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A higher intake of foods rich in flavonoids such as quercetin can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ®) has a bioavailability 17-fold higher than quercetin aglycone and has shown potential cardiovascular disease moderating effects in animal studies. The present study aimed to determine if acute ingestion of EMIQ® improves endothelial function, blood pressure, and cognitive function in human volunteers at risk of cardiovascular disease. Twenty-five participants (12 males, 13 females) with at least one cardiovascular disease risk factor completed this randomized, controlled, crossover study. In a random order, participants were given EMIQ® (2 mg aglycone equivalent)/kg body weight or placebo alongside a standard breakfast meal. Endothelial function, assessed by flow mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery was measured before and 1.5 hrs after intervention. Blood pressure (BP), arterial stiffness, cognitive function, BP during cognitive stress and measures of quercetin metabolites, oxidative stress and markers of nitric oxide (NO) production were assessed post-intervention. After adjustment for pre-treatment measurements and treatment order, EMIQ® treatment resulted in a significantly higher FMD response compared to the placebo [0.60%, 95% CI: 0.03, 1.17 (p=0.04)]. Plasma concentrations of quercetin metabolites were significantly higher (p<0.001) after EMIQ® treatment compared to the placebo. No changes in blood pressure, arterial stiffness, cognitive function, or biochemical parameters were observed. In this human intervention study, the acute administration of EMIQ® significantly increased circulating quercetin metabolites and improved endothelial function. Further clinical trials are required to assess whether health benefits are associated with long-term EMIQ® consumption.
Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
Invasive populations of Dalmation toadflax [Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill.] and yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris Mill.) are widespread throughout the Intermountain West, where gene flow between these nonnative species is producing vigorous and fertile hybrids. These hybrid toadflax populations are less responsive to herbicides than either parent species, and biocontrol agents routinely released on L. dalmatica and L. vulgaris often fail to establish on hybrid hosts. Early detection of hybrid Linaria populations is therefore essential for effective management, but resources are limited for scouting large expanses of range and wildland. We used species distribution modeling to identify environmentally suitable areas for these invasive Linaria taxa in Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado. Areas suitable for hybrid Linaria establishment were estimated using two different modeling approaches: first, based on known hybrid occurrence and associated environmental conditions, and second, based on zones environmentally suitable for co-occurrence of the parent species. This also allowed comparison of different model outputs, especially relevant when modeling emerging invasives, such as novel hybrids, with minimal occurrence data. Combining the two model outputs identified areas at greatest risk of hybrid Linaria invasion, including parts of north-central Montana, where model estimates indicate the hybrid may spread without prior co-invasion of the parents. Potential hybrid hot spots were also identified in western Montana; northwestern, northeastern, and southeastern Wyoming; and the Western Slope and Front Range of Colorado. Despite relatively few confirmed occurrences of hybrid populations to date, our results indicate that extensive spread of hybrid populations is possible within the studied area. Model-based maps of potential Linaria distributions will allow area weed managers to direct limited resources more effectively for locating and controlling these invaders.
Determining infectious cross-transmission events in healthcare settings involves manual surveillance of case clusters by infection control personnel, followed by strain typing of clinical/environmental isolates suspected in said clusters. Recent advances in genomic sequencing and cloud computing now allow for the rapid molecular typing of infecting isolates.
To facilitate rapid recognition of transmission clusters, we aimed to assess infection control surveillance using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microbial pathogens to identify cross-transmission events for epidemiologic review.
Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained prospectively at an academic medical center, from September 1, 2016, to September 30, 2017. Isolate genomes were sequenced, followed by single-nucleotide variant analysis; a cloud-computing platform was used for whole-genome sequence analysis and cluster identification.
Most strains of the 4 studied pathogens were unrelated, and 34 potential transmission clusters were present. The characteristics of the potential clusters were complex and likely not identifiable by traditional surveillance alone. Notably, only 1 cluster had been suspected by routine manual surveillance.
Our work supports the assertion that integration of genomic and clinical epidemiologic data can augment infection control surveillance for both the identification of cross-transmission events and the inclusion of missed and exclusion of misidentified outbreaks (ie, false alarms). The integration of clinical data is essential to prioritize suspect clusters for investigation, and for existing infections, a timely review of both the clinical and WGS results can hold promise to reduce HAIs. A richer understanding of cross-transmission events within healthcare settings will require the expansion of current surveillance approaches.
Salmonella enterica serovar Wangata (S. Wangata) is an important cause of endemic salmonellosis in Australia, with human infections occurring from undefined sources. This investigation sought to examine possible environmental and zoonotic sources for human infections with S. Wangata in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The investigation adopted a One Health approach and was comprised of three complimentary components: a case–control study examining human risk factors; environmental and animal sampling; and genomic analysis of human, animal and environmental isolates. Forty-eight human S. Wangata cases were interviewed during a 6-month period from November 2016 to April 2017, together with 55 Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) controls and 130 neighbourhood controls. Indirect contact with bats/flying foxes (S. Typhimurium controls (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–6.48)) (neighbourhood controls (aOR 8.33, 95% CI 2.58–26.83)), wild frogs (aOR 3.65, 95% CI 1.32–10.07) and wild birds (aOR 6.93, 95% CI 2.29–21.00) were statistically associated with illness in multivariable analyses. S. Wangata was detected in dog faeces, wildlife scats and a compost specimen collected from the outdoor environments of cases’ residences. In addition, S. Wangata was detected in the faeces of wild birds and sea turtles in the investigation area. Genomic analysis revealed that S. Wangata isolates were relatively clonal. Our findings suggest that S. Wangata is present in the environment and may have a reservoir in wildlife populations in north-eastern NSW. Further investigation is required to better understand the occurrence of Salmonella in wildlife groups and to identify possible transmission pathways for human infections.
Advances over the last ten years in computer automation and control, compact and portable x-ray sources, and reliable and efficient detector systems have allowed X-Ray Determination of Residual Stress (XRDRS) measurements to become a viable method of evaluating the state of stress in metals, alloys, and ceramics. However, problems associated with incorrect XRDRS equipment operation and poor experimental technique are prevelant in industry, necessitating better operator training and education. Therefore, an interactive computer workstation, called RS/hyper, was developed to lead the operator towards correct operating procedures and reliable experimental technique.
Proper machine setup, machine maintenance, radiation safety, experimental technique, theoretical understanding, and limited data evaluation are presented in RS/hyper. Graphical aids are used extensively to avoid confusion and misinterpretation of theoretical concepts and equipment instructions. RS/hyper is interactive, allowing the user to learn about topics at a comfortable level of explanation. Compared to written texts and references, RS/hyper has been shown to reduce training and problem solving time by a factor of 16.
RS/hyper will train novice users of XRDRS equipment so that the data acquired from such machines will be reliable in an industrial environment. Also, since the software educates the user, data will be more accurately represented before interpretation. The experienced user should find RS/hyper useful as a reference to XRDRS and related information.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Persons living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk for fragility bone disease. Current osteoporosis screening guidelines do not account for HIV status, and clinical risk assessment tools are not sensitive in PLWH. We examined the value of traditional osteoporosis risk factors, HIV-specific indices, and bone turnover biomarkers in predicting low bone mineral density (BMD) in PLWH. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Demographic and clinical characteristics, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived BMD, HIV indices (viral load, CD4 count, antiretroviral therapy [ART]), and biomarkers of bone turnover (C-terminal telopeptide of collagen [CTx], osteocalcin [OCN]) were evaluated in a cross-sectional analysis of PLWH (n=248) and HIV- controls (n=183). The primary outcome was low BMD, defined as osteopenia or osteoporosis by WHO criteria. Multivariable logistic and modified Poisson regression models were used to assess associations between low BMD and covariates of interest. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Overall, median age was 44 years, 48% were male, 88% were black, median body mass index (BMI) was 28 kg/m2, 72% smoked cigarettes, and 53% used alcohol; characteristics did not differ by HIV status. PLWH had a mean CD4 of 408 cells/mm3, 55% were ART-naïve, and 45% had viral suppression on ART. Overall, 25% (109/431) had low BMD, including 31% of PLWH compared to 16% of HIV- controls. In multivariable models, HIV was significantly associated with low BMD (aOR 2.46, 95%CI 1.39-4.34; aRR 1.90, 95%CI 1.18-3.07). Adjusting for HIV, three traditional risks– age, race, and BMI– were independently associated with low BMD in the full cohort. However, bone turnover markers, CTx and OCN, were better able to discriminate low vs. normal BMD in PLWH compared to HIV- controls. In PLWH, mean serum CTx was 23% higher in low vs. normal BMD (mean CTx difference=0.06 ug/mL); in HIV- controls, no association with BMD was observed (mean CTx difference=0 ug/mL). In PLWH, mean serum OCN was 38% higher in those with low vs. normal BMD (mean OCN difference=2.48 ug/mL); in HIV- controls, mean serum OCN was only 16% higher in those with low vs. normal BMD (mean OCN difference=1.08 ug/mL). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In PLWH as opposed to HIV- controls, serum biomarkers reflecting a high bone turnover state, may discriminate individuals with low versus normal BMD. Because changes in biomarkers precede changes in BMD, these markers should be explored further either alone or in combination with traditional risk assessment tools to improve early screening for osteoporosis in PLWH.
We evaluated the performance of three serological tests – an immunoglobulin G indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA), a Rose Bengal test and a slow agglutination test (SAT) – for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Bangladesh. Cattle sera (n = 1360) sourced from Mymensingh district (MD) and a Government owned dairy farm (GF) were tested in parallel. We used a Bayesian latent class model that adjusted for the conditional dependence among the three tests and assumed constant diagnostic accuracy of the three tests in both populations. The sensitivity and specificity of the three tests varied from 84.6% to 93.7%, respectively. The true prevalences of bovine brucellosis in MD and the GF were 0.6% and 20.4%, respectively. Parallel interpretation of iELISA and SAT yielded the highest negative predictive values: 99.9% in MD and 99.6% in the GF; whereas serial interpretation of both iELISA and SAT produced the highest positive predictive value (PPV): 99.9% in the GF and also high PPV (98.9%) in MD. We recommend the use of both iELISA and SAT together and serial interpretation for culling and parallel interpretation for import decisions. Removal of brucellosis positive cattle will contribute to the control of brucellosis as a public health risk in Bangladesh.
This article analyzes the impact of The Community Resources Group Receivership Program undertaken from 1998 to 2002 that provided clean property titles to residents in several informal housing colonias (subdivisions) in South Texas. Survey data were gathered from 260 low‐income households comprising two populations: those who had secure title from the outset, and those who were beneficiaries of the land titling program. Focus group interviews were conducted to explore how the beneficiaries construct the meaning of ownership before and after title “regularization.” Formal titling consolidates understandings of absolute property relations in comparison with de facto rights born of use (legal or not), which strengthens people's sense of self‐esteem and potential for political involvement. We found that, contrary to conventional wisdom, title provision per se appears to have little direct impact either upon home improvement or upon residents' receiving enhanced access to credit and financial services. We also found evidence that informality and illegality is likely to reemerge as owners die intestate, and as they revert to informal land market property transfers.
Among low‐income homebuyers, a contract for deed (CFD) has been a widely used but risky and informal mechanism for purchasing a home or lot. This article examines a series of major consumer protections adopted by the Texas Legislature from 1995 to 2005 and whether this legislation shaped the behavior of sellers who historically relied on CFDs in Texas colonias. Tracking changes in the use of CFDs between 1990 and 2010, we show that developers responded to the legislative reforms by shifting away from CFDs and into other forms of seller financing. At the same time, developers have adopted a series of workarounds to the legislation (presumably legal), leaving low‐income buyers vulnerable to rapid repossession by the developer. In contrast, the impact of the legislation on low‐income residents selling their homes has been minimal. These consumer‐to‐consumer transactions remain highly informal, with ongoing reliance on the now illegal, unrecorded CFD.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is considered one of the most troublesome weeds in the southern and central United States, but results of previous research to determine the mode of inheritance of this trait have been conflicting and inconclusive. In this study, we examined segregation patterns of EPSPS gene-copy numbers in F1 and F2 generations of A. palmeri and found no evidence of a Mendelian single-gene pattern of inheritance. Transgressive segregation for copy number was exhibited by several F1 and all of the F2 families, most likely the product of EPSPS copy-number variation within each plant. This variation was confirmed by assaying gene-copy number across clonal generations and among individual shoots on the same plant, demonstrating that EPSPS amplification levels vary significantly within a single plant. Increases and decreases in copy number occurred in a controlled, stress-free environment in the absence of glyphosate, indicating that EPSPS gene amplification is a random and variable process within the plant. The ability of A. palmeri to gain or lose EPSPS gene copies is a valuable adaptive trait, allowing this species to respond rapidly to selection pressures and changing environments.
In a recent issue of this Quarterly, Gustav Ungerer called attention to several hitherto unnoticed documents concerning the English sojourn of the French lutenist and composer Charles Tessier and on the basis of this evidence concluded that the musician was for a time admitted to the ‘Essex Circle.’ The conclusion should rather be a conjecture, I believe.
The documents published by Ungerer include three letters written by Tessier to Anthony Bacon, the brother of Francis, in the spring of 1597. In the first, Tessier asks to be taken into Bacon's service or, failing this, to be recommended to another gentleman for service. In the second, written some weeks later, he describes some newly composed airs which he intends to present to Bacon, but illness has prevented his doing so, and he begs for money.