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Brain imaging studies have shown altered amygdala activity during emotion processing in children and adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) compared to typically developing children and adolescents (TD). Here we aimed to assess whether aggression-related subtypes (reactive and proactive aggression) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits predicted variation in amygdala activity and skin conductance (SC) response during emotion processing.
We included 177 participants (n = 108 cases with disruptive behaviour and/or ODD/CD and n = 69 TD), aged 8–18 years, across nine sites in Europe, as part of the EU Aggressotype and MATRICS projects. All participants performed an emotional face-matching functional magnetic resonance imaging task.
Differences between cases and TD in affective processing, as well as specificity of activation patterns for aggression subtypes and CU traits, were assessed. Simultaneous SC recordings were acquired in a subsample (n = 63). Cases compared to TDs showed higher amygdala activity in response to negative faces (fearful and angry) v. shapes. Subtyping cases according to aggression-related subtypes did not significantly influence on amygdala activity; while stratification based on CU traits was more sensitive and revealed decreased amygdala activity in the high CU group. SC responses were significantly lower in cases and negatively correlated with CU traits, reactive and proactive aggression.
Our results showed differences in amygdala activity and SC responses to emotional faces between cases with ODD/CD and TD, while CU traits moderate both central (amygdala) and peripheral (SC) responses. Our insights regarding subtypes and trait-specific aggression could be used for improved diagnostics and personalized treatment.
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) occur frequently in pediatric inpatients, and they are associated with increased morbidity and cost. Few studies have investigated ambulatory CAUTIs, despite at-risk children utilizing home urinary catheterization. This retrospective cohort and case-control study determined incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of pediatric patients with ambulatory CAUTI.
Broad electronic queries identified potential patients with ambulatory urinary catheters, and direct chart review confirmed catheters and adjudicated whether ambulatory CAUTI occurred. CAUTI definitions included clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). Our matched case-control analysis assessed risk factors.
Five urban, academic medical centers, part of the New York City Clinical Data Research Network.
Potential patients were age <22 years who were seen between October 2010 and September 2015.
In total, 3,598 eligible patients were identified; 359 of these used ambulatory catheterization (representing186,616 ambulatory catheter days). Of these, 63 patients (18%) experienced 95 ambulatory CAUTIs. The overall ambulatory CAUTI incidence was 0.51 infections per 1,000 catheter days (1.35 for indwelling catheters and 0.47 for CIC; incidence rate ratio, 2.88). Patients with nonprivate medical insurance (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–6.3) were significantly more likely to have ambulatory CAUTIs in bivariate models but not multivariable models. Also, 45% of ambulatory CAUTI resulted in hospitalization (median duration, 3 days); 5% resulted in intensive care admission; 47% underwent imaging; and 88% were treated with antibiotics.
Pediatric ambulatory CAUTIs occur in 18% of patients with catheters; they are associated with morbidity and healthcare utilization. Ambulatory indwelling catheter CAUTI incidence exceeded national inpatient incidence. Future quality improvement research to reduce these harmful infections is warranted.
Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae pose a serious infection control challenge and have emerged as a public health threat. We examined national trends in the proportion of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates resistant to carbapenems (CRKP) and third-generation cephalosporins (G3CRKP).
Design and Setting.
Retrospective analysis of approximately 500,000 K. pneumoniae isolates cultured between January 1999 and July 2010 at 287 clinical laboratories throughout the United States.
Isolates were defined as CRKP if they were nonsusceptible to 1 or more carbapenems and were defined as G3CRKP if they were nonsusceptible to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, or related antibiotics. A multivariable analysis examined trends in the proportion of resistant isolates, adjusting for age, sex, isolate source, patient location, and geographic region.
The crude proportion of CRKP increased from less than 0.1% to 4.5% between 2002 and 2010; the frequency of G3CRKP increased from 5.3% to 11.5% between 1999 and 2010. G3CRKP and CRKP were more common among elderly patients (those greater than 65 years of age); the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) relative to pediatric patients (those less than 18 years of age) was 1.2 for G3CRKP (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–1.3) and 3.3 for CRKP (95% CI, 2.6–4.2). G3CRKP and CRKP were also more common among patients from the northeastern United States (aOR, 2.9 [95% CI, 2.8–3.0] and 9.0 [95% CI, 7.9–10.4]) than among those from the western United States. The prevalence of outpatient CRKP isolates increased after 2006, reaching 1.9% of isolates in our sample in 2010 (95% CI, 1.6%–2.1%).
The frequency of G3CRKP and CRKP is increasing in all regions of the United States, and resistance is emerging among isolates recovered in the outpatient setting. This underscores the need for enhanced laboratory capacity and coordinated surveillance strategies to contain the further spread of these emerging pathogens.
Freshwater ecosystems play a key role in the European nitrogen (N) cycle, both as a reactive agent that transfers, stores and processes N loadings from the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems, and as a natural environment severely impacted by the increase of these loadings.
This chapter is a review of major processes and factors controlling N transport and transformations for running waters, standing waters, groundwaters and riparian wetlands.
Key findings/state of knowledge
The major factor controlling N processes in freshwater ecosystems is the residence time of water, which varies widely both in space and in time, and which is sensitive to changes in climate, land use and management.
The effects of increased N loadings to European freshwaters include acidification in semi-natural environments, and eutrophication in more disturbed ecosystems, with associated loss of biodiversity in both cases.
An important part of the nitrogen transferred by surface waters is in the form of organic N, as dissolved organic N (DON) and particulate organic N (PON). This part is dominant in semi-natural catchments throughout Europe and remains a significant component of the total N load even in nitrate enriched rivers.
In eutrophicated standing freshwaters N can be a factor limiting or co-limiting biological production, and control of both N and phosphorus (P) loading is often needed in impacted areas, if ecological quality is to be restored.
Epitaxial growth on 3-in, 2° off-axis 4H SiC substrates has been conducted in a horizontal hot-wall CVD reactor with HCl addition. The thickness of the epiwafers ranges from 3m to 11 m and the growth rate is 7 − 7.5 m/h. Although a rougher surface and a higher triangular defect density is observed using the standard process for 4° growth, an improved process has resulted in reduced triangular defect density down to around 4 cm−2 and a smoother surface with the roughness of 1.1 nm for a 3.7 m thick epiwafer. Most interestingly, the basal plane dislocation density in the 2° off-axis epiwafers has been reduced to "negligible" levels, as confirmed by both the non-destructive UVPL mapping technique and the molten KOH etching on 2° epiwafers with thickness of around 10 m.
Au/Sn solder bumps are mainly used for flip chip assembly of compound semiconductors in optoelectronic and RF applications. They allow a fluxless assembly which is required to avoid contamination of optical interfaces and the metallurgy is well suited to the final gold metallization on GaAs or InP. Flip chip assembly experiments were carried out using two layer Au/Sn bumps as plated without prior bump reflow. An RF and reliability test vehicles comprise a GaAs chip which was flip chip soldered on a silicon substrate. Temperature cycling tests with and without underfiller were performed. The different failure modes for underfilled and nonunderfilled samples were discussed and compared. Additional reliability tests were performed with flip chip bonding by gold thermocompression for comparison. The test results and the failure modes are discussed in detail.
To study the role of diabetes, gynecomastia and CAG triplet repeat size as disease modifying factors of neurologic expression in spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA, Kennedy's disease).
Twenty unrelated SBMApatients with confirmatory genetic testing were reviewed. Patterns of neurologic involvement were assessed (e.g. bulbar, asymmetric, proximal, distal, motor and sensory). Slopes of disease progression were calculated from serial quantified neurologic examinations. Patterns of neurologic involvement and course were correlated to the presence of diabetes, gynecomastia and triplet repeat size.
Diabetes or glucose impairment occurred in nine and 11 had gynecomastia. Patterns of neurologic involvement and rates of progression did not correlate with these endocrine diseases or triplet repeat sizes. Correlation was seen between number of CAG repeats and age of onset weakness (r = -0.53, r2 = 29%, p = 0.01).
The specific neurotoxic effect of expanded CAGs appears limited to age of onset weakness in SBMA. Although significant, only 29% of the variability in onset age could be accounted for by polyglutamine size suggesting the importance of other unidentified factors. In this series diabetes or glucose impairment was more common than previously reported and, like gynecomastia, did not correlate with size of triplet repeats, severity or patterns of neurologic involvement. Modifying factors other than diabetes, gynecomastia or triplet repeat size are suggested in disease expression.