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Our previous studies have suggested that spastin, which aggregates on spindle microtubules in oocytes, may promote the assembly of mouse oocyte spindles by cutting microtubules. This action may be related to CRMP5, as knocking down CRMP5 results in reduced spindle microtubule density and maturation defects in oocytes. In this study, we found that, after knocking down CRMP5 in oocytes, spastin distribution shifted from the spindle to the spindle poles and errors in microtubule–kinetochore attachment appeared in oocyte spindles. However, CRMP5 did not interact with the other two microtubule-severing proteins, katanin-like-1 (KATNAL1) and fidgetin-like-1 (FIGNL1), which aggregate at the spindle poles. We speculate that, in oocytes, due to the reduction of spastin distribution on chromosomes after knocking down CRMP5, microtubule–kinetochore errors cannot be corrected through severing, resulting in meiotic division abnormalities and maturation defects in oocytes. This finding provides new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of spastin in oocytes and important opportunities for the study of meiotic division mechanisms.
Findings from observational studies have suggested a possible association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and preeclampsia (PE). However, the results of these studies were inconclusive. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to illuminate this association. Systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Scopus and other databases from inception until January 2023. The qualities of included studies were assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Nine studies (seven cohort, two case–control) were included in the meta-analysis, including 11 423 participants from five different countries. The meta-analysis indicated that a 1-unit increase in the DII score, representing pro-inflammatory diet, was associated with 13 % higher risk of GDM (OR = 1·13; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·25, I2 = 68·4 %, P = 0·004) and 24 % higher risk of PE (OR = 1·24; 95 % CI 1·14, 1·35, I2 = 52·0 %, P = 0·125). Subgroup analysis found that this association was evident among studies with Chinese populations (OR = 1·16; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·28) and studies with mid pregnancy (OR = 1·20; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·34). The findings indicate that pro-inflammatory diet can increase the risk of GDM and PE. Considering some limitations in this study, more studies are needed to verify this association.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious psychiatric disorder marked by low mood and anhedonia. Understanding the neural mechanism of MDD is essential for the treatment of depression. White matter fibres, connecting different computational units in the brain, have an important effect on brain function; however, the mechanism of white matter fibre abnormality in MDD is still unclear.
Our study expected to find white matter abnormalities associated with the frontal lobe and hippocampus in individuals with MDD.
Using diffusion tensor imaging data and tract-based spatial statistics, we investigated the microstructural differences in white matter fibre tracts between 30 adults with MDD compared with 31 healthy controls, and calculated the association between MDD-related microstructural changes and illness duration.
It was found that patients with MDD showed reduced fractional anisotropy in the genu and body of the corpus callosum, right corona radiata and part of the thalamic radiations, suggesting lower fibrous myelination levels in these regions; the decreased fractional anisotropy in these regions was associated with longer illness duration.
Our results suggest that MDD may be associated with microstructural damage of key fibre tracts, which could provide insights into the understanding and treatment of MDD.
This study aims to understand the epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the paediatric population during the outbreak of the Omicron variant in Shanghai. We retrospectively analysed the population-based epidemiological characteristics and clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection in children in Minhang District, Shanghai, based on the citywide surveillance system during the outbreak period in 2022 (March to May). During this time, a total of 63,969 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were notified in Minhang District, out of which 4,652 (7.3%) were children and adolescents <18 years. The incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections in children was 153 per 10,000. Of all paediatric cases, 50% reported to be clinically symptomatic within 1–3 days after PCR confirmation by parents or themselves, with 36.3% and 18.9% of paediatric cases reporting fever and cough. Also, 58.4% of paediatric cases had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and 52.1% had received two doses of the COVID-19 vaccination. Our findings are informative for the implementation of appropriate measures to protect children from the threat of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
To propose a scoring system based on laryngoscopic characteristics for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant vocal fold leukoplakia.
Laryngoscopic images from 200 vocal fold leukoplakia cases were retrospectively analysed. The laryngoscopic signs of benign and malignant vocal fold leukoplakia were compared, and statistically significant features were assigned and accumulated to establish the leukoplakia finding score.
A total of five indicators associated with malignant vocal fold leukoplakia were included to construct the leukoplakia finding score, with a possible range of 0–10 points. A score of 6 points or more was indicative of a diagnosis of malignant vocal fold leukoplakia. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values of the leukoplakia finding score were 93.8 per cent, 83.6 per cent and 86.0 per cent, respectively. The consistency in the leukoplakia finding score obtained by different laryngologists was strong (kappa = 0.809).
This scoring system based on laryngoscopic characteristics has high diagnostic value for distinguishing benign and malignant vocal fold leukoplakia.
Trematodes of the genus Ogmocotyle are intestinal flukes that can infect a variety of definitive hosts, resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. However, there are few studies on molecular data of these trematodes. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Ogmocotyle ailuri isolated from red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was determined and compared with those from Pronocephalata to investigate the mt genome content, genetic distance, gene rearrangements and phylogeny. The complete mt genome of O. ailuri is a typical closed circular molecule of 14 642 base pairs, comprising 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. All genes are transcribed in the same direction. In addition, 23 intergenic spacers and 2 locations with gene overlaps were determined. Sequence identities and sliding window analysis indicated that cox1 is the most conserved gene among 12 PCGs in O. ailuri mt genome. The sequenced mt genomes of the 48 Plagiorchiida trematodes showed 5 types of gene arrangement based on all mt genome genes, with the gene arrangement of O. ailuri being type I. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 PCGs revealed that O. ailuri was closer to Ogmocotyle sikae than to Notocotylus intestinalis. These data enhance the Ogmocotyle mt genome database and provide molecular resources for further studies of Pronocephalata taxonomy, population genetics and systematics.
Coastal eutrophication and hypoxia remain a persistent environmental crisis despite the great efforts to reduce nutrient loading and mitigate associated environmental damages. Symptoms of this crisis have appeared to spread rapidly, reaching developing countries in Asia with emergences in Southern America and Africa. The pace of changes and the underlying drivers remain not so clear. To address the gap, we review the up-to-date status and mechanisms of eutrophication and hypoxia in global coastal oceans, upon which we examine the trajectories of changes over the 40 years or longer in six model coastal systems with varying socio-economic development statuses and different levels and histories of eutrophication. Although these coastal systems share common features of eutrophication, site-specific characteristics are also substantial, depending on the regional environmental setting and level of social-economic development along with policy implementation and management. Nevertheless, ecosystem recovery generally needs greater reduction in pressures compared to that initiated degradation and becomes less feasible to achieve past norms with a longer time anthropogenic pressures on the ecosystems. While the qualitative causality between drivers and consequences is well established, quantitative attribution of these drivers to eutrophication and hypoxia remains difficult especially when we consider the social economic drivers because the changes in coastal ecosystems are subject to multiple influences and the cause–effect relationship is often non-linear. Such relationships are further complicated by climate changes that have been accelerating over the past few decades. The knowledge gaps that limit our quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the human-coastal ocean nexus are identified, which is essential for science-based policy making. Recognizing lessons from past management practices, we advocate for a better, more efficient indexing system of coastal eutrophication and an advanced regional earth system modeling framework with optimal modules of human dimensions to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective policy and restoration actions.
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is one of the rate-determining enzymes in the hydrolysis of TAG, playing a crucial role in lipid metabolism. However, the role of HSL-mediated lipolysis in systemic nutrient homoeostasis has not been intensively understood. Therefore, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technique and Hsl inhibitor (HSL-IN-1) to establish hsla-deficient (hsla-/-) and Hsl-inhibited zebrafish models, respectively. As a result, the hsla-/- zebrafish showed retarded growth and reduced oxygen consumption rate, accompanied with higher mRNA expression of the genes related to inflammation and apoptosis in liver and muscle. Furthermore, hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish both exhibited severe fat deposition, whereas their expressions of the genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation were markedly reduced. The TLC results also showed that the dysfunction of Hsl changed the whole-body lipid profile, including increasing the content of TG and decreasing the proportion of phospholipids. In addition, the systemic metabolic pattern was remodelled in hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish. The dysfunction of Hsl lowered the glycogen content in liver and muscle and enhanced the utilisation of glucose plus the expressions of glucose transporter and glycolysis genes. Besides, the whole-body protein content had significantly decreased in the hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish, accompanied with the lower activation of the mTOR pathway and enhanced protein and amino acid catabolism. Taken together, Hsl plays an essential role in energy homoeostasis, and its dysfunction would cause the disturbance of lipid catabolism but enhanced breakdown of glycogen and protein for energy compensation.
This study investigated attitudes towards dementia among Chinese immigrants aged 50 years and over living in Australia and compares these attitudes with those of individuals living in mainland China. It aimed to better understand what older Chinese adults think about dementia and to inform the development of tailored dementia-related services for this group of people.
A qualitative design involving individual interviews was employed in this study.
Forty-six participants were recruited: 21 in Melbourne and 25 in Beijing. All interviewees were born in mainland China, were community-dwelling, and did not have a dementia diagnosis.
The tripartite model of attitudes was used to guide the semi-structured interview design and report the results. Thematic qualitative analysis was employed.
In both groups, most participants held negative feelings, stigmatized views and negative stereotypes of dementia. However, most participants expressed a willingness to help individuals living with dementia. Regarding dementia care, nearly all participants preferred home care but thought formal care would become the mainstream form of care in the future. Fewer Melbourne participants expressed concerns regarding developing dementia, were interested in dementia, or perceived a need for dementia-related educational activities. Melbourne participants also reported more avoidant responses to dementia or individuals living with dementia.
This study carefully compares attitudes towards dementia between older Chinese immigrants in Melbourne and older Chinese adults in Beijing. Similarities and differences were observed between these two groups. Dementia-related service providers should consider the sociocultural changes and migration-related barriers experienced by Chinese immigrants.
Treatment non-response and recurrence are the main sources of disease burden in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about its neurobiological mechanism concerning the brain network changes accompanying pharmacotherapy. The present study investigated the changes in the intrinsic brain networks during 6-month antidepressant treatment phase associated with the treatment response and recurrence in MDD.
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired from untreated patients with MDD and healthy controls at baseline. The patients' depressive symptoms were monitored by using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). After 6 months of antidepressant treatment, patients were re-scanned and followed up every 6 months over 2 years. Traditional statistical analysis as well as machine learning approaches were conducted to investigate the longitudinal changes in macro-scale resting-state functional network connectivity (rsFNC) strength and micro-scale resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) associated with long-term treatment outcome in MDD.
Repeated measures of the general linear model demonstrated a significant difference in the default mode network (DMN) rsFNC change before and after the 6-month antidepressant treatment between remitters and non-remitters. The difference in the rsFNC change over the 6-month antidepressant treatment between recurring and stable MDD was also specific to DMN. Machine learning analysis results revealed that only the DMN rsFC change successfully distinguished non-remitters from the remitters at 6 months and recurring from stable MDD during the 2-year follow-up.
Our findings demonstrated that the intrinsic DMN connectivity could be a unique and important target for treatment and recurrence prevention in MDD.
The outbreak has had a devastating impact, and efforts are underway to speed up vaccination. The study’s objective was to describe the clinical characteristics of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination clinic in the Second People’s Hospital of Fujian Province, China. Meanwhile, we monitored all the vaccine recipients to evaluate adverse reactions.
A cross-sectional study was done at the COVID-19 Vaccination Clinic, the Second People’s Hospital of Fujian Province, China. We systematically collected Clinical data from the COVID-19 vaccination clinic between March 11 and November 11, 2021, including the type of vaccine, number of doses, gender, age, educational level, occupational category, adverse reactions, etc. Investigators will contact vaccine recipients by means of phone call or WeChat message to record the negative responses. Last, this report covers data through 8 mo, so it will be better to Evaluate the Safety of 2 inactivated COVID-19 vaccines from China (BBIBP-CorV [Beijing Institute of Biological Products, Beijing, China] and CoronaVac [Sinovac Life Sciences, Beijing, China]).
The results indicated that the Second People’s Hospital of Fujian Province received a total of 64,602 COVID-19 vaccines from March 11 to November 11, 2021, including 34,331 (53.14%) first doses, 29,245 (45.27%) second doses, and 1026 (1.59%) third doses. This study found the highest proportion in other personnel (38.69% at the first dose, 38.75% at the second dose, and 2.44% at the third dose), who were mainly retirees. People with higher levels of education are more likely to be vaccinated against COVID-19 during the early stages of vaccine rollout. In terms of age stratification, the highest proportion was found among people aged 18-49 (BBIBP-CorV: first dose 61%, second dose 62.6%, and third dose 76.8%; CoronaVac: first dose 66.1%, double dose 63.6%, and third dose 75.5%), followed by those over 60. The common adverse reactions were mainly local and systemic, and there were some differences between the 2 inactivated vaccines (P < 0.05).
This is the first study to analyze the actual status of hospitals as COVID-19 vaccination clinics in China. The hospital has focused on vaccinating citizens and the initial rollout of vaccines to ensure any safety issues are identified. More citizens are willing to vaccinate in hospitals because of the uncertain safety of the available vaccines and adverse reactions. The good news is that vaccine-related severe adverse events have not been found in the hospital vaccination clinic. The Safety of BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac is relatively high.
To investigate the correlation between ventricular pre-excitation-related dyssynchrony, on cardiac dysfunction, and recovery.
Methods and Results:
This study included 76 children (39 boys and 37 girls) with a median age of 5.25 (2.67–10.75) years. The patients with pre-excitation-related cardiac dysfunction (cardiac dysfunction group, n = 34) had a longer standard deviation of the time-to-peak systolic strain of the left ventricle and larger difference between the maximum and minimum times-to-peak systolic strain than those with a normal cardiac function (normal function group, n = 42) (51.77 ± 24.70 ms versus 33.29 ± 9.48 ms, p < 0.05; 185.82 ± 92.51 ms versus 111.93 ± 34.27 ms, p < 0.05, respectively). The cardiac dysfunction group had a maximum time-to-peak systolic strain at the basal segments of the anterior and posterior septa and the normal function group at the basal segments of anterolateral and posterolateral walls. The prevalence of ventricular septal dyssynchrony in the cardiac dysfunction group was significantly higher than that in the normal function group (94.1% (32/34) versus 7.7% (3/42), p < 0.05). The patients with ventricular septal dyssynchrony (n = 35) had a significantly higher prevalence of intra-left ventricular systolic dyssynchrony than those with ventricular septal synchrony (n = 41) (57.1% (20/35) versus 14.6% (6/41), p < 0.05). During follow-up after pathway ablation, the patients who recovered from intra-left ventricular dyssynchrony (n = 29) had a shorter left ventricular ejection fraction recovery time than those who did not (n = 5) (χ2 = 5.94, p < 0.05). Among the patients who recovered, 93.1% (27/29) had a normalised standard deviation of the time-to-peak systolic strain and difference between the maximum and minimum times-to-peak systolic strain within 1 month after ablation.
Ventricular pre-excitation may cause ventricular septal dyssynchrony; thus, attention must be paid to intra-left ventricular dyssynchrony and cardiac dysfunction. Whether intra-left ventricular systolic dyssynchrony can resolve within 1 month may be a new early predictor of patient prognosis.
Nicotine 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate is a nicotine salt that can be used as the nicotine source in tobacco products. X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for nicotine 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate, C10H15N2⋅C7H5O4, are reported [a = 7.726(8) Å, b = 11.724(3) Å, c = 9.437(1) Å, α = 90°, β = 109.081(3)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 802.902 Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 1.309 g cm−3, and space group P21] at room temperature. All measured lines were indexed and were consistent with the P21 space group.
Bathymetric simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) methods yield accurate navigation results for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and can construct consistent seabed terrain maps. Multiple independently working vehicles can complete tasks like surveying and mapping efficiently, which means cooperative bathymetric SLAM using multiple AUVs is suitable for large-scale seabed mapping. However, the transmission of bathymetric measurements collected using a multi-beam echo sounder over a low bandwidth, noisy, and unreliable acoustic channel is difficult, making cooperative bathymetric SLAM very challenging. This paper develops a graph-based cooperative bathymetric SLAM system that can compress many bathymetric measurements into small-scale acoustic packets and yield accurate navigation results with a 10% loss of acoustic packets caused by unreliable acoustic communication. According to the simulation conducted using the field data, the new algorithm is shown to be robust and capable of providing accurate location and mapping results over a low bandwidth, noisy, and unreliable acoustic channel.
A high-frequency short-pulsed stroboscopic micro-visual system was employed to capture the transient image sequences of a periodically in-plane working micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) devices. To demodulate the motion parameters of the devices from the images, we developed the feature point matching (FPM) algorithm based on Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF). A MEMS gyroscope, vibrating at a frequency of 8.189 kHz, was used as a testing sample to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Within the same processing time, the SURF-based FPM method demodulated the velocity of the in-plane motion with a precision of 10−5 pixels of the image, which was two orders of magnitude higher than the template-matching and frame-difference algorithms.
Chronic inflammation exerts pleiotropic effects in the aetiology and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glucosamine is widely used in many countries and may have anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD risk and explore whether such association could be modified by smoking in the UK Biobank cohort, which recruited more than half a million participants aged 40–69 years from across the UK between 2006 and 2010. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) as well as 95 % CI for the risk of incident COPD. During a median follow-up of 8·96 years (interquartile range 8·29–9·53 years), 9016 new-onset events of COPD were documented. We found that the regular use of glucosamine was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident COPD with multivariable adjusted HR of 0·80 (95 % CI, 0·75, 0·85; P < 0·001). When subgroup analyses were performed by smoking status, the adjusted HR for the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD were 0·84 (0·73, 0·96), 0·84 (0·77, 0·92) and 0·71 (0·62, 0·80) among never smokers, former smokers and current smokers, respectively. No significant interaction was observed between glucosamine use and smoking status (Pfor interaction = 0·078). Incident COPD could be reduced by 14 % to 84 % through a combination of regular glucosamine use and smoking cessation.
Deficits in event-related potential (ERP) including duration mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a have been demonstrated widely in chronic schizophrenia (SZ) but inconsistent findings were reported in first-episode patients. Psychotropic medications and diagnosis might contribute to different findings on MMN/P3a ERP in first-episode patients. The present study examined MMN and P3a in first episode drug naïve SZ and bipolar disorder (BPD) patients and explored the relationships among ERPs, neurocognition and global functioning.
Twenty SZ, 24 BPD and 49 age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Data of clinical symptoms [Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Young Manic Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)], neurocognition [Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CCFT), Delay Matching to Sample (DMS), Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP)], and functioning [Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST)] were collected. P3a and MMN were elicited using a passive auditory oddball paradigm.
Significant MMN and P3a deficits and impaired neurocognition were found in both SZ and BPD patients. In SZ, MMN was significantly correlated with FAST (r = 0.48) and CCFT (r = −0.31). In BPD, MMN was significantly correlated with DMS (r = −0.54). For P3a, RVP and FAST scores were significant predictors in SZ, whereas RVP, WAIS and FAST were significant predictors in BPD.
The present study found deficits in MMN, P3a, neurocognition in drug naïve SZ and BPD patients. These deficits appeared to link with levels of higher-order cognition and functioning.