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We study a class of growing systems of random walks on regular trees, known as frog models with geometric lifetime in the literature. With the help of results from renewal theory, we derive new bounds for their critical parameters. Our approach also improves the existing bounds for the critical parameter of a percolation model on trees known as cone percolation.
Protected designation of origin dry-cured hams are obtained from heavy pigs (slaughtered at about 160 kg of live weight). A specific breeding program designed to improve meat quality for this production has included as key traits the level of intermuscular fat between the leg muscles and ham weight loss during the seasoning period together with a balance between fat and lean cuts. In this study we carried out genome-wide association studies for seven traits used in the genetic merit of Italian Duroc heavy pigs, five related to meat and carcass quality traits (visible intermuscular fat, ham weight loss at first salting, backfat thickness, ham weight and lean cuts), and two related to performance and efficiency traits (average daily gain and feed : gain ratio). A total of 573 performance-tested pigs were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and genome-wide association analyses were carried out using the Bayes B approach with the 1 Mb window option of GenSel and random residuals for each of the seven traits. Detected windows were supported by independent single nucleotide polymorphism analyses with a linear mixed model (LMM) approach on the same animals for the same traits. A total of 30 windows identifying different quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected and among those, 27 were confirmed by LMM in one of these traits. Among the confirmed windows, three QTL were reported for visible intermuscular fat, seven for ham weight loss at first salting and five and four for backfat thickness and lean cut, respectively. A total of eight QTL were detected for the other production traits. No overlapping QTL were reported except for one window on porcine chromosome 10 between lean cuts and ham weight that contained the CACNB2 gene that has been already associated with loin marbling score in other Duroc pigs. Several regions contained genes that have been already associated with production traits in other pig breeds, including Duroc lines, related to fat deposition or muscle structure. This work reports, for the first time, genome-wide association study results for several traits in Italian Duroc heavy pigs. These results will be useful to dissect the genetic basis for dry-cured ham production traits that determine the total genetic merit index of Italian Duroc pigs.
Functional traits related to costs are currently of interest for selection and management of dairy cattle. The present study was aimed to estimate heritability for body condition score (BCS) and heart girth (HG), to investigate the genetic relationships between BCS, HG and milk-yield traits using a test-day model and to analyse the consistency of the estimates in different lactation stages. Cows from 25 dairy herds were scored for BCS and measured for HG at 3-month intervals for 2 years. Approximately 5000 test-day observations on BCS, HG and milk fat and protein yield from 1429 Italian Friesian cows were analysed using two approaches: (1) repeated observations were treated as repeated measurements of the same trait, both within and across lactations; (2) observations collected in different stages of lactation (dry period, 1 to 75 days in milk (DIM), 76 to 130 DIM, 131 to 210 DIM, 211 to 300 DIM) were treated as different traits. (Co)variance components and related parameters were estimated using REML multiple-trait procedures and unequal design animal models.
Heritability estimates (approach 1) for fat and protein test-day yield, BCS and HG were 0.22, 0.18, 0.29 and 0.33, respectively. BCS was negatively correlated with yield traits (-0.43 and -0.48 for fat and protein yield, respectively) but positively correlated (0.33) with HG. Genetic relationships between HG and milk-yield traits were negligible. Heritability estimates (approach 2) were 0.28 and 0.27 for BCS recorded in the first half of lactation (1 to 75 and 76 to 130 DIM, respectively), 0.36 for BCS measured on cows in the second half of lactation and 0.32 for BCS recorded on dry cows. Heritability estimates for HG in different lactation stages ranged from 0.31 to 0.40. Genetic correlations between BCS measured in different lactation stages were generally high (0.85 or more), with the exception of the correlation between the first and the last stage of lactation (0.74) and of the relationships between the beginning of lactation and the dry period (0.7). Genetic correlations between HG measured in different lactation stages were mostly higher than 0.80.
Head and neck space infections present with a potential mortality rate of 40–50 per cent. This paper proposes an algorithm-based management of head and neck space infection to prevent life-threatening events.
A total of 225 patients with head and neck space infection were prospectively analysed at our institution. An experimental scoring system determined the level of clinical risk for the development of major complications. Accordingly, patients were classified into three risk groups: low-, intermediate- and high-risk.
Only intermediate- and high-risk patients were hospitalised. Intermediate-risk patients received intravenous medical therapy with daily re-evaluation; 18 of them required delayed surgery. Of the high-risk patients, three required immediate surgical treatment and five received delayed surgery, while in five cases medical therapy was the only treatment received. Low-risk patients were treated in an out-patient setting.
The algorithm-based management of head and neck space infection was successful in enabling the avoidance of lethal complications onset.
Blood serum proteins are significant indicators of animal health. Nevertheless, several factors should be considered to appropriately interpret their concentrations in blood. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to assess the effect of herd productivity, breed, age and stage of lactation on serum proteins and (2) to investigate association between serum proteins and somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cattle. Milk and blood samples were collected from 1508 cows of six different breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, Jersey, Simmental, Rendena and Alpine Grey) that were housed in 41 multi-breed herds. Milk samples were analyzed for composition and SCC, while blood samples were analyzed for serum proteins (i.e. total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin-to-globulin ratio (A : G)). Herds were classified as low or high production, according to the cow’s average daily milk energy yield adjusted for breed, days in milk (DIM) and parity. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model that included the fixed effects of DIM, parity, SCS, breed, herd productivity and the random effect of the Herd-test date within productivity level. Cows in high producing herds (characterized also by greater use of concentrates in the diet) had greater serum albumin concentrations. Breed differences were reported for all traits, highlighting a possible genetic mechanism. The specialized breed Jersey and the two dual-purpose local breeds (Alpine Grey and Rendena) had the lowest globulin concentration and greatest A : G. Changes in serum proteins were observed through lactation. Total protein reached the highest concentration during the 4th month of lactation. Blood albumin increased with DIM following a quadratic pattern, while globulin decreased linearly. As a consequence, A : G increased linearly during lactation. Older cows had greater total protein and globulin concentrations, while albumin concentration seemed to be not particularly affected by age. A linear relationship between serum proteins and SCS was observed. High milk SCS was associated with greater total protein and globulin concentrations in blood. The rise in globulin concentration, together with a decrease in albumin concentrations, resulted in a decline in A : G as SCS of milk increased. In conclusion, such non-genetic factors must be considered to appropriately interpret serum proteins as potential animal welfare indicator and their evaluation represents an important first-step for future analysis based on the integration of metabolomics, genetic and genomic information for improving the robustness of dairy cows.
Albatrosses (Diomedeidae) and large petrels (Macronectes and Procellaria spp.) are among the world’s most rapidly declining birds. Some of the most endangered species, Amsterdam Albatross Diomedea amsterdamensis, Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche carteri and Sooty Albatross Phoebetria fusca, are at risk from recurrent avian cholera outbreaks. Yet little is known about the overall impact of disease in this group. We compiled all available information on pathogens described in albatrosses and large petrel species listed under the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP) (n = 31). Available reports (n = 53) comprise nearly 60% of ACAP species (18/31). However, only 38% of them focus on threatened species (20/53), and 43% solely report macroparasite findings (23/53). Black-browed Albatross Thalassarche melanophrys (Near Threatened) and Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus (Least Concern) are the two species with higher number of publications (29/53, 55% of all papers). Conversely, seven species on the IUCN Red List have three papers or less each. Most existing research has resulted from disease or mortality investigations and baseline studies (28 and 32%, respectively). Pathogens reported in the subset of ACAP species, included bacteria in seven species (39%), viruses in five (28%), protozoa in four (22%), helminths in nine (50%), ectoparasites in 13 (72%) and fungi in one species (5%). Avian cholera, caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, appears as the most severe threat to ACAP species. Infections by poxvirus are the most common viral finding, yet entail lower population level impact. Few serosurveys report pathogen exposure in these species, but add valuable baseline information. There are numerous obvious gaps in species and geographical coverage and likely under-reporting due to remoteness, accessibility and sporadic monitoring. This insufficient knowledge may be hampering effective protection and management of populations at risk. Attention to species currently affected by avian cholera is of utmost priority.
The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a potential source of proteins for poultry, mainly for laying hens whose protein requirements are lower than those of other birds such as growing broilers and turkeys. However, this feedstuff contains anti-nutritional factors, that is, vicine (V) and convicine (C) that are already known to reduce laying hen performance. The aim of the experiment reported here was to evaluate the effects of a wide range of dietary V and C concentrations in laying hens. Two trials were performed with laying hens fed diets including 20% or 25% of faba bean genotypes highly contrasting in V+C content. In Trial 1, faba beans from two tannin-containing cultivars, but with high or low V+C content were dehulled in order to eliminate the tannin effect. In addition to the contrasting levels of V+C in the two cultivars, two intermediate levels of V+C were obtained by mixing the two cultivars (70/30 and 30/70). In Trial 2, two isogenic zero-tannin faba bean genotypes with high or low V+C content were used. In both trials, a classical corn–soybean diet was also offered to control hens. Each experimental diet was given to 48 laying hens for 140 (Trial 1) or 89 (Trial 2) days. Laying performance and egg quality were measured. The redox sensitivity of red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed by measuring hemolysis and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in these cells. Egg weight was significantly reduced by the diets containing the highest concentrations of V+C (P<0.0001) in Trial 1 and slightly reduced (P<0.10) in Trial 2, but only weak linear relationships between egg weight and dietary V+C concentration were established. No negative effect of V+C level was observed for egg quality parameters. In contrast, certain parameters (i.e. Haugh units, yolk color) were improved by feeding low V+C diets (P<0.05). Hemolysis of RBCs was higher in hens fed high V+C diets. A decrease in GSH concentration in RBCs of hens fed the highest levels of V+C was observed. Faba bean genotypes with low concentrations of V+C can therefore be used in laying hen diets up to 25% without any detrimental effects on performance levels or egg characteristics, without any risk of hemolysis of RBCs.
We present results from our ongoing monitoring programs aimed at identifying and understanding Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in extreme flux and spectral states. Observations of AGN in extreme states can reveal the nature of the inner accretion flow, the physics of matter under strong gravity, and they provide insight on the properties of ionized absorbers and outflows launched near supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We present new results from our long-term monitoring of IC 3599, WPVS007, and Mrk 335, multi-wavelength follow-ups of the newly identified changing-look AGN HE 1136–2304, and UV–X-ray follow-ups of the binary SMBH candidate OJ 287 after its 2015 optical maximum, now in a new optical-X-ray–high-state.
Sur la proposition du Comité exécutif, l’Assemblée générale du 13 juillet 1928, réunie à Leyde, adopta la résolution suivante:
“Le Comité exécutif espère que d’ici à la fin de la présente convention (31 décembre 1931) la direction du Bureau de l’Heure pourra être exercée par le Directeur de l’Observatoire de Paris, et qu’après cette date l’activité actuelle du Bureau pourra être conservée sans faire appel aux fonds limités de l’Union, peut-être avec la coopération d’observatoires et autres institutions.”
Depuis la dernière réunion, notre commission s’est transformée en une commission internationale mixte dépendant à la fois de l’Union astronomique et de l’Union géodésique et géophysique internationales.
On se rappelle que l’Assemblée générale, réunie à Leiden, a émis le vœu que le Président de l’U.A.I. s’entretienne avec le Président de l’Union de Géodésie et de Géophysique et le prie d’examiner s’il serait possible que celle-ci apporte quelque contribution aux dépenses du Bureau international de l’Heure. Comme suite à ce vœu, l’Assemblée générale de cette dernière Union, réunie à Lisboa en 1933, a adopté la résolution suivante:
“L’Union géodésique et géophysique internationale décide qu’une subvention régulière annuelle sera allouée par elle au Bureau international de l’Heure, dans les limites de ses crédits et des besoins du Bureau.
Depuis la réunion de Cambridge, en 1932, la Commission de la Carte du Ciel a vu, avec un profond regret, disparaître son vénérable et eminent Président d’Honneur, M. Benjamin Bafflaud, artisan de la première heure de l’œuvre de la Carte du Ciel. Il était l’un des rares survivants du Congrès initial de Paris en 1887. Comme directeur de l’Observatoire de Toulouse d’abord, de l’Observatoire de Paris ensuite, il avait pris aux travaux une grande part personnelle; comme Président du Comité international permanent, il avait été, pendant de longues années, l’ordonnateur et l’animateur de l’œuvre. Il n’avait jamais cessé de s’en occuper.
Durant la période de 1933 à 1936 le Bulletin Horaire a donné les heures définitives des signaux horaires d’après la moyenne de 15 observatoires. A partir du Ier janvier 1937 on introduit trois observatoires en plus (Kharkov, Manille et Tokyo), qui communiquent régulièrement leurs résultats au B.I.H.
Au Bureau International de l’Heure certains perfectionnements sont actuelle ment en voie de réalisation. Il s’agit d’une horloge à diapason d’une part, et, de l’autre, d’un ensemble nouveau pour l’émission des signaux horaires. M. Lambert va donner une communication sur ce sujet.
Depuis le dernier Rapport, la Commission de la Carte du Ciel a été durement et douloureusement éprouvée par la mort imprévue de son eminent Président H. H. Turner. Il laisse parmi ses collègues de profonds et unanimes regrets.
Il s’était ardemment dévoué à ses fonctions de Président et, plus particulièrement, à l’achèvement du Catalogue photographique, auquel, sous sa direction, l’Observatoire de l’Université d’Oxford avait déjà pris une grande part. Sous son impulsion, et souvent avec le concours de son Observatoire, des Zones en retard avaient accompli d’importants progrès. Sa fin prématurée ne lui aura pas permis de voir le Catalogue terminé. Après comme avant la mort de Turner, la poursuite de ce but, qui lui était cher, demeure la tâche la plus urgente.
L’œuvre entreprise il y a cinquante ans par l’ancien Comité Permanent de la Carte du Ciel n’a pas été intégralement accomplie. Si certaines de ses parties peuvent être considérées comme terminées, d’autres ont été perdues de vue ou abandonnées.
La tâche de la Commission de la Carte du Ciel doit être maintenant d’examiner, à la lueur de cinquante années de progrès scientifiques, et en tenant compte du travail déjà fait, quelles sont celles des anciennes recommandations du Comité Permanent dont il y a lieu de poursuivre l’exécution.
Animals destined for meat production are usually exposed to many stressful conditions during production and particularly during preslaughter operations. Handling animals on farm, loading into and unloading from vehicles, transportation, passing through livestock markets, fasting, lairage and stunning can all affect their welfare. How badly welfare can be affected will depend on both the intrinsic factors of the specific type of animal involved and the extrinsic factors of the environment where those animals live or are being handled, including the animal handlers. In South America (SA), it has been part of a strategy for improving animal welfare (AW) to address not only ethical aspects, but to emphasize the close relationship existing between handling ruminants preslaughter and the quantity and quality of the meat they produce. This has resulted not only in improvements in AW, but has also brought economic rewards to producers which in turn can lead to higher incomes for them and hence better human welfare. For producers with a high number of animals, considering AW during production and preslaughter operations can determine the possibility of exporting and/or getting better prices for their products. At smallfarmer level, particularly in some less developed countries, where human welfare is impaired, using this strategy together with education has also been relevant. It is important that education and training in AW are done not only considering global knowledge, but also including specific geographical and climatic characteristics of each country and the cultural, religious and socio-economical characteristics of its people; therefore, research within the context of each country or region becomes relevant. The aim of this review was to show the results of research dealing with AW of ruminant livestock in Chile and some other SA countries. Some of the main problems encountered are related to lack of proper infrastructure to handle animals; long distance transport with high stocking densities in the larger countries; long fasting times due to animals passing through livestock markets and dealers; bad handling of animals by untrained personnel in these and other premises; and finally the lack of knowledge and skills by operators in charge of stunning procedures. Interventions at these stages have considered training animal handlers and transporters by showing them the consequences of bad handling with audiovisual material prepared on site. Research results have helped to improve AW and support the development of new legislation or to make changes in the existent legislation related to AW.
Genomic selection is becoming a common practise in dairy cattle, but only few works have studied its introduction in pig selection programs. Results described for this species are highly dependent on the considered traits and the specific population structure. This paper aims to simulate the impact of genomic selection in a pig population with a training cohort of performance-tested and slaughtered full sibs. This population is selected for performance, carcass and meat quality traits by full-sib testing of boars. Data were simulated using a forward-in-time simulation process that modeled around 60K single nucleotide polymorphisms and several quantitative trait loci distributed across the 18 porcine autosomes. Data were edited to obtain, for each cycle, 200 sires mated with 800 dams to produce 800 litters of 4 piglets each, two males and two females (needed for the sib test), for a total of 3200 newborns. At each cycle, a subset of 200 litters were sib tested, and 60 boars and 160 sows were selected to replace the same number of culled male and female parents. Simulated selection of boars based on performance test data of their full sibs (one castrated brother and two sisters per boar in 200 litters) lasted for 15 cycles. Genotyping and phenotyping of the three tested sibs (training population) and genotyping of the candidate boars (prediction population) were assumed. Breeding values were calculated for traits with two heritability levels (h2=0.40, carcass traits, and h2=0.10, meat quality parameters) on simulated pedigrees, phenotypes and genotypes. Genomic breeding values, estimated by various models (GBLUP from raw phenotype or using breeding values and single-step models), were compared with the classical BLUP Animal Model predictions in terms of predictive ability. Results obtained for traits with moderate heritability (h2=0.40), similar to the heritability of traits commonly measured within a sib-testing program, did not show any benefit from the introduction of genomic selection. None of the considered genomic models provided improvements in prediction ability of pigs with no recorded phenotype. However, a few advantages were found for traits with low heritability (h2=0.10). These heritability levels are characteristic for meat quality traits recorded after slaughtering or for reproduction or health traits, typically recorded on field and not in performance stations. Other scenarios of data recording and genotyping should be evaluated before considering the implementation of genomic selection in a pig-selection scheme based on sib testing of boars.
The aim of this trial was to assess the effects of the administration of
different combinations of mycotoxins in naturally contaminated maize grains on
dairy heifer growth, blood measurements and puberty onset. A total of 35
Friesian female heifers were randomly allotted to three experimental groups from
18–21 to 42–45 weeks of age. During the 24-week
experimental period (EP), heifers were fed the same diet, but with maize meal
derived from three differently contaminated lots: very low contamination, as
control (C); medium–low aflatoxin-contaminated (A); and mixed
aflatoxin–fumonisin contaminated (A-F). At the end of the EP, they
returned to a common diet without contaminated maize, and they were monitored
for an additional period of 12 weeks (post-experimental period, PEP). BW, wither
height, hip height, body length and heart girth were measured every 4 weeks from
the beginning of EP to the end of PEP. At the same time, body condition score
was evaluated and blood samples were taken from the jugular vein to be analysed
for haematological, serum protein and metabolic profiles. Age at puberty was
assessed by measuring weekly plasma progesterone levels from 40 to 52 weeks of
age. Body growth measurements were processed both by ANOVA of average daily gain
of EP and PEP separately, and by the analysis of growth curve parameters.
Haematological, serum protein and metabolic profile were evaluated using a mixed
model, taking into account the repeated measurements in time on each animal.
Heifers’ growth was delayed both in A and A-F groups during EP, as
evidenced by the different linear coefficients of the BW growth curve in the
three groups. Differently contaminated diets did not affect the haematological
profile, so that it can be concluded that these levels of mycotoxin
contamination do not determine any specific effect on haematopoiesis and
immunity in growing heifers. The main blood marker of mycotoxin chronic toxicity
was the γ-glutamyl transferase activity level in
plasma, which appeared to be altered even after the removal of mycotoxins.
During EP, plasma glucose was lower in the groups fed contaminated diet compared
with C. The joint actions of an altered nutritional status and a long-lasting
liver damage were probably the causes of the delay in puberty attainment in A
and, particularly, in the A-F group. The results from this trial evidenced that
a chronic aflatoxin–fumonisin contamination in diets of dairy heifers
can determine an important delay in the reproductive career of these
Moulds belonging to Penicillium section roqueforti are common contaminants of feedstuffs and produce several mycotoxins that can cause health hazards when ingested by farm animals. Among these, PR toxin (PR), mycophenolic acid (MY) and roquefortine C (RC) have been frequently detected in forages, particularly silages. The aims of the current trials were to study the effects of the presence of pure mycotoxins on in vitro rumen fermentation parameters and to assess their stability in the rumen environment. Two successive in vitro gas production experiments were carried out: a central composite design with four replications of central point (CCD) and a completely randomized design with a fully factorial arrangement of treatments (FFD). In CCD, the effects of PR, MY and RC concentrations in diluted rumen fluid (i.e. 0·01, 0·30, 1·01, 1·71 and 2·00 μg of each mycotoxin/ml) were tested. Gas volume produced after 48 h of incubation (Vf) decreased linearly as concentrations of RC and MY in diluted rumen fluid increased, with marginal effects similar for two mycotoxins, being respectively −14·6 and −13·4 ml/g organic matter (OM) for each 1·0 μg/ml of increment in mycotoxin concentration. Similarly, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production decreased quadratically as concentrations of RC and MY increased, with marginal effects about two times higher for MY than RC, being −4·22 and −2·62 mmol/l for each 1·0 μg/ml of increment in mycotoxin concentration. With respect to maximum Vf (i.e. 410·6 ml/g OM) and VFA (98·06 mmol/l) values estimated by the model, decreases of 13·6 and 15·2% were obtained when incubating the highest RC and MY concentrations, respectively. The PR did not interfere with rumen fermentation pattern and it was not recovered after 48 h of incubation, whereas the stabilities of MY and RC in rumen fluid were similar and on average equal to about 50%. On the basis of CCD results, a second experiment (FFD) was carried out in which only effects of MY and RC concentrations (i.e. 0, 0·67, 1·33 and 2·00 μg of each mycotoxin/ml of diluted rumen fluid) were tested. Data from FFD showed Vf decreased linearly when concentrations of MY and RC increased, with marginal effect two-folds higher for MY than for RC (−11·1 ml/g OM and −6·7 ml/g OM, respectively). Similar marginal effects of MY and RC in decreasing VFA production were recorded: −2·38 and −2·86 mmol/l for each 1·0 μg/ml of increment in mycotoxin concentration, respectively. At the highest RC and MY tested concentrations, Vf and VFA decreased by 8·7 and 10·7%, respectively, over maximum estimated values. In FFD, the average amounts of MY and RC recovered in rumen fluid after 48 h of incubation were 79·0 and 40·6%, respectively. In conclusion, the MY and RC from standards interfered with rumen microorganisms at relatively low levels and were partially stable in the rumen environment after 48 h of incubation. These findings suggested that MY and RC could interfere with digestive processes and might represent a potential risk for ruminants fed diets containing feeds contaminated by mycotoxins produced by P. roqueforti.
The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of transfer of selenium (Se) to plasma and milk from inorganic sodium selenite, either free or microencapsulated, and from selenized yeast in dairy cows. The study consisted of an in situ-nylon bags incubation, and in an in vivo experiment to compare the Se status of cows supplemented with either sodium selenite, microencapsulated sodium selenite, or Se yeast. Thirty dairy cows, divided in five groups, were fed the following diets: the control group (CTR) received a total mixed ration supplemented with sodium selenite in order to have 0.3 mg/kg DM of total Se; 0.3M and 0.5M groups received the same control diet supplemented with lipid microencapsulated sodium selenite to provide 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg DM of total Se, respectively; 0.3Y and 0.5Y groups received selenized yeast to provide 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg of total Se, respectively. Cows were fed the supplements for 56 days during which milk, blood, and fecal samples were collected weekly to conduct analysis of Se and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activity. Se concentration in the nylon bags was assessed to 72%, 64%, and 40% of the initial value (time 0) after 4, 8, and 24 h of incubation, respectively. In vivo, cows supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg of microencapsulated Se had higher milk Se concentration compared to CTR. The increment was more pronounced at the highest inclusion rate (0.5 mg/kg, 0.5M group). GSH-px activity was not significantly affected by treatments. The results indicate that lipid microencapsulation has the potential to protect nutrients from complete rumen reduction and that Se from microencapsulated selenite is incorporated in milk more efficiently than the free form. Microencapsulated sodium selenite was shown to be comparable to Se-yeast in terms of availability and incorporation in milk when fed at 0.3 mg/kg DM, whereas the inclusion in the diet at 0.5 mg/kg DM resulted in higher plasma and milk concentrations than selenized yeast.