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This study examines contact-induced change in Jèrriais, the severely endangered Norman variety currently spoken by some 1% of the population of Jersey, one of the British Channel Islands. Today, English dominates all linguistic domains of island life, and all speakers of Jèrriais are bilingual. The analysis uses original data to test empirically whether Myers-Scotton's (2002) five theoretical assumptions about the structural path of language attrition (broadly defined as language loss at the level of the individual) also have relevance for the process of language obsolescence (broadly defined as language loss at the level of the community). It explores i) whether Jèrriais is undergoing contact influenced language change owing to its abstract grammatical structure being split and recombined with English, a hypothesis related to Myers-Scotton's Abstract Level model; and ii) whether different morpheme types of Jèrriais are related to the production process in different ways and are, accordingly, more or less susceptible to change during the process of language obsolescence, a hypothesis related to Myers-Scotton's 4-M model. In addition to its contribution to linguistic theory, this study increases existing knowledge about Jèrriais and makes data from this language available for systematic comparison with other languages.
The application of digital monitoring biomarkers in health, wellness and disease management is reviewed. Harnessing the near limitless capacity of these approaches in the managed healthcare continuum will benefit from a systems-based architecture which presents data quality, quantity, and ease of capture within a decision-making dashboard.
A framework was developed which stratifies key components and advances the concept of contextualized biomarkers. The framework codifies how direct, indirect, composite, and contextualized composite data can drive innovation for the application of digital biomarkers in healthcare.
The de novo framework implies consideration of physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors in the context of biomarker capture and analysis. Application in disease and wellness is highlighted, and incorporation in clinical feedback loops and closed-loop systems is illustrated.
The study of contextualized biomarkers has the potential to offer rich and insightful data for clinical decision making. Moreover, advancement of the field will benefit from innovation at the intersection of medicine, engineering, and science. Technological developments in this dynamic field will thus fuel its logical evolution guided by inputs from patients, physicians, healthcare providers, end-payors, actuarists, medical device manufacturers, and drug companies.
Creating an orthography is often seen as a key component of language revitalisation. Encoding an endangered variety can enhance its status and prestige. In speech communities that are fragmented dialectally or geographically, a common writing system may help create a sense of unified identity, or help keep a language alive by facilitating teaching and learning. Despite clear advantages, creating an orthography for an endangered language can also bring challenges, and this volume debates the following critical questions: whose task should this be - that of the linguist or the speech community? Should an orthography be maximally distanciated from that of the language of wider communication for ideological reasons, or should its main principles coincide for reasons of learnability? Which local variety should be selected as the basis of a common script? Is a multilectal script preferable to a standardised orthography? And can creating an orthography create problems for existing native speakers?
Language policy issues are imbued with a powerful symbolism that is often linked to questions of identity, with the suppression or failure to recognise and support a given endangered variety representing a refusal to grant a 'voice' to the corresponding ethno-cultural community. This wide-ranging volume, which explores linguistic scenarios from across five continents, seeks to ignite the debate as to how and whether the interface between people, politics and language can affect the fortunes of endangered varieties. With chapters written by academics working in the field of language endangerment and members of indigenous communities on the frontline of language support and maintenance, Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages is essential reading for researchers and students of language death, sociolinguistics and applied linguistics, as well as community members involved in native language maintenance.