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From the prevention of natural disasters such as landslide and avalanches, to the enhancement of energy efficiencies in chemical and civil engineering industries, understanding the collective dynamics of granular materials is a fundamental question that are closely related to our daily lives. Using a recently developed multi-static radar system operating at 10 GHz (X-band), we explore the possibility of tracking a projectile moving inside a granular medium, focusing on possible sources of uncertainties in the detection and reconstruction processes. On the one hand, particle tracking with continuous-wave radar provides an extremely high temporal resolution. On the other hand, there are still challenges in obtaining tracer trajectories accurately. We show that some of the challenges can be resolved through a correction of the IQ mismatch in the raw signals obtained. Consequently, the tracer trajectories can be obtained with sub-millimeter spatial resolution. Such an advance can not only shed light on radar particle tracking, but also on a wide range of scenarios where issues relevant to IQ mismatch arise.
We perform a numerical study of the heat transfer and flow structure of Rayleigh–Bénard (RB) convection in (in most cases regular) porous media, which are comprised of circular, solid obstacles located on a square lattice. This study is focused on the role of porosity
in the flow properties during the transition process from the traditional RB convection with
(so no obstacles included) to Darcy-type porous-media convection with
approaching 0. Simulations are carried out in a cell with unity aspect ratio, for Rayleigh number
and varying porosities
, at a fixed Prandtl number
, and we restrict ourselves to the two-dimensional case. For fixed
, the Nusselt number
is found to vary non-monotonically as a function of
; namely, with decreasing
, it first increases, before it decreases for
approaching 0. The non-monotonic behaviour of
originates from two competing effects of the porous structure on the heat transfer. On the one hand, the flow coherence is enhanced in the porous media, which is beneficial for the heat transfer. On the other hand, the convection is slowed down by the enhanced resistance due to the porous structure, leading to heat transfer reduction. For fixed
, depending on
, two different heat transfer regimes are identified, with different effective power-law behaviours of
, namely a steep one for low
when viscosity dominates, and the standard classical one for large
. The scaling crossover occurs when the thermal boundary layer thickness and the pore scale are comparable. The influences of the porous structure on the temperature and velocity fluctuations, convective heat flux and energy dissipation rates are analysed, further demonstrating the competing effects of the porous structure to enhance or reduce the heat transfer.
Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disease worldwide. Adults with mental ill-health smoke tobacco at substantially higher rates than other adults, with public health approaches effective in the population overall having less impact on those with mental ill-health. However, less is known about the tobacco smoking behaviours, attitudes and knowledge of young people with mental ill-health, despite this being the peak period of onset for both mental illness and cigarette smoking.
Young people attending a youth mental health centre (providing both primary and specialist care) in Melbourne, Australia were approached by youth peer researchers and asked to complete a survey about smoking behaviours, attitudes and knowledge. We examined smoking and associated attitudes in the sample overall, and as a function of the services accessed.
In total, 114 young people completed the survey, with 56.3% reporting lifetime cigarette smoking, 42.0% smoking in the last 12 months and 28.6% in the past week. Of current regular smokers, 75.0% acknowledged they should quit in the future; however, only 23.5% planned to do so in the next month, with 44.4% confident that they could quit. Participants lacked knowledge about interactions between tobacco smoking, mental and physical health.
Youth presenting for mental ill-health had high rates of cigarette smoking relative to population rates. Presentation at youth mental health services may represent a critical window for early intervention to reduce the lifetime impacts of cigarette smoking in mental ill-health. Interventions to support smoking cessation in this group are urgently needed.
This volume provides a new critical text of the Prologue and the first two books of Venantius Fortunatus' Vita Sancti Martini, a work, written in the latter half of the sixth century, which paraphrases in epic verse the famous prose hagiography of St Martin by Sulpicius Severus. This edition offers the first English translation of and the first full commentary on that part of Venantius' poem. Venantius was one of the last writers in a recognisably classical Latin tradition and his Vita affords a fascinating insight into the language and literary culture of his time. It is, however, a deceptively allusive and difficult poem, and the introduction and commentary of this book deal extensively with matters of exegesis, textual criticism, language, metre and much else. It will be valuable for students of the literature and culture of late Latin antiquity, and for those interested in early Christianity and hagiography.
Fasciolosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease that seriously endangers the development of animal husbandry and human health. In order to develop a rapid serological diagnostic method for fasciolosis in ruminants, the CatL1D and CatB4 genes of Fasciola hepatica were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned, respectively, and then the CatL-B fusion gene (MeCatL-B) was constructed by gene splicing by overlap extension PCR technique. The recombinant rCatL1D, rCatB4 and rMeCatL-B proteins were then prepared by prokaryotic expression, respectively, and the recombinant protein with high specificity and sensitivity was screened via indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using the selected recombinant protein rCatL1D as a diagnostic antigen, we developed a colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay (CGIA) for detecting F. hepatica-specific antibodies, and 426 serum samples of slaughtered sheep were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of F. hepatica CGIA assay. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of rCatL1D protein (100%, 96.67%) were higher than those of rCatB4 (94.29%, 80%) and rMeCatL-B (91.43%, 90%). Compared with the gold standard post-mortem inspection, the specificity and sensitivity of the CGIA method was 100% and 97%, respectively, and the consistency rate between these two methods was 99.3%. These results confirmed that the CGIA method based on rCatL1D protein could be a promising approach for rapid diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis because of its high sensitivity and specificity.
Limpets and barnacles are important components of intertidal assemblages worldwide. This study examines the effects of barnacles on the foraging behaviour of the limpet Patella vulgata, which is the main algal grazer in the North-west Atlantic. The behaviour of limpets on a vertical seawall on the Isle of Man (UK) was investigated using autonomous radio-telemetry, comparing their activity patterns on plots characterized by dense barnacle cover and plots from which the barnacles had been removed. Limpet behaviour was investigated at mid-shore level, but two different elevations were considered. This experiment revealed a significant effect of barnacle cover on the activity of P. vulgata. Limpets on smooth surfaces spent a greater proportion of total time active than did limpets on barnacles. Movement activity was also greater in areas that were lower down in the tidal range. In general, limpets were either predominantly active during diurnal high or nocturnal low tides and always avoided nocturnal high tides. Individuals on barnacles at the higher elevation concentrated their activity during nocturnal low water. All the other groups of limpets (smooth surfaces on the upper level and all individuals on the lower shore) had more excursions centred around daylight hours with an equal distribution of activity between periods of low and high water. Inter-individual variability was, however, pronounced.