In this work, we examine and integrate the research streams on learning behaviours of both local firms and foreign entrants in emerging markets. We propose that local firms and foreign entrants differ in the types of learning pursued and in the learning processes used. While emerging market firms engage in a significant amount of exploratory learning, they also attempt to exploit the newly gained knowledge in their current markets. Furthermore, foreign entrants engage in exploitative learning as expected but also must participate in exploratory learning to acquire knowledge of culture, institutional norms, and important social relationships. While much of the learning occurs through cooperative processes with both partners, they also each engage in experiential learning. We argue that emerging markets also differ; firms in the more mature emerging markets seek different types of learning and the learning processes used vary compared to those in less mature emerging markets. Our research suggests that emerging markets represent learning laboratories and provide a base to catalyse future research.