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We have developed a “Relative Rates Method” to make bounding calculations regarding radionuclide migration due to uplift/erosion (“exhumation”) of a HLW repository. Results show that this method can apply to a wide range of different uplift rates and erosion rates. In addition, for the long time period, it was shown that the relative difference of uplift rate / erosion rate and potential hydraulic change arising from extreme uplift/erosion could affect radionuclide release and migration, thus uplift/erosion concerns should be fed back to site selection. Our method provides a credible and defensible basis for analysis and interpretation of possible uplift/erosion impacts for future volunteer sites.
We report on time-resolved CCD photometry of the newly-discovered dwarf nova, TSS J022216.4+412259.9 during its outburst in 2005 November–December. The best-estimated superhump period was 0.0554 days, which is the shortest superhump period among WZ Sge-type dwarf novae ever known. Double-peaked humps were also detected with a period of 0.05487 days in the early stage of the outburst. A rebrightening exhibited after the end of the plateau phase. All of these observations indicate the WZ Sge nature of the system. We mainly discuss the rebrightening stage of the superoutburst, compared with other WZ Sge-type dwarf novae.
ABSTRACT: In this paper we extend the work of Chatterjee, Corbae, Nakajima, and Ríios-Rull (unpublished manuscript, University of Pennsylvania, 2002) to include aggregate real shocks to economic activity. The model, which includes agents that borrow and lend and a competitive credit industry, and which has endogenous default and credit limits, allows us to explore the extent to which aggregate events are amplified or smoothed via the mechanism of household bankruptcy filings. In the model agents are subject to shocks to earnings opportunities, to preferences, and to their asset position and borrow and lend to smooth consumption. On occasion, the realization of the shocks is bad enough so that agents take advantage of the opportunities provided by the U.S. Bankruptcy Code and file for bankruptcy, which wipes out their debt at the expense both of being banned from borrowing for a certain amount of time and of incurring transaction costs. The incentives to default are time-varying and depend on the individual state and general economic conditions. The model is quantitative in the sense that its fundamental parameters are estimated using U.S. data, and the model can replicate the aggregate conditions of the U.S. economy. Especially, the model accounts for the very high number of bankruptcies in the past few years. We report statistics produced by experiments with model economies with various aggregate shocks. Based on these experiments, we analyze the reaction of households to various aggregate real shocks and the interaction between households and the credit industry, and we discuss the aggregate implications of these actions and the direction in which the model might be further extended.
We have discovered new transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), anatase Ti1-xMxO2 (M=Nb,Ta), in thin film form. Both films with 0.03 ≤ × ≤ 0.06 showed resistivity of 2−3 × 10−4 Ωcm and internal transmittance of ∼95% in the visible light region (40 nm in thickness), at room temperature. These values are comparable to those of typical TCOs, such as In2−xSnxO3 (ITO).