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Organisational culture of institutions providing care for older people is increasingly recognised as influential in the quality of care provided. There is little research, however, that specifically examines the processes of care home culture and how these may be associated with quality of care. In this paper we draw from an empirical study carried out in the United Kingdom (UK) investigating the relationship between care home culture and residents' experience of care. Eleven UK care homes were included in an in-depth comparative case study design using extensive observation and interviews. Our analysis indicates how organisational cultures of care homes impact on the quality of care residents receive. Seven inter-related cultural elements were of key importance to quality of care. Applying Schein's conceptualisation of organisational culture, we examine the dynamic relationship between these elements to show how organisational culture is locally produced and shifting. A particular organisational culture in a care home cannot be achieved simply by importing a set of organisational values or the ‘right’ leader or staff. Rather, it is necessary to find ways of resolving the everyday demands of practice in ways that are consistent with espoused values. It is through this everyday practice that assumptions continuously evolve, either consistent with or divergent from, espoused values. Implications for policy makers, providers and practitioners are discussed.
This article addresses gaps in definitions and a lack of standard measurement techniques to assess the spatial resolution in atom probe tomography. This resolution is known to be anisotropic, being better in-depth than laterally. Generally the presence of atomic planes in the tomographic reconstruction is considered as being a sufficient proof of the quality of the spatial resolution of the instrument. Based on advanced spatial distribution maps, an analysis methodology that interrogates the local neighborhood of the atoms within the tomographic reconstruction, it is shown how both the in-depth and the lateral resolution can be quantified. The influences of the crystallography and the temperature are investigated, and models are proposed to explain the observed results. We demonstrate that the absolute value of resolution is specimen specific.
Drag-reduction experiments with combined injection of high-molecular-weight long-chained polymers and microbubbles were conducted on a 3.1 m long flat plate model in the 1.22 m diameter water tunnel at the Applied Research Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University. Combined gas injection upstream of polymer injection produced, over a wide range of test conditions, higher levels of drag reduction than those obtained from the independent injection of polymer or microbubbles alone. These increased levels of drag reduction with combined injection were often greater than the product of the drag reductions obtained by the independent constituents, defined as synergy. We speculate that the synergy is a result of the gas-layer-induced extension of the polymer-alone initial diffusion zone in combination with the increased drag reduction by microbubbles. This increased length of the initial zone layer, consistent with high drag reduction, can significantly increase the persistence of the drag reduction and may improve the outlook for practical application.
The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is the most widely distributed large carnivore in the northern hemisphere (Nowak 1995) and has a reputation for killing livestock and competing with human hunters for wild ungulates (Young 1944; Fritts et al. 2003). Wolves rarely threaten human safety, but many people still fear them. In the western USA, widespread extirpation of ungulates by colonizing settlers, wolf depredation on livestock and negative public attitudes towards wolves resulted in extirpation of wolf populations by 1930 (Mech 1970; McIntyre 1995). By 1970, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), elk (Cervus elaphus), moose (Alces alces) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations had been restored throughout the western USA while bison (Bison bison) were recovered only in Yellowstone National Park. However, grey wolves were still persecuted. In 1974, grey wolves were protected and managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service under the federal Endangered Species Act of 1973.
In 1986, the first recorded den in the western USA in over 50 years was established in Glacier National Park by wolves that naturally dispersed from Canada (Ream et al. 1989). Restoration of wolves in that region emphasized legal protection and building local public tolerance. Wolves from Canada were reintroduced to central Idaho and Yellowstone National Park in 1995 and 1996 to accelerate restoration (Bangs and Fritts 1996; Fritts et al. 1997). The Northern Rocky Mountains wolf population grew from 10 wolves in 1987 to 663 wolves by 2003 (US Fish and Wildlife Service et al. 2003) (Fig. 21.1, Table 21.1).
Highly ordered gold NC/silica films are synthesized by self-assembly of water-soluble gold nanocrystal micelles and soluble silica using a sol-gel spin-coating technique. The optical properties are analyzed using ellipsometry and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The absorption spectra show a strong surface plasmon absorption band at ∼520 nm for all samples. Angular excitation spectra of the surface plasmon show a steep dip in the reflectivity curve at ∼65°. Charge transport behavior of the films is examined using metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures.MOS capacitor samples exhibit charge storage with discharge behavior dominated by electron transport within the gold NC arrays.
In this paper we present results of a first-principles phase stability study of fcc-based Ti-Al alloys. In particular, the full-potential linear muffin tin orbital method has been used to determine heats of formation and other zero-temperature properties of 9 fcc ordered superstructures as well as fcc and hcp Ti, and fcc Al. From these results a set of effective cluster interactions are determined which are used in a cluster variation method calculation of the thermodynamic properties and the composition-temperature phase diagram of fcc-based alloys.
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