To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Obesity is highly prevalent and disabling, especially in individuals with severe mental illness including bipolar disorders (BD). The brain is a target organ for both obesity and BD. Yet, we do not understand how cortical brain alterations in BD and obesity interact.
We obtained body mass index (BMI) and MRI-derived regional cortical thickness, surface area from 1231 BD and 1601 control individuals from 13 countries within the ENIGMA-BD Working Group. We jointly modeled the statistical effects of BD and BMI on brain structure using mixed effects and tested for interaction and mediation. We also investigated the impact of medications on the BMI-related associations.
BMI and BD additively impacted the structure of many of the same brain regions. Both BMI and BD were negatively associated with cortical thickness, but not surface area. In most regions the number of jointly used psychiatric medication classes remained associated with lower cortical thickness when controlling for BMI. In a single region, fusiform gyrus, about a third of the negative association between number of jointly used psychiatric medications and cortical thickness was mediated by association between the number of medications and higher BMI.
We confirmed consistent associations between higher BMI and lower cortical thickness, but not surface area, across the cerebral mantle, in regions which were also associated with BD. Higher BMI in people with BD indicated more pronounced brain alterations. BMI is important for understanding the neuroanatomical changes in BD and the effects of psychiatric medications on the brain.
A 5-week feeding trial was conducted in the cleaner fish Ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) for a better understanding of the basic biology of the intestinal functions and health in this stomach less species. During the trial, Ballan wrasse was fed either a reference diet, the reference diet supplemented with (i) a commercial prebiotic (Aquate™ SG, 0·4 %) expected to have beneficial effects, (ii) soya saponins (0·7 %) expected to induce inflammation or (iii) a combination of the prebiotics and the soya saponins to find a remedy for gut inflammation. Blood, intestinal tissue and gut content from four consecutive intestinal segments (IN1 – IN4) were collected. No significant differences in fish growth were observed between the four dietary groups. Saponin supplementation, both alone and in combination with prebiotics, increased weight index of IN2 and IN3 and decreased blood plasma glucose, cholesterol and total protein. Dry matter of intestinal content and activity of digestive enzymes were not affected by diet. Histomorphological analyses revealed a progressing inflammation with increased infiltration by immune cells particularly into the distal parts of the intestine in fish fed diets with saponins, both alone and in combination with prebiotics. Gene expression profiles obtained by RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR mirrored the histological and biochemical changes induced by the saponin load. The study demonstrated that Ballan wrasse gut health and digestive function may be markedly affected by feed ingredients containing antinutrients.
China plays a critical role in global biodiversity conservation, as both a biodiversity hotspot and for its role in international and domestic animal trade. Efforts to promote wildlife conservation have sparked interest in the attitudes held by Chinese citizens towards animals. Using a questionnaire, we sought to investigate the attitudes of 317 Chinese nationals across 22 provincial-level administrative units regarding their uses of animals, their perceived emotional capacities and views on exotic pets. We reduced the variables related to perceived uses of animals via Principal Component Analysis and ran Generalised Linear Models and Structural Equation Modelling to test relationships between questionnaire-derived variables. Perceptions of animals were divided into two Kellert categories — Utilitarian and Humanistic uses — and 97% of participants believed in animals’ capacities to have and express emotions. We found few interactions, with exotic pets, ie playing with or taking photographs, but the acceptability of owning an exotic pet influenced the likelihood of purchasing one. A belief that animals express emotions encouraged people to look for them as pets but thinking that pets make people happy made exotic pet ownership less acceptable. The shift in attitudes to include humanistic perceptions of animals, a belief in animals as emotive beings and understanding of terminology changed from the previous utilitarian views of pre-reform China, suggesting a readiness to embrace further conservation efforts in China. This deeper understanding of Chinese attitudes toward animals and drivers of the exotic pet trade within China may enable conservation efforts to better target future campaigns.
To explore how vocational rehabilitation (VR) is currently delivered for individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) across multiple stakeholder groups and identify areas for improvement in service delivery using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR).
Seven focus groups were conducted with rehabilitation clinicians; outreach providers, insurers/regulators, VR providers and disability employment service providers (n = 44) experienced in VR of individuals with ABI. All groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was guided by the CFIR constructs.
All stakeholder groups believed they offered quality VR interventions given available resources and legislation, but many clients fell through the ‘cracks’. Themes that were identified included: a) number and complexity of systems supporting VR; b) fractured communication across systems, c) lack of knowledge by both stakeholders and clients in navigating systems, d) lack of expertise in supporting the vocational needs of clients with ABI and e) perceived limited awareness of ABI by employers.
Stakeholders and clients need support to navigate Australia’s complex VR pathways. Limited specialist ABI clinicians, VR providers and disability employment services were identified as barriers for effective VR. Domains of the CFIR were appropriate for organising and understanding how VR is delivered.