High efficiency solar cells require large surface layers as acceptor , Nanoporous titanium dioxide film is an optimun choice for that purpose. For instance, porous titanium dioxide film of one micrometer thickness, prepared by colloidal chemistry, has a porous surface whose area is 100 times larger than the surface of a compact planar film. Obviously, accessibility to surface and crystal phase of the titanium dioxide are of prime importance. In this work, we characterize nanoporous titanium dioxide membranes on Si substrate by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction.
Colloidal TiO2 sols were prepared by a wet chemical method . The resulting colloidal TiO2 sol was autoclaved in a titanium autoclave for 12h at 230°C. A portion of the autoclaved sol was concentrated under vacuum at 30°C until a concentration of 20% TiO2 (by weight) was reached. 40% (by weight of Ti02) carbowax was added to this paste and stirred over night at room temperature.