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The transfer of passive immunity from sow to piglet is important for neonatal disease resistance. Piglet immune status will be influenced by the Ig concentration in colostrum, the amount of colostrum ingested and the duration of absorption of intact macromolecules across the gut. Despite the importance of the maternal contribution to this process, there has been no published information on the level and variability of colostral Ig concentration in modern sow geno types. A study was therefore designed to remedy this lack of knowledge.
Colostrum samples were taken at farrowing, prior to suckling by the first piglet, from 63 Landrace x Large White sows (Pig Improvement Company Ltd) on a large commercial unit in Scotland. During pregnancy, sows were housed in stalls and fed a standard commercial dry sow diet. At 2-3 weeks prior to expected parturition, they were vaccinated against E.coli, A.pleuropneumoniae and Clostridium.
Spectral energy distribution for a sample of starburst galaxies has been synthesized. The proposed sample contains galaxies whose optical light is mainly dominated by an early type galaxy population. A low excitation nebular spectrum is superimposed whose strength in the Halfa emssion line suggests the presence of very massive stars responsible of the observed ionization.
People who have schizophrenia die earlier from somatic diseases than do people in the general population, but information about cardiovascular deaths in people who have schizophrenia is limited. We analysed mortality in all age groups of people with schizophrenia by specific cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), focusing on five CVD diagnoses: coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. We also compared hospital admissions for CVDs in people who had schizophrenia with hospital admissions for CVDs in the general population.
This national register study of 10 631 817 people in Sweden included 46 911 people who were admitted to the hospital for schizophrenia between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 2010. Information from national registers was used to identify people who had schizophrenia and obtain data about mortality, causes of death, medical diagnoses and hospitalisations.
CVDs were the leading cause of death in people who had schizophrenia (5245 deaths), and CVDs caused more excess deaths than suicide. The mean age of CVD death was 10 years lower for people who had schizophrenia (70.5 years) than the general population (80.7 years). The mortality rate ratio (MRR) for CVDs in all people who had schizophrenia was 2.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.73–2.88). In people aged 15–59 years who had schizophrenia, the MRR for CVDs was 6.16 (95% CI 5.79–6.54). In all people who had schizophrenia, the MRR for coronary heart disease was 2.83 (95% CI 2.73–2.94); acute myocardial infarction, 2.62 (95% CI 2.49–2.75); cerebrovascular disease, 2.4 (95% CI 2.25–2.55); heart failure, 3.25 (95% CI 2.94–3.6); and cardiac arrhythmias, 2.06 (95% CI 1.75–2.43). Hospital admissions for coronary heart disease were less frequent in people who had schizophrenia than in the general population (admission rate ratio, 0.88 (95% CI 0.83–0.94). In all age groups, survival after hospital admission for CVD was lower in people who had schizophrenia than in the general population.
People who had schizophrenia died 10 years earlier from CVDs than did people in the general population. For all five CVD diagnoses, mortality risk was higher for those with schizophrenia than those in the general population. Survival after hospitalisation for CVDs in people who had schizophrenia was comparable with that of people in the general population who were several decades older.
Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.
Absorption of electrical energy provided to a metal wire in an exploding wire system is thought to be terminated or greatly diminished when the plasma is formed, after the joule heating of the metallic wire by the electrical current. Accordingly, it is common to account for the electrical energy delivered to the wire that the integration of current and voltage signals is halted when the voltage peak changes its slope. Usually, this moment is synchronized with the plasma appearance, as detected by optical sensors. In this work, experimental evidence of a two-step electrical energy absorption in an exploding wire surrounded by atmospheric air is presented. During the first step of the energy absorption the plasma is not formed, indicating that the delivered energy is not enough for ionizing the wire, giving place to a dark pause that lasts until a second energy absorption produces a plasma. The delay between the two steps can reach ≈2.2 µs for copper wires of 50 µm diameter charged at an initial voltage of 10 kV. Experimental investigation of variation of the delay between the two steps with different metals, charging voltages, and wire diameters are presented. A relation of the current density with the initial kinetic energy of the plasma and the electrical current rate is devised as a possible explanation of the observed phenomena.
Commercial aluminum alloys corresponding to Al-Cu-Si family are commonly used in casting and molding process because their high castability. The main characteristics of these alloys are the excellent weight/strength relation in conjunction with wear and corrosion resistance. Additionally, the mechanical properties of these alloys could be enhanced by heat treatment.
In Al A319 alloys, Cu and Mg are the main responsible to increase the mechanical properties after T6 heat treatment due to the precipitation of Al2Cu and Mg2Si and Al2CuMg phase . Combined effects of Ni and Cu improve strength and hardness at relatively elevated temperature , Due to the low solubility of Ni in Al (0.04%), it has been reported the formation of FeAl9FeNi-type intermetallic, which is not totally dissolved with the typical solution treatments used in aluminum alloys . Hayajneh et al., found that increasing amounts of intermetallic compounds Al3Ni, Al3(CuNi)2 and Al7Cu4Ni in Al-Cu alloy, the hardness increase .
The effect of Ni addition and solution treatment time on the microstructure and hardness of the Al A319 alloy are studied by Vickers microhardness (VHN), Rockwell B hardness (HRB), X Ray Diffraction (XRD), Optical Microscopy (OM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
We gathered a multiwavelength dataset of two well-known LBVs. We found a complex mass-loss, with evidence of variability, such as has been seen previously. In addition, our data reveal signatures of collimated stellar winds. We propose a new scenario for these two stars where the nebula shaping is influenced by the presence of a companion star and/or fast rotation.
We study the process of clump formation from hydrodynamic instabilities in stellar wind collisions, using analytical and numerical techniques. We show that the cloud G2 in the Galactic Centre could have been formed in this way, with the most promising sources being compact massive binaries, such as IRS 16SW.
The luminosity profiles perpendicular to the bar of the galaxy NGC 7479 display “shoulders”, which are observationally identified as an increase in the brightness profile (see Figure 1, right). In the literature (see e.g. Buta 1986), the presence of these features in other barred spirals has been reported. The “shoulders” have been attributed to annular structures resulting from the presence of a bar (Schwarz 1981, 1984, 1985), appearing at the OLR. Their stability and the precise modelling depends on the structural parameters of the bar. We attempt to test the plausibility of this theoretical interpretation using 2D photometry of the barred galaxy NGC 7479. The key parameter is the corotation radius (CR), defined as the galactocentric distance at which the gas and the shock wave corotate. From the CR all other Lindblad resonances can be obtained. Some of the techniques used to derive the CR are:
Here we present a study of the structural components of the barred galaxy NGC 5850 using U, B and I photometry. After subtracting a bulge+disk model from the observed image, we obtain the bar and other non-axisymmetric structures. We determine the position of the ILR from the ellipticity and position angle profiles of the isophotes.