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When the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) came to power, one million mainland Chinese were forcibly displaced to Taiwan with Chiang Kai-shek's regime. Today, this event is still largely considered as a relocation of government or a military withdrawal operation instead of a massive population movement. Contrary to popular belief, many of the displaced mainlanders were not Nationalist elites. Most were common soldiers, petty civil servants, and war refugees from different walks of life. Based on newspapers, magazines, surveys, declassified official documents produced in 1950s Taiwan and contemporary oral history, this article uncovers the complicated relationship between the regime in exile and the people in exile. It argues that the interdependency between the two, in particular between the migrant state and the socially atomized lower class migrants, was formed gradually over a decade due to two main factors: wartime displacement and the need to face an unfriendly local population together.
We performed a retrospective analysis of the changes in accuracy of International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification (ICD-CM) diagnosis codes for colectomy and hysterectomy surgical site infection surveillance. After the transition from ICD-CM ninth edition to tenth edition codes, there was no significant change in the accuracy of these codes for SSI surveillance.
With the aging of population, miniaturization of family size and changes of diseases spectrum, the demand for long-term care of Chinese elderly is increasing, which is challenging the existing long-term care system. China is currently carrying out pilot work for a long-term care insurance system, and Jingmen is one of the pilot cities, however more detailed research on payment is needed. Therefore, this paper draws on case-mixed-adjusted prospective payment system to provide designs for long-term care insurance in pilot cities.
Adopting a case analysis method, this paper focuses on system for payment of Skilled Nursing Facility under Part A of the Medicare program—Patient Driven Payment Model, and discusses the implementation plan of a long-term care insurance in Jingmen City from the perspectives of payment methods, payment grouping and payment standards.
Currently Jingmen adopts per-diem payment for long-term care insurance, so it is necessary to establish a payment based on population characteristics and demands. So, the patients should be classified into a group for each of the five case-mix adjusted components: physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, nursing and non-therapy ancillary. In addition, this payment model also includes a “variable per diem adjustment” to account for the changes in patient costs more accurately.
The theoretical system of a long-term care insurance payment method is developed, and a localization plan for case-mixed-adjusted prospective payment system for long-term care insurance is provided. Therefore, Jingmen long-term care insurance payment should adopt “case-mixed adjustment”, strengthening the relationship between individual clinical characteristics and payment.
In this paper, the generation of relativistic electron mirrors (REMs) and the reflection of an ultra-short laser off this mirrors are discussed, applying two-dimensional particle-in-cell (2D-PIC) simulations. REMs with ultra-high acceleration and expanding velocity can be produced from a solid nanofoil illuminated normally by an ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulse with a sharp rising edge. Chirped attosecond pulse can be produced through the reflection of a counter-propagating probe laser off the accelerating REM. In the electron moving frame, the plasma frequency of the REM keeps decreasing due to its rapidly expanding. The laser frequency, on the contrary, keeps increasing due to the acceleration of REM and the relativistic Doppler shift from the lab frame to the electron moving frame. Within an ultra-short time interval, the two frequencies will be equal in the electron moving frame, which leads the resonance between laser and REM. The reflected radiation near this interval and the corresponding spectra will be amplified due to the resonance. Through adjusting the arriving time of the probe laser, certain part of the reflected field could be selectively amplified or depressed, leading to the selectively adjusting of the corresponding spectra.
This study aimed at estimating the transmissibility of hepatitis C. The data for hepatitis C cases were collected in six districts in Xiamen City, China from 2004 to 2018. A population-mixed susceptible-infectious-chronic-recovered (SICR) model was used to fit the data and the parameters of the model were calculated. The basic reproduction number (R0) and the number of newly transmitted cases by a primary case per month (MNI) were adopted to quantitatively assess the transmissibility of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Eleven curve estimation models were employed to predict the trends of R0 and MNI in the city. The SICR model fits the reported HCV data well (P < 0.01). The median R0 of each district in Xiamen is 0.4059. R0 follows the cubic model curve, the compound curve and the power function curve. The median MNI of each district in Xiamen is 0.0020. MNI follows the cubic model curve, the compound curve and the power function curve. The transmissibility of HCV follows a decreasing trend, which reveals that under the current policy for prevention and control, there would be a high feasibility to eliminate the transmission of HCV in the city.
Kawasaki disease is a type of acute febrile rash disease that is common in children and is characterised by primary lesions of systemic middle and small vasculitis, which can lead to coronary artery lesions. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), one of the most important antioxidases in the human body, plays a key role in maintaining the balance of free radicals in the human body. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) (rs4880 and rs5746136) in the MnSOD gene were related to oxidative stress disease. The purpose of this study is to explore the possible relationship between MnSOD gene polymorphisms and Kawasaki disease susceptibility.
This study included 100 Kawasaki disease children and 102 healthy children. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs4880 and rs5746136) were detected by polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing.
There was a significant difference in both the genotype frequency (χ2 = 10.805, p = 0.005) and the allele frequency (χ2 = 7.948, p = 0.005) of rs5746136 between the Kawasaki disease group and the control group. Children with the A allele had a 0.558 times lower risk of Kawasaki disease than those without the A allele (χ2 = 7.948, p = 0.005, odds ratio = 0.558, 95% confidence interval = 0.371–0.838). There was no significant difference in the genotype and gene frequencies of rs5746136 between the Kawasaki disease-coronary artery lesion and Kawasaki disease-without coronary artery lesion groups (p > 0.05), and there was no significant difference in the rs4880 genotype and allele frequencies between the Kawasaki disease and healthy control groups or between the Kawasaki disease-coronary artery lesion and Kawasaki disease-without coronary artery lesions groups (p > 0.05).
This study provides evidence supporting an association between MnSOD gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to Kawasaki disease. The genotype AA and the allele A of the MnSOD gene locus rs5746136 were risk factors for Kawasaki disease.
The Epilogue summarizes the main findings of the book. It discusses mainlander identity formation in democratized Taiwan in conjunction with contemporary social survey data and the historical trajectory delineated in the preceding chapters. The discussion offers an alternative way to contemplate the current and future relationship between Taiwan and China from the perspective of conflicting historical memories. The Epilogue also reveals the author’s personal background and subject position – as a descendant of native Taiwanese political victims who tries to understand mainlander trauma. It cautions against the Caruthian psychoanalytic assumption that human suffering constitutes some kind of universal experience that will automatically bring diverse peoples and cultures together. It also questions the sociological approach’s tendency to see shared traumatic memories as mere instrumentalist “social constructs” for power and identity, which sometimes obstructs the larger ethical goals of recognition and reconciliation. Based on the author’s inner struggle and transformation in researching and writing about the misery and displacement of his perceived oppressors, the chapter proposes “multidirectional empathic unsettlements” as a modality to build historically informed cross-cultural empathy that could reconcile nations and communities with entangled but incompatible memories of past suffering.
Throughout the 1950s, most mainlanders thought their stay in Taiwan would only be temporary. According to their shared recollections today, Chiang Kai-shek’s vow to retake China was the main reason for this wishful thinking. Based on the study of major newspapers and magazines published in 1950s Taiwan, this chapter identifies a different source for this unwarranted optimism. It argues that the mainlanders’ “sojourner mentality” should be understood in the longue durée of war/displacement that straddled the temporal boundary of 1949 and the geographical boundary of the Taiwan Strait. Many of the expellees had previously been refugees during Japan’s invasion of China. In 1950s Taiwan, their earlier displacement became a major source of consolation, inspiration, and optimism. This “sojourner mentality” and memory production was therapeutic. But it nevertheless contributed to the mainlanders’ “unholy alliance” with the authoritarian Nationalist regime and their continued estrangement from the local Taiwanese population, whom they looked down upon as “coachable compatriots.” The chapter ends with the shock of the Sino-American Joint Communiqué in 1958 during the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis. The event greatly reduced the mainlanders’ hope of return. It shifted the focus of their memory production from earlier wartime displacement to provincial native places.
The Introduction starts off by drawing attention to the “memory boom” in contemporary Taiwan among the “mainlanders” – the elderly Chinese civil war exiles and their Taiwan-born children. The mainlander “memory boom” revolves around their traumatic expulsion from China in the mid-twentieth century, which had been suppressed for nearly half a century. It then introduces the book’s main argument – the great exodus serves as the collective “cultural trauma” for the mainlanders to reinvent themselves as deserving citizens of a democratized Taiwan. Next, the chapter provides a brief history of Taiwan. This is followed by an overview of Chinese civil war historiography. The historiographical discussion segues into a theoretical discussion that problematizes the “single event” model of both the psychoanalytic approach and the sociological approach to trauma and memory. The theoretical discussion offers an alternative model based on the multi-event trajectory of mainlander trauma. It makes a categorical distinction between the mnemonic “cultural trauma” and the substantive “social trauma.” The chapter then connects this new understanding of trauma and memory to theorizing diaspora, which underscores dispossessed people’s temporal displacement. The chapter ends with an assessment of the research and debate on mainlander identity formation in present-day Taiwan.
Chapter 1 presents a social history of the great exodus. It argues that in late-1940s and early-1950s Taiwan, the influx of civil war refugees from China produced two forms of social dislocation or “social trauma” – one experienced by the mainland refugees themselves; the other experienced by the native Taiwanese population who resided in the island’s major cities. The mainlander social trauma is illustrated by both personal testimonies given decades later at the present time and historical evidence: population census, archival social data, and newspapers. The Taiwanese dislocation due to the social upheaval generated by the incursion of a large number of dispossessed mainlanders is not remembered collectively nowadays. It is nonetheless revealed by the same sets of documentary evidence that illustrate mainlander displacement. By highlighting the discrepancy between what is remembered and what is forgotten in today’s Taiwan with regard to the great exodus, the chapter illuminates the difference between history and memory. It underlines the methodological point of the book: scholars need to conduct historical research to put contemporary memories in perspective.
Chapter 3 uncovers the memory production that centered on the mainlanders’ native places in China, which emerged after the shock of 1958. When people realized that they might never see home again in their lifetimes, a profound sense of loss and depression began to set it. The need to mitigate this “social trauma of the diminishing hope (for return)” resulted in efforts to gather, preserve, and disseminate “local references” – historical and cultural information about one’s home provinces, counties, towns, and villages in China via shared memories. These efforts manifested themselves in the publication of provincially based magazines and books, as well as in public exhibitions and the construction of temples and cultural museums. The mainlander native-place associations became the main driving force behind these mnemonic projects from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. Going against the previous interpretation that saw these activities as part of the state-led Chinese Cultural Renaissance Movement, the chapter argues that the production of native-place memories was closely associated with mainland exiles’ attempts to rebuild community, to seek roots locally in Taiwan, and to pass on their native-place identities to their Taiwan-born children. Unfortunately, young mainlanders were uninterested in their parents’ native-place memories and identities.