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Although high-sensitivity liquid scintillation (LS) spectroscopy is theoretically capable of producing finite radiocarbon ages in the 50,000- to 70,000-yr range, there is little evidence in the literature that meaningful dates in this time period have been obtained. The pressing need to undertake calibration beyond 26 kyr has resulted in the regular publication of 14C results in excess of 50 kyr, yet very little effort has been made to demonstrate their accuracy or precision. There is a paucity of systematic studies of the techniques required to produce reliable dates close to background and the methods needed to assess contamination from either in situ sources or laboratory handling and processing. We have studied the requirements for producing accurate and reliable dates beyond 50 kyr. Laboratory procedures include optimization of LS spectrometers to obtain low and stable non-14C background count rates, use of low-background counting vials, large benzene volumes, long counting times, and preconditioning of vacuum lines. We also discuss the need for multiple analyses of a suitable material containing no original 14C (background blank) and the application of an appropriate statistical model to compensate for variability in background contamination beyond counting statistics. Accurate and reproducible finite ages >60 kyr are indeed possible by high-sensitivity LS spectroscopy, but require corroborating background blank data to be defensible.
It is well known that radiocarbon years do not directly equate to calendar time. As a result, considerable effort has been devoted to generating a decadally resolved calibration curve for the Holocene and latter part of the last termination. A calibration curve that can be unambiguously attributed to changes in atmospheric 14C content has not, however, been generated beyond 26 kyr cal BP, despite the urgent need to rigorously test climatic, environmental, and archaeological models. Here, we discuss the potential of New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis) to define the structure of the 14C calibration curve using annually resolved tree rings and thereby provide an absolute measure of atmospheric 14C. We report bidecadally sampled 14C measurements obtained from a floating 1050-yr chronology, demonstrating repeatable 14C measurements near the present limits of the dating method. The results indicate that considerable scope exists for a high-resolution 14C calibration curve back through OIS-3 using subfossil wood from this source.
The classic biometrical study of phyletic evolution in Kosmoceras (Brinkmann 1929) is evaluated using unpublished raw data provided by Professor Brinkmann. Most morphological characters show statistically significant changes over time yet it is difficult to provide an unequivocal biological interpretation for these changes. In a few cases, runs tests indicate that evolution was nonrandom in the sense that fewer reversals in the direction of evolution occurred than would be predicted from a null hypothesis based on a random walk. These cases suggest persistence of natural selection regimes for fairly long periods of time. In other cases, and with other kinds of testing, the random walk model cannot be rejected although failure to reject the hypothesis does not justify its acceptance! Thus, the contribution of random factors (either genetic drift or selection in a randomly changing environment) cannot be assessed with confidence. It is problematical also whether the Kosmoceras series represent significant evolution by phyletic gradualism or just the natural temporal variation that characterizes stasis (sensu Eldredge and Gould 1972).
Objectives: One of the most prominent features of schizophrenia is relatively lower general cognitive ability (GCA). An emerging approach to understanding the roots of variation in GCA relies on network properties of the brain. In this multi-center study, we determined global characteristics of brain networks using graph theory and related these to GCA in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia. Methods: Participants (N=116 controls, 80 patients with schizophrenia) were recruited from four sites. GCA was represented by the first principal component of a large battery of neurocognitive tests. Graph metrics were derived from diffusion-weighted imaging. Results: The global metrics of longer characteristic path length and reduced overall connectivity predicted lower GCA across groups, and group differences were noted for both variables. Measures of clustering, efficiency, and modularity did not differ across groups or predict GCA. Follow-up analyses investigated three topological types of connectivity—connections among high degree “rich club” nodes, “feeder” connections to these rich club nodes, and “local” connections not involving the rich club. Rich club and local connectivity predicted performance across groups. In a subsample (N=101 controls, 56 patients), a genetic measure reflecting mutation load, based on rare copy number deletions, was associated with longer characteristic path length. Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of characteristic path lengths and rich club connectivity for GCA and provide no evidence for group differences in the relationships between graph metrics and GCA. (JINS, 2016, 22, 240–249)
We have analysed observations of the interstellar extinction in the range 3400 Å–l 1000 Å. The observations have high photometric accuracy and wavelength resolution, and allow a detailed examination of broadband structure as well as the general shape of the wavelength dependence of the extinction curve. The broadband structure has a characteristic size of several hundred ångströms, and may be as important as the diffuse bands in indicating the physical nature of the grains.
We describe our preliminary theoretical interpretation of this broadband structure, and the new observation which it predicts.
Brinkmann (1929) argued that phyletic evolution in the Jurassic ammonite Kosmoceras is sufficiently linear that the amount of time missing at diastems can be estimated by the magnitude of morphologic jumps at those horizons. Brinkmann's unpublished raw data have been re-analyzed in order to evaluate the association between evolutionary jumps and physical breaks. All horizons in Brinkmann's 1400 centimeter stratigraphic section have been tested for morphological jumps. Up to 40 statistically significant morphological jumps exist in the section, the actual number depending on the sample interval used. A few of these correspond to the jumps found by Brinkmann and a few coincide with diastems. However, the correspondence between morphological jumps and physical breaks is not as consistent as was thought by Brinkmann. Furthermore, it is argued that the association between physical and biological discontinuities is not dependent on linear evolution but rather is the expected condition wherever phyletic evolution occurs. Due to the irregularity and unpredictability of evolutionary change in Kosmoceras, morphologic jumps cannot be used to assess the amount of time missing at diastems.
The goal of zero-waste is one of the main challenges of modern steel industry, which over the past 20 years has been committed to increase the recovery and the use of by-products generated during the ironmaking and steelmaking processes. Among the main by-products generated during iron and steel production, such as slags, dusts and sludges, slags constitute about 90% of the total. Slags are currently used in various fields (such as cement production, road construction, environmental recovery in landfill covers, as fertilizer and soil conditioner, etc.) according to their chemical features, which depend on production process origin. In Italy, in particular for example, BF (Blast Furnace) slag is used for cement production while BOF (Basic Oxygen Furnace) slag without iron (inert slag) is used as landfill cover, in compliance with Italian legislation. In Germany, BF and BOF slag use as fertlisers and liming materials has a long tradition. Although in recent years slag use has increased, the application for agriculture purposes needs to be further investigated. Slag can be used as a soil conditioner (high content of Ca and Mg), Si supply (improves the crops resistance to pests and diseases), P fertilizer production and micro-nutrients supply. Use of slags can affect human health and environment, because of heavy metal content, which can leache to groundwater or be transferred to surface water. The assessment of risk to the environment based on slag application requires further investigation. This represents an opportunity for both the steel and fertilizer industries to promote natural resources savings, CO2 emission reductions, landfill waste prevention as well as social awareness of sustainability of some industrial activities. The BOF slag has been shown to be useful as liming material for acidic soil amendment and it can replace commercial fertilizers. Different effects on crop yields and on soil parameters can be found, depending on soil characteristics and climate conditions. In Middle Europe, with humid climate, lime losses through leaching of up to 0.5 t CaO/ha have to be replaced with liming material to prevent acidification. Evaluation of long-term field trials with slag liming materials can give information about the impact of slag applications on crop management and the environment. In Mediterranean regions, such as in Italy, arable soils rarely show acidic characteristics. Alkaline soils from coastal areas are often rich in sodium content, due to seawater intrusion and irrigation with saline water. The aim of this research is also to investigate the application of BOF slag to these soils, in order to assess the effect of Ca contained in slag in balancing negative Na effects. This paper is based on the preliminary study and experiments carried out within an ongoing RFCS (Research Fund for Coal and Steel) project.
Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 13% of women and has a negative impact on mother and infant, hence reliable biological tests for early detection of PPD are essential. We aimed to identify robust predictive biomarkers for PPD using peripheral blood gene expression profiles in a hypothesis-free genome-wide study in a high-risk, longitudinal cohort.
We performed a genome-wide association study in a longitudinal discovery cohort comprising 62 women with psychopathology. Gene expression and hormones were measured in the first and third pregnancy trimesters and early postpartum (201 samples). The replication cohort comprised 24 women with third pregnancy trimester gene expression measures. Gene expression was measured on Illumina-Human HT12 v4 microarrays. Plasma estradiol and estriol were measured. Statistical analysis was performed in R.
We identified 116 transcripts differentially expressed between the PPD and euthymic women during the third trimester that allowed prediction of PPD with an accuracy of 88% in both discovery and replication cohorts. Within these transcripts, significant enrichment of transcripts implicated that estrogen signaling was observed and such enrichment was also evident when analysing published gene expression data predicting PPD from a non-risk cohort. While plasma estrogen levels were not different across groups, women with PPD displayed an increased sensitivity to estrogen signaling, confirming the previously proposed hypothesis of increased sex-steroid sensitivity as a susceptibility factor for PPD.
These results suggest that PPD can be robustly predicted in currently euthymic women as early as the third trimester and these findings have implications for predictive testing of high-risk women and prevention and treatment for PPD.
This study utilized structural equation modeling to examine the associations among parental guilt induction (a form of psychological control), youth cognitive style, and youth internalizing symptoms, with parents and youth participating in a randomized controlled trial of a family-based group cognitive–behavioral preventive intervention targeting families with a history of caregiver depression. The authors present separate models utilizing parent report and youth report of internalizing symptoms. Findings suggest that families in the active condition (family-based group cognitive–behavioral group) relative to the comparison condition showed a significant decline in parent use of guilt induction at the conclusion of the intervention (6 months postbaseline). Furthermore, reductions in parental guilt induction at 6 months were associated with significantly lower levels of youth negative cognitive style at 12 months. Finally, reductions in parental use of guilt induction were associated with lower youth internalizing symptoms 1 year following the conclusion of the intervention (18 months postbaseline).
The Miocene Baltoro granite forms a massive plutonic unit within the Karakoram batholith, and is composed of comagmatic monzogranites and leucogranites with a mineralogy consisting of quartz-K-feldspar-plagioclase-biotite ± muscovite ± garnet, with accessory sphene, zircon, monazite and opaques. Geochemically the Baltoro granites are mildly peraluminous, and show a calc-alkaline trend on trace-element normalised diagrams with high LIL/HFS element ratios and negative Nb, P and Ti anomalies. REE are strongly fractionated with little or no Eu anomaly. Leucogranites are depleted in most elements compared to monzogranites with notable exceptions being Rb, K and the HREEs. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios are 0·7072-0·7128, considerably lower than High Himalayan leucogranites (0·74-0·79), and are indicative of a lower continental crust source. The probable petrogenesis of the Baltoro granite involves dehydration melting of a biotite-rich pelite to produce a voluminous, hot, water-undersaturated magma which could then separate from its source and intrude through an already thickened and still hot crust. Fractional crystallisation of the monzogranites produced the leucogranites and a pegmatite dyke swarm. A suite of lamprophyre dykes including amphibolerich vogesites and biotite-rich minettes intrude the country rock, dominantly to the north, around the Baltoro granite. These calc-alkaline shoshonitic lamprophyres are volatile-rich mantle-derived melts intruded around the same time as the granite, indicating simultaneous melting of the mantle and lower crust beneath the Karakoram during the Miocene, approximately 30 Ma after the India-Asia collision which initially caused the crustal thickening. Intrusion of mantle melts provided heat to promote crustal melting and may have selectively contaminated the granite magma.
The Baltoro granite intrudes sillimanite gneisses with melt pods along the southern margin indicating temperatures above 700°C at the time of intrusion. Locally, internal fabrics and numerous aligned xenoliths along the southern margin in the Biafo glacier region indicate steep, southward-directed thrusting during emplacement. Along the northern contact, the Baltoro granite intrudes anchimetamorphic to greenschist facies metasedimentary rocks with an andalusite-bearing contact aureole. Northward-directed culmination collapse normal faulting during Miocene emplacement is inferred, in order to explain the P-T differences either side of the pluton. This also provided an extensional stress regime in the upper crust to accommodate the rising magma.
Commercial silicone rubbers typically contain submicron particles dispersed within them, the particles being responsible for the mechanical properties required for commercial success. Fumed silica has long been used for the reinforcement of higher-perfomance silicone rubber compositions, but high-porosity aerogels can function as well. The object of the work here was to compare the state of dispersion of some high-porosity aerogels with that of a fumed silica.
Model silicone HCR (“heat-cured rubber”) compositions were prepared, and their mechanical properties characterized. Thin sections of the rubbers were then examined by TEM.
Much of the fumed silica had been dispersed to give sub-micron sized features, although a number of larger features were present. The hydrophobic aerogel, in contrast, had been dispersed to give even finer features in the rubber, with very few super-micron fragments. The state of dispersion of the hydrophilic aerogel was quite different, showing many poorly-broken down large fragments up to 5 µm or more in diameter. The visual appearance of the compound reflected this poorer state of dispersion.
Using high energy rare gas ion sputtering of metal targets, we are able to produce nanoamps of mass selected transition metal clusters. Mono-sized cluster ions are deposited at low kinetic energy upon substrates, e.g. silica or carbon, and are then characterized using UV and x-ray photoemission. In this paper we will discuss photoemission measurements of the 4f7/2 core level energies of Au (1–5,7 atom samples) clusters deposited on silica. From such studies we are beginning to understand how electronic structure, cluster stability and mobility depend on (deposited) cluster size, surface coverage, and substrate temperature.
The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently conducted an extragalactic submillimetric survey of the Chandra Deep Field South region of unprecedented size, depth, and angular resolution in three wavebands centered at 250,
350, and 500 µm. BLAST wavelengths are chosen to study the Cosmic Infrared Background near its peak at 200 µm.
We find that most of the CIB at these wavelengths is contributed by galaxies detected at 24 µm by the MIPS instrument on Spitzer, and that the source counts distribution shows a population with strongly evolving density and luminosity. These results anticipate what can be expected from the surveys that will be conducted with the SPIRE instrument on the Herschel space observatory.
Background and objective: Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with changes of intra- and extravascular volume status often resulting in cardiopulmonary dysfunction. The purpose of this prospective double-blind study was to evaluate the influence of different priming solutions of the extracorporeal circuit on intra- and extravascular volume status and haemodynamics in patients undergoing elective mitral valve replacement. Methods: Twenty-two patients with mitral valve insufficiency were randomly allocated into two equal groups. In Group 1 cardiopulmonary bypass was primed with a nearly isooncotic solution consisting of 4% albumin. The second group received a pure crystalloid priming solution. The thermo-dye indicator dilution technique was used for the assessment of cardiac output, central and pulmonary blood volume, right ventricular end-diastolic volume and total blood volume. Results: Patients in the crystalloid group showed increased intraoperative fluid requirements. Significantly more fluid was accumulated in the extravascular space whereas total blood volume was decreased after surgery. Stroke volume index (SVI) was significantly decreased in the immediate postoperative period when compared to baseline. As indicated by the increase in extravascular fluid content after surgery, both colloid and crystalloid priming volumes were transferred to the extravascular space. Conclusion: The use of colloid priming solutions in patients with mitral valve insufficiency leads to less fluid requirements and significantly reduced fluid shift in the interstitium. However, these changes are not associated with changes in haemodynamic parameters or short term outcome.
The income capitalization approach is used, based on expenditure and nonmarket values collected from travel-cost and contingent valuation methodologies, to measure the feasibility of running a self-sustaining recreational site in coastal Louisiana. Through Internet and intercept surveys, a total of 2,696 respondents, 88% of them anglers, provided information on economic expenditures, destination preferences, and preferences for specific site amenities regarding Elmer's Island. The purchase and subsequent opening of the area to the public were found to be self-sustaining even when considering conservative economic estimates.
Because magmatism associated with subduction is thought to be the principal source for continental crust generation, assessing the relative contribution of pre-existing (subducted and assimilated) continental material to arc magmatism in accreted arcs is important to understanding the origin of continental crust. We present a detailed Nd isotopic stratigraphy for volcanic and volcaniclastic formations from the South Mayo Trough, an accreted oceanic arc exposed in the western Irish Caledonides. These units span an arc–continent collision event, the Grampian (Taconic) Orogeny, in which an intra-oceanic island arc was accreted onto the passive continental margin of Laurentia starting at ∼ 475 Ma (Arenig). The stratigraphy corresponding to pre-, syn- and post-collisional volcanism reveals a progression of εNd(t) from strongly positive values, consistent with melt derivation almost exclusively from oceanic mantle beneath the arc, to strongly negative values, indicating incorporation of continental material into the melt. Using εNd(t) values of meta-sediments that represent the Laurentian passive margin and accretionary prism, we are able to quantify the relative proportions of continent-derived melt at various stages of arc formation and accretion. Mass balance calculations show that mantle-derived magmatism contributes substantially to melt production during all stages of arc–continent collision, never accounting for less than 21% of the total. This implies that a significant addition of new, rather than recycled, continental crust can accompany arc–continent collision and continental arc magmatism.