Please note, due to essential maintenance online transactions will not be possible between 02:30 and 04:00 BST, on Tuesday 17th September 2019 (22:30-00:00 EDT, 17 Sep, 2019). We apologise for any inconvenience.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A variable rate drip irrigation (VRDI) system was implemented in early 2013 in a 4.05-ha area inside a drip-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard measuring 12.5 total ha. The VRDI area was split into 140 15×15-meter irrigation zones which were watered independently during three seasons with weekly schedules based on estimated actual ET. Irrigation was scheduled with the objective of decreasing spatial variability while maintaining high yields. Compared to an adjacent, 4.05-ha, conventionally drip irrigated section of the vineyard (CDI); VRDI increased yield and water use efficiency in all three years and decreased spatial dependency and structure in 2013 and 2015.
Hair may be a useful matrix to detect cumulative cortisol concentrations in studies of animal welfare and chronic stress. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for cortisol detection in hair from dairy cattle by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Seventeen adult Holstein–Friesian dairy cows were used during the milking period. Hair cortisol concentration was assessed in 25-day-old hair samples taken from the frontal region of the head, analysing black and white coloured hair separately. Concentrations of cortisol metabolites were determined in faeces collected twice a week during the same period of time. There was a high correlation between cortisol values in faeces and cortisol in white colour hair samples but such correlation was not significant with the black colour hair samples. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.9% and 10.6%, respectively. The linearity showed R2=0.98 and mean percentage error of −10.8±1.55%. The extraction efficiency was 89.0±23.52% and the parallelism test showed similar slopes. Cortisol detection in hair by using EIA seems to be a valid method to represent long-term circulating cortisol levels in dairy cattle.
The generation of reactive oxygen species associated with cryopreservation could be responsible for mammalian sperm damage and the limitable value of stored semen in artificial insemination. The aim of this study was to assess several antioxidant agents supplemented in a commercial freezing extender (Gent B®) in order to improve post-thaw rabbit sperm quality. Ejaculates of 26 New Zealand White rabbit bucks were collected, evaluated and frozen using a conventional protocol. Antioxidant agents were tested at different concentrations: bovine serum albumin (BSA; 5, 30 or 60 mg/ml), retinol (RO; 50, 100 or 200 μM) and retinyl (RI; 0.282 or 2.82 μg/ml). Per cent viability, morphological abnormalities and intact acrosomes were determined using eosin–nigrosin staining. Motility and progressivity were analyzed by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). In general, all sperm quality parameters were negatively affected by the cryopreservation process, the largest effect seen was for total motility. The addition of antioxidant agents did not improve thaw sperm quality. Furthermore, for RI groups a significant decrease in sperm quality parameters was recorded. In conclusion, rabbit sperm quality is negatively affected by the cryopreservation process. To our knowledge this report is the first using these antioxidants to supplement rabbit freezing extender. BSA and RO at concentrations used in the study did not improve sperm quality parameters after thawing, whereas RI supplementation appeared to be toxic. More studies are required to find the appropriate antioxidants necessary and their most effective concentrations to improve rabbit post-thaw sperm quality.
We present a comprehensive overview of the large spectroscopic evidence on the influence of ordering on the Raman and infrared spectra of partially ordered GaInP2. Our phonon mode calculation within the adiabatic bond charge model describes the appearance of new phonons and also the optical anisotropy.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.