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This study was conducted to determine the opinions of the farmers producing dry bean landraces (DBL) at the regional level of Turkey (eight provinces). In total, 140 questionnaire forms were filled by DBL producers. The population and then the sample size were determined according to 2016-year-preliminary-study. The capital structures of the farms according to the production types were evaluated using the Five-Capital-Model approach, and differences were tested by parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. The study showed that 37.86% of the DBL producers produce as the home-garden-type while 62.14% of them as the field-type, which is larger than 0.1 ha. While home-garden-type producers majorly produce for their own family needs, commercial ideas and concerns are at the forefront for field-type producers. While field-type producers have higher values in terms of five capitals, home-garden-type producers move within a more traditional way of production. More than half of the producers indicate that they will continue to produce DBL; this ratio is higher in home-garden-type producers. This indication of approximately 25% of both types of producers wherein their children will continue to produce DBL, there is a need for more human labour, efficiency and profitability concerns, production mostly by the elderly population increasing the risk of future depletion in DBL-genetic resources. This calls for more efforts to increase the awareness among the young population on the importance and protection of genetic resources and to make special policies for the protection of genetic resources by policy makers and develop models based on genetic resources.
This paper summarizes a study initiated by the Turkish General Directorate of Agricultural Research and ICARDA/CIMMYT Wheat Improvement Program on the adoption of five new winter and spring wheat varieties developed and released by the Turkish national breeding program and through international collaboration in the past 10 years. The study results are based on a survey of 781 households selected randomly in the Adana, Ankara, Diyarbakir, Edirne, and Konya provinces of Turkey. The five new wheat varieties are compared to old improved varieties released prior to 1995 that are also still grown by farmers. Technical and biological indicators of impacts including crop productivity are measured to determine the impact of these varieties. Yield stability is assessed by comparing average yields in normal, good and dry years and by comparing the coefficients of variation of yields by variety. Profitability is measured by the gross margin generated per unit of land. Household income from wheat and for all economic activities are estimated and compared between adopters and non-adopters. Adopters of the new varieties have higher per-capita income than non-adopters as compared to the same group using old varieties. However, the overall impact of the improved varieties is generally low, mainly due to their low adoption levels. Farmers’ knowledge and perception of certain variety characteristics and unavailability of adequate and timely seed are the main reasons. Increasing adoption has the potential to improve household income and this requires revising wheat impact pathway to achieve the expected impact.
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