in crop rotations. Kochia control varied by experimental site such that more variation in kochia control and biomass production was explained by experimental site than herbicide choice within a crop. Kochia control with herbicides currently labeled for use in sugar beet averaged 32% across locations. Kochia control was greatest and most consistent from corn herbicide programs (99%), followed by soybean (96%) and fallow (97%) herbicide programs. Kochia control from wheat herbicide programs was 93%. With respect to the availability of effective herbicide options, glyphosate-resistant kochia control was easiest in corn, soybean, and fallow, followed by wheat; and difficult to manage with herbicides in sugar beet.
Cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be difficult with existing selective herbicides. High phenotypic diversity within populations coupled with suboptimal herbicide application conditions leads to varying degrees of control with herbicide treatments. The following research focused on the consequence of low temperature on imazamox fate in S. cereale. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the number of warm-temperature days required for imazamox to control S. cereale. Absorption, translocation, and metabolism of imazamox was evaluated under warm (22/18C) and cold (4/4C) temperatures to identify changes to the fate of imazamox under different environmental conditions. In greenhouse conditions, more than 5 d of warm temperature following herbicide application was required to achieve 80% S. cereale mortality. Absorption of imazamox was reduced 20% when S. cereale was subjected to cold compared with warm temperatures. Only 10% of applied imazamox was moved from the treated leaf in continuous cool temperatures compared with greater than 60% in warm conditions. In cold conditions, imazamox content increased in all tested plant parts evaluated for the duration of the study, whereas in warm conditions, imazamox concentrations decreased in root and crown tissues after 3 d. Imazamox behavior was affected more by temperature than S. cereale growth stage. Secale cereale metabolism of imazamox was reduced, but not stopped in cold temperatures. After 6 d, only a 10% difference in intact imazamox remained between temperature treatments. In cold temperatures, reduced absorption and translocation, coupled with continued metabolism, allow plants to recover from an otherwise lethal imazamox treatment.
Formation of a low barrier back contact plays a critical role in improving the photoconversion efficiency of the CdTe solar cells. Incorporating a buffer layer to minimize the band bending at the back of the CdTe device can significantly lower the barrier for the hole current, improving open circuit voltage (VOC) and the fill factor. Over the past years, researchers have incorporated the both ZnTe and Te as buffer layers to improve CdTe device performance. Here we compare device performance using these two materials as buffer layers at the back of CdTe devices. We show that using Te in contact to CdTe results in higher performance than using ZnTe in contact to the CdTe. Low temperature current density-voltage measurements show that Te results is a lower barrier with CdTe than ZnTe, indicating that Te has better band alignment, resulting in less downward bending in the CdTe at the back interface, than ZnTe does.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
We studied the radiolysis of a wide variety of N-heterocycles, including many of biological importance, and find that the majority are remarkably stable in the solid-state when subjected to large doses of ionizing gamma radiation from a 60Co source. Degradation of N-heterocycles as a function of dose rate and total dose was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Many N-heterocycles show little degradation when γ-irradiated up to a total dose of ~1 MGy, which approximates hundreds of millions of years’ worth of radiation emitted in meteorite parent bodies due to slow radionuclide decay. Extrapolation of these results suggests that these N-heterocyclic compounds would be stable in dry parent bodies over solar system timescales. We suggest that the abundance of these N-heterocycles as measured presently in carbonaceous meteorites is largely reflective of their abundance at the time aqueous alteration stopped in their parent bodies and the absence of certain compounds in present-day samples is either due to the formation mechanisms or degradation which occurred during periods of aqueous alteration or thermal metamorphism.
Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) is an evidence-based treatment program for people with severe mental illness developed in high-income countries. We report the first randomized controlled trial of ACT in mainland China.
Sixty outpatients with schizophrenia with severe functional impairments or frequent hospitalizations were randomly assigned to ACT (n = 30) or standard community treatment (n = 30). The severity of symptoms and level of social functioning were assessed at baseline and every 3 months during the 1-year study. The primary outcome was the duration of hospital readmission. Secondary outcomes included a pre-post change in symptom severity, the rates of symptom relapse and gainful employment, social and occupational functioning, and quality of life of family caregivers.
Based on a modified intention-to-treat analysis, the outcomes for ACT were significantly better than those of standard community treatment. ACT patients were less likely to be readmitted [3.3% (1/30) v. 25.0% (7/28), Fisher's exact test p = 0.023], had a shorter mean readmission time [2.4 (13.3) v. 30.7 (66.9) days], were less likely to relapse [6.7% (2/30) v. 28.6% (8/28), Fisher's exact test p = 0.038], and had shorter mean time in relapse [3.5 (14.6) v. 34.4 (70.6) days]. The ACT group also had significantly longer times re-employed and greater symptomatic improvement and their caregivers experienced a greater improvement in their quality of life.
Our results show that culturally adapted ACT is both feasible and effective for individuals with severe schizophrenia in urban China. Replication studies with larger samples and longer duration of follow up are warranted.
By any measure, the death penalty is in steep decline worldwide. In 1977, only 16 countries had abolished the death penalty, but that figure had increased to 140 by 2016. In this chapter we focus on the United States, where, as of mid-2015, the death penalty was authorized in thirty-two states and approximately 2,900 men and women are housed on death row. While a dwindling number of Americans view the death penalty as a social problem because they want to expand its use, a growing number are seeing it as a social problem because they believe it is no longer justified and want it to be restricted or even abolished. In this chapter we describe the arguments used by both sides, and conclude that the long-term trend away from the death penalty is unidirectional and further eroding of its use is inevitable.
Increasing the band gap of cadmium telluride (CdTe) from 1.48 eV to > 2 eV can be achieved by alloying CdTe with ZnTe. Like CdTe, the alloyed films are expected to allow for low cost production, suggesting that Cd1-xZnxTe could be an ideal top cell for mass produced tandem devices. However, the CdCl2 activation of the alloyed films results in a significant loss of Zn, thereby reducing the bandgap. In this study, we demonstrate a novel CdCl2 activation method that does not result in significant Zn loss. By performing the activation step in a closed, inert environment we are able to avoid oxidation of the Zn in the Cd1-xZnxTe film; furthermore, by including sacrificial Zn in the container, an overpressure of ZnCl2 forms limiting the amount of ZnCl2 formed in the film. Both x-ray diffraction, optical measurements, and Auger spectroscopy show that the CdCl2 treatment with no flowing gas minimizes the loss of Zn from the CZT alloy.
We present the defect analysis by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy of CdSexTe1-x thin films, grown with varying Se content by a co-sputtered deposition method. We observe a peak at 1.203 eV in the CdSexTe1-x film for x = 0.21, which shifts towards higher energies with increase in laser power. This peak was assigned to a donor-to-acceptor (DAP) transition, with a measured j-shift of ∼4.7 meV/decade. Temperature dependent PL intensity measurements confirm that the observed DAP peak involves a shallow defect state of binding energy ∼34.7 meV. In contrast, a free-to-bound (FB) peak at 1.294 eV involving a shallow defect of binding energy ∼18.3 meV was observed in the CdSexTe1-x film for x = 0.14. Additionally, we observe band edge emission at 1.452 eV and 1.448 eV in CdSexTe1-x films for x = 0.14 and x = 0.21 respectively. Our analysis shows that the Se concentration not only changes the band gap energy of the resulting CdSexTe1-x alloy thin film, but also modifies the nature of the dominant observed defect emission.
Methods of obtaining large grain size and high crystallinity in absorber materials play an important role in fabrication of high-performance methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite solar cells. Here we study the effect of adding small concentrations of Cd2+, Zn2+, and Fe2+salts to the perovskite precursor solution used in the single-step solution fabrication process. Enhanced grain size and crystallinity in MAPbI3 films were obtained by using 0.1% of Cd2+ or Zn2+in the precursor solution. Consequently, solar cells constructed with Cd- and Zn-doped perovskite films show a significant improvement in device performance. These results suggest that the process may be an effective and facile method to fabricate high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaic devices.
Monolithic integrated thin film tandem solar cells consisting of a high bandgap perovskite top cell and a low bandgap thin film bottom cell are expected to reach higher power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) with lower manufacturing cost and environmental impacts than the market-dominant crystalline silicon photovoltaics. There have been several demonstrations of 4-terminal and 2-terminal perovskite tandem devices with CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) or CuInSe2 (CIS) and, similar to the other tandem structures, the optimization of this device relies on optimal choice for the perovskite bandgap and thickness. Therefore, further advancement will be enabled by tuning the perovskite absorber to maximize the photocurrent limited by the current match condition. Here, we systematically study the optical absorption and transmission of perovskite thin films with varying absorber band gap. Based on these results, we model the photocurrent generations in both perovskite and CIS subcells and estimate the performances of projected tandem devices by considering the ideally functioning perovskite and CIS device. Our results show that for perovskite layers with 500 nm thickness the optimal bandgap is around 1.6 eV. With these configurations, PCEs above 20% could be achieved by monolithically integrated perovskite/CIS tandem solar cells. Also by modelling the absorption at every layer we calculate the quantum efficiency at each subcell in addition to tracking optical losses.
Wide bandgap Cd1-xZnxTe (CZT) and Cd1-xMgxTe (CMT) have drawn attention as top cells in tandem devices. These materials allow tuning of the band gap over a wide range by controlling the Zn or Mg concentration with little alteration to the base CdTe properties. Historically, CdS has been used as a heterojunction partner for CZT or CMT devices. However, these devices show a significant lower open circuit voltage (VOC) than expected for wide bandgap absorbers. Recent modelling work suggests that poor band alignment between the CdS emitter and absorber results in a high concentration of holes at the interface, which increased recombination and limits the VOC. This recombination should be exacerbated for wider bandgap absorbers such as CZT and CMT. In this study, we use numerical simulations with SCAPS-1D software to investigate the band alignment in the front contacts for wider bandgap CdTe based absorbers. Results show that by replacing the CdS with a wide bandgap emitter layer, the VOC can be greatly improved, though under certain conditions, the fill factor remains sensitive to the location of the emitter conduction band. As a result, different transparent front contacts were also investigated to determine a device structure required to produce a high performance CZT or CMT top-cell for tandems devices.