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Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) by infants and young children are less explored in Asian populations. The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort study examined associations between SSB intake at 18 months and 5 years of age, with adiposity measures at 6 years of age. We studied Singaporean infants/children with SSB intake assessed by FFQ at 18 months of age (n 555) and 5 years of age (n 767). The median for SSB intakes is 28 (interquartile range 5·5–98) ml at 18 months of age and 111 (interquartile range 57–198) ml at 5 years of age. Association between SSB intake (100 ml/d increments and tertile categories) and adiposity measures (BMI standard deviation scores (sd units), sum of skinfolds (SSF)) and overweight/obesity status were examined using multivariable linear and Poisson regression models, respectively. After adjusting for confounders and additionally for energy intake, SSB intake at age 18 months were not significantly associated with later adiposity measures and overweight/obesity outcomes. In contrast, at age 5 years, SSB intake when modelled as 100 ml/d increments were associated with higher BMI by 0·09 (95 % CI 0·02, 0·16) sd units, higher SSF thickness by 0·68 (95 % CI 0·06, 1·44) mm and increased risk of overweight/obesity by 1·2 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·23) times at age 6 years. Trends were consistent with SSB intake modelled as categorical tertiles. In summary, SSB intake in young childhood is associated with higher risks of adiposity and overweight/obesity. Public health policies working to reduce SSB consumption need to focus on prevention programmes targeted at young children.
At GE Research, we are combining “physics” with artificial intelligence and machine learning to advance manufacturing design, processing, and inspection, turning innovative technologies into real products and solutions across our industrial portfolio. This article provides a snapshot of how this physical plus digital transformation is evolving at GE.
Interstage mortality causes are often unknown in infants with shunt-dependent univentricular defects. For 2 years, screening catheterisation was encouraged before neonatal discharge to determine if routine evaluation improved interstage outcomes.
Retrospective single-centre review of home monitoring programme from December, 2010 to June, 2012. Composite scores were created for physical examination/echocardiography risk factors; catheterisation risk factors; and interstage adverse events. Composite scores were compared between usual care and screening catheterisation groups. The ability of each risk factor composite to predict interstage adverse events, individually and in combination, was assessed with sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic curves.
There were 27 usual care and 32 screening catheterisation patients. There were no significant differences between groups except rates of catheterisation before discharge (29.6 versus 100%, p < 0.001). Usual care patients who underwent catheterisation for clinical indications had higher intervention rates (37.5 versus 3.1%, p = 0.004). Physical examination/echocardiography risk factor frequency was similar, but usual care patients with catheterisation had a higher catheterisation risk factor frequency. Interstage adverse event frequency was similar (48.2 versus 53.1%, p = 0.7). For interstage adverse event prediction, sensitivity for the physical examination/echocardiography, catheterisation, and either risk factor composites was 53.3, 72, and 80%, respectively; specificity was 59, 60, and 48%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.56, 0.66, and 0.64.
Screening catheterisation evaluation offered slightly increased sensitivity and specificity, but no difference in interstage adverse event frequency. Given this small advantage versus known risks, screening catheterisations are no longer encouraged.
Alloy design is critical to achieving the target performance of industrial components and products. In designing new alloys, there are multiple property requirements, including mechanical, environmental, and physical properties, as well as manufacturability and processability. Computational models and tools to predict properties from alloy compositions and to optimize compositions for multiple objectives are essential in enabling efficient, robust alloy design. Data-driven property models by machine learning (ML) are particularly useful in predicting physical properties with relatively simple dependence on composition, and in predicting complex properties that are too difficult for a physics-based model to achieve with desirable accuracy. In this article, we describe examples of ML applications to model coefficient of thermal expansion, creep and fatigue resistance in designing Ni-based superalloys, and optimization methodologies. We also discuss physics-based microstructure models that have been developed for optimizing heat-treatment conditions to achieve desired microstructures.
Tuberculosis is a global health problem that is especially prevalent in developing countries such as India. Recently, atypical presentation has become more common and a high index of suspicion is essential. This study analysed the various presenting symptoms and signs of tuberculous otitis media and the role of diagnostic tests, with the aim of formulating criteria for the diagnosis.
A total of 502 patients underwent tympanomastoidectomy over a two-year period. Microbiological and histopathological examinations and polymerase chain reaction analysis of tissue taken during tympanomastoidectomy were performed.
A total of 25 patients (5 per cent) were diagnosed with tuberculous otitis media. Severe mixed hearing loss, facial palsy, labyrinthine fistula, post-aural fistula, perichondritis and extradural abscess were noted.
There seems to be a resurgence in tuberculous otitis media in India. Microbiological, histopathological and polymerase chain reaction tests for tuberculosis are helpful for its diagnosis.
Little is known about the influence of meal timing and energy consumption patterns throughout the day on glucose regulation during pregnancy. We examined the association of maternal feeding patterns with glycaemic levels among lean and overweight pregnant women. In a prospective cohort study in Singapore, maternal 24-h dietary recalls, fasting glucose (FG) and 2-h postprandial glucose (2HPPG) concentrations were measured at 26–28 weeks of gestation. Women (n 985) were classified into lean (BMI<23 kg/m2) or overweight (BMI≥23 kg/m2) groups. They were further categorised as predominantly daytime (pDT) or predominantly night-time (pNT) feeders according to consumption of greater proportion of energy content from 07.00 to 18.59 hours or from 19.00 to 06.59 hours, respectively. On stratification by weight status, lean pNT feeders were found to have higher FG than lean pDT feeders (4·36 (sd 0·38) v. 4·22 (sd 0·35) mmol/l; P=0·002); however, such differences were not observed between overweight pDT and pNT feeders (4·49 (sd 0·60) v. 4·46 (sd 0·45) mmol/l; P=0·717). Using multiple linear regression with confounder adjustment, pNT feeding was associated with higher FG in the lean group (β=0·16 mmol/l; 95 % CI 0·05, 0·26; P=0·003) but not in the overweight group (β=0·02 mmol/l; 95 % CI −0·17, 0·20; P=0·879). No significant association was found between maternal feeding pattern and 2HPPG in both the lean and the overweight groups. In conclusion, pNT feeding was associated with higher FG concentration in lean but not in overweight pregnant women, suggesting that there may be an adiposity-dependent effect of maternal feeding patterns on glucose tolerance during pregnancy.
In order to fully understand galaxy formation we need to know when in the cosmic history are supermassive black holes (SMBHs) growing more intensively, in what type of galaxies this growth is happening and what fraction of these sources are invisible at most wavelengths due to obscuration. Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) population synthesis models that can explain the spectral shape and intensity of the cosmic X-ray background (CXRB) indicate that most of the SMBH growth occurs in moderate-luminosity (LX~ 1044 erg/s) sources (Seyfert-type AGN), at z~ 0.5−1 and in heavily obscured but Compton-thin, NH~ 1023cm−2, systems. However, this is not the complete history, as a large fraction of black hole growth does not emit significantly in X-rays either due to obscuration, intrinsic low luminosities or large distances. The integrated intensity at high energies indicates that a significant fraction of the total black hole growth, 22%, occurs in heavily-obscured systems that are not individually detected in even the deepest X-ray observations. We further investigate the AGN triggering mechanism as a function of bolometric luminosity, finding evidence for a strong connection between significant black hole growth events and major galaxy mergers from z~ 0 to z~ 3, while less spectacular but longer accretion episodes are most likely due to other (stochastic) processes. AGN activity triggered by major galaxies is responsible for ~60% of the total black hole growth. Finally, we constrain the total accreted mass density in supermassive black holes at z > 6, inferred via the upper limit derived from the integrated X-ray emission from a sample of photometrically selected galaxy candidates. We estimate an accreted mass density <1000 M⊙Mpc−3 at z~ 6, significantly lower than the previous predictions from some existing models of early black hole growth and earlier prior observations.
Polymer nanocomposites (PNC) are complex material systems in which the dominant length scales converge. Our approach to understanding nanocomposite tradespace uses Materials Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (MQSPRs) to relate molecular structures to the polar and dispersive components of corresponding surface tensions. If the polar and dispersive components of surface tensions in the nanofiller and polymer could be determined a priori, then the propensity to aggregate and the change in polymer mobility near the particle could be predicted. Derived energetic parameters such as work of adhesion, work of spreading and the equilibrium wetting angle may then used as input to continuum mechanics approaches that have been shown able to predict the thermomechanical response of nanocomposites and that have been validated by experiment. The informatics approach developed in this work thus enables future in silico nanocomposite design by enabling virtual experiments to be performed on proposed nanocomposite compositions prior to fabrication and testing.
Peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal human volunteers or from Down syndrome patients were pre-treated with sodium butyrate (a compound which is known to induce structural modifications in the chromatin through hyperacetylation of nucleosomal core histones) and exposed to X-irradiation or treated with bleomycin in vitro in the G0 and/or G1 stage(s) of the cell cycle. The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in the first mitosis after treatment were scored.
The results show an enhancement in the yield of aberrations in the butyrate pre-treated groups. However, the absolute frequencies of chromosomal aberrations as well as the relative increases with butyrate pre-treatment varied between blood samples from different donors suggesting the existence of inter-individual variations. There is a parallelism between the effects of X-irradiation or of combined treatments in G0 and G1 stages and between effects observed in the X-ray and bleomycin series. The increase in the yields of chromosomal aberrations in butyrate-treated and X-irradiated lymphocytes (relative to those which received X-irradiation alone) is interpreted as a consequence of the inhibition of repair of DNA damage by butyrate.
Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies were carried out on gamma-irradiated europium-doped yttrium borate samples in the temperature range 300–600 K. TSL studies showed the presence of two glow peaks, a relatively weaker one at 390 K and an intense one at around 550 K. Room-temperature EPR spectrum of irradiated samples revealed the formation of two hole trapped radicals, namely, BO32− and O2−. Temperature variation studies showed drastic reduction in the EPR signal intensities of these radicals around 390 and 550 K indicating thermal destruction of O2− and BO32− radicals, respectively. The observed TSL emission is caused by the recombination of thermally released holes from O2− and BO32− radical ions with electrons. The energy released in electron-hole recombination process is used for the excitation of Eu3+ ion resulting in TSL glow peaks. TSL emission studies confirmed that Eu3+ acts as luminescent center for both the peaks.
Electrotextiles have attracted increasing attention in recent years. The combinations of textile structures that are lightweight, flexible, conformable, and strong, with electronics have aroused keen interest from many disciplines. With technological innovations appearing in both textile and electronics, integration of these has started giving benefits. Innovations like the sensate liner, soft switches and smart composites have found many applications in sports, healthcare, military, aerospace engineering, civil engineering and many other fields. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of various electrotextile products available and explain their functionality. Additionally, the paper provides a review of future electrotextile products, which are in the developmental phase, and the challenges that need to be addressed by researchers and industry.
Quantitative analysis of Na in minerals like feldspar in an Electron Probe Micro Analyser (EPMA) confronts two problems - the first one arising at the time of data acquisiton of Xrays of Na (say Kα) and the second one during conversion of measured xray intensity ratios into true concentration while using certain correction procedure The fall in the count rate of Na xray signals as a function of time under stationary electron beam in EPMA is quite well known. This was attributed to volatilization of Na during electron bombardment. Another explanation for this phenomenon has been that Na+ ions made mobile in the crystal lattice of feldspar by the electron beam, move away from the point of its impact. This results in the fall in the count rate of Na with a corresponding increase in me count rate of matrix element like Si, Al.
To understand the properties of light-sensitive compounds used in optical limiters having photoinduced charge transfer mechanisms, we have investigated the photophysics of a series of di(2-thienyl-3,3'-butyl)polyenes. Spectroscopic measurements, including UV/Vis, fluorescence, fluorescence lifetimes, fluorescence quantum yields, triplet state lifetime, solvent effects and two-photon absorption coefficient were obtained as a function of the number of double bonds(n = 1-5). Trends in the data reflected the ordering, energy gap between and mixing of 1Bu* and 1Ag* excited state configurations.
To understand the properties of light-sensitive compounds used in optical limiters having photoinduced charge transfer mechanisms, we have investigated the photophysics of a series of di(2-thienyl-3,4–butyl)polyenes. Spectroscopic measurements were obtained as a function of the number of double bonds(n = 1–8). From analysis of the bandshape of the emission spectra, we found evidence of vibronic coupling between the S1 and S2 excited states. The degree of coupling increased with solvents of high refractive index. The appearance of the cis band in absorption spectra of dithienyl polyenes having 6–8 double bonds suggested equilibria between scis and s-trans conformors. The cis band intensity increased in lower polarity solvents, implying solvent-induced conformation changes in these dyes. Trends in the data reflected the ordering, energy gap between and mixing of 1Bu* and 1Ag* excited state configurations.
Electrically switchable volume reflection holograms were written by inhomogeneous illumination of a prepolymer syrup containing a nematic liquid crystal and a multifunctional acrylate monomer. Switchable holograms are diffractive optics structures and the diffraction efficiency can be controlled by the application of an electric field. Reflection gratings with grating spacing varying between 0.16-0.27 µm were made during the phase separation of liquid crystals from the fast curing prepolymer syrup. The reflection efficiency of the holograms were electrically modulated with the applied field of ∼10-15V/µm. Real time study of the grating formation revealed that the maximum efficiency is reached in ∼15 seconds. The shrinkage of the host polymer during grating formation resulted in the blue shift of the reflection notch. The response time of the grating in an electric field is ∼50 µs. Low voltage scanning electron microscope studies showed the presence of discrete nematic droplet domains of sizes 30-60 nm in liquid crystal rich region.
The photophysics and nonlinear absorption behaviour of a series of α, ω-dithienyl polyenes were studied in chloroform and n-octane solutions. Steady state fluorescence, fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield measurements were made. The fluorescence quantum yields were significantly lower than those of the corresponding ax,o-diphenyl polyenes. Among the dithienyl polyenes, 3,3′-substituted polyenes exhibited stronger fluorescence than those of the 2,2′-substituted. Nonlinear optical absorption experiments showed evidence of two photon absorption.
The effects of adding various chemical surfactants to the prepolymer syrup on the electro-optical switching properties of Bragg gratings recorded in polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC's) have been studied. The gratings were holographically recorded in prepolymer recipes substituting hexanoic, heptanoic, propylpentanoic and octanoic acids as surfactants in the recipe. A small percentage of monomer containing an attached long chain alkyl group (vinyl neononanoate) was also used instead of a surfactant. The addition of surfactants resulted in lowering the required switching field from 17 V/μm with no surfactant to 1.5 to 8 V/μm at a concentration of about 6.7% by weight, depending on the surfactant. Field on response times for electrical switching decreased with the addition of surfactant, and off times increased.
Thin-films of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) superconductor precursor were synthesized using an electrodeposition process. The YBCO precursor thin films were deposited on Ag foils using pulsed potential deposition conditions of 10 s at - 4 V and 10 s at -1 V (versus Ag reference electrode). The post-annealed films showed zero electrical resistance at 60 K. The procedures for the fabrication of a high precision micro-sensor using YBCO superconductor for measurement of weak magnetic fields are outlined. The micro-sensor templates were patterned using X-rays and precursor films were deposited into the features.
Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements have been employed to characterize the surface aging of HgI2 crystals. A surface model including top surface roughness and subsurface defects was established and studied by VASE analysis, as a function of real time, after the 10% KI chemical etching. In this model, the surface defects associated with the surface aging were modeled by the Bruggeman effective-medium approximation (EMA) as a HgI2/voids mixed layer. The relative 2-dimensional (2D) surface-defectdensities were monitored as the surface aging proceeds. The VASE measurements indicated that high surface aging rates were related to high initial effective 2D surface-defect densities. The AFM profile revealed increasing physical surface roughness as surface aging took place. The cleaved HgI2 crystal surface presented a smooth surface and the lowest surface aging rate, while the as-grown HgI2 surface also presented a very low surface aging. The HgI2 surfaces baked at elevated temperatures presented accelerated surface aging phenomena after a 30 min. baking.