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Alkali-borosilicate glasses (ABS) are used as host immobilization matrices for different radioactive waste streams and are characterized by their ability to incorporate a wide variety of metal oxides with respectively high waste loadings. The vitreous wasteform is also characterized by very good physical and chemical durability. The durability of three ABS compositions were analyzed by investigating their leaching behavior using the MCC1 test protocol and these data were used to investigate the waste components retention in the altered layer and the evolution of the interfacial water composition during the test. The results indicated that the Mg species evolution is exceptional with respect to other alkaline elements and dependent on glass matrix composition and leaching progress, while transition elements speciation is fairly constant throughout leaching process and independent on glass compositions. Si and B species are changing during leaching process and are affected by waste composition. For modified wasteform sample, evolution of Mg, Si and B species is respectively constant, whereas at highest waste loading, these elements have fairly constant speciation evolution within the first 2 weeks of leaching.
Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea Jack (FD) is a well-known plant used in Malay folklore medicine to lower blood glucose in diabetic patients. For further research of the antihyperglycemic mechanisms, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B)-inhibitory effect of FD was analysed both in vitro and in vivo. To optimise a method for FD extraction, water, 50, 70, 80, 90 and 95 % ethanol extracts were prepared and determined for their total phenolic and triterpene contents, and PTP1B-inhibition capacity. Among the tested extracts, 70 % ethanol FD extract showed a significant PTP1B inhibition (92·0 % inhibition at 200 µg/ml) and high phenolic and triterpene contents. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the 70 % ethanol extract led to the isolation of a new triterpene (3β,11β-dihydroxyolean-12-en-23-oic acid; F3) along with six known compounds. In vivo, 4 weeks’ administration of 70 % ethanol FD extract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/d) to streptozotocin–nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rats reversed the abnormal changes of blood glucose, insulin, total Hb, GLUT2, lipid profile, and oxidative stress in liver and pancreas. Moreover, FD reduced the mRNA expression of the key gluconeogenic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose 6-phosphatase) and restored insulin receptor and GLUT2 encoding gene (Slc2a2) expression. In addition, FD significantly down-regulated the hepatic PTP1B gene expression. These results revealed that FD could potentially improve insulin sensitivity, suppress hepatic glucose output and enhance glucose uptake in type 2 diabetes mellitus through down-regulation of PTP1B. Together, our findings give scientific evidence for the traditional use of FD as an antidiabetic agent.
Drought and high temperature each damage rice (Oryza sativa L.) crops. Their effect during seed development and maturation on subsequent seed quality development was investigated in Japonica (cv. Gleva) and Indica (cv. Aeron 1) plants grown in controlled environments subjected to drought (irrigation ended) and/or brief high temperature (HT; 3 days at 40/30°C). Ending irrigation early in cv. Gleva (7 or 14 days after anthesis, DAA) resulted in earlier plant senescence, more rapid decline in seed moisture content, more rapid seed quality development initially, but substantial decline later in planta in the ability of seeds to germinate normally. Subsequent seed storage longevity amongst later harvests was greatest with no drought because with drought it declined from 16 or 22 DAA onwards in planta, 9 or 8 days after irrigation ended, respectively. Later drought (14 or 28 DAA) also reduced seed longevity at harvest maturity (42 DAA). Well-irrigated plants provided poorer longevity the earlier during seed development they were exposed to HT (greatest at anthesis and histodifferentiation; no effect during seed maturation). Combining drought and HT damaged seed quality more than each stress alone, and more so in the Japonica cv. Gleva than the Indica cv. Aeron 1. Overall, the earlier plant drought occurred the greater the damage to subsequent seed quality; seed quality was most vulnerable to damage from plant drought and HT at anthesis and histodifferentiation; and seed quality of the Indica rice was more resilient to damage from these stresses than the Japonica.
The 2008 economic recession was associated with an increase in suicide internationally. Studies have focused on the impact in the general population with little consideration of the effect on people with a mental illness.
To investigate suicide trends related to the recession in mental health patients in England.
Using regression models, we studied suicide trends in mental health patients in England before, during and after the recession and examined the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. We used data from the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Safety in Mental Health, a national data-set of all suicide deaths in the UK that includes detailed clinical information on those seen by services in the last 12 months before death.
Between 2000 and 2016, there were 21 224 suicide deaths by patients aged 16 or over. For male patients, following a steady fall of 0.5% per quarter before the recession (quarterly percent change (QPC) 2000–2009 –0.46%, 95% CI –0.66 to –0.27), suicide rates showed an upward trend during the recession (QPC 2009–2011 2.37%, 95% CI –0.22 to 5.04). Recession-related rises in suicide were found in men aged 45–54 years, those who were unemployed or had a diagnosis of substance dependence/misuse. Between 2012 and 2016 there was a decrease in suicide in male patients despite an increasing number of patients treated. No significant recession-related trends were found in women.
Recession-associated increases in suicide were seen in male mental health patients as well as the male general population, with those in mid-life at particular risk. Support and targeted interventions for patients with financial difficulties may help reduce the risk at times of economic hardship. Factors such as drug and alcohol misuse also need to be considered. Recent decreases in suicide may be related to an improved economic context or better mental healthcare.
Declaration of interest
N.K. is supported by Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust. L.A. chairs the National Suicide Prevention Strategy Advisory Group at the Department of Health (of which N.K. is also a member) and is a non-executive Director for the Care Quality Commission. N.K. chairs the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) depression in adults guideline and was a topic expert member for the NICE suicide prevention guideline.
Hypoalbuminemia is associated with morbidity and mortality in critically ill children. In this multi-centre retrospective study, we aimed to determine normative values of serum albumin in neonates and infants with congenital heart disease, evaluate perioperative changes in albumin levels, and determine if low serum albumin influences post-operative outcomes. Consecutive eligible neonates and infants who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at one of three medical centres, January 2012–August 2013, were included. Data on serum albumin levels from five data points (pre-operative, 0–24, 24–48, 48–72, 72 hours post-operative) were collected. Median pre-operative serum albumin level was 2.5 g/dl (IQR, 2.1–2.8) in neonates versus 4 g/dl (IQR, 3.5–4.4) in infants. Hypoalbuminemia was defined as <25th percentile of these values. A total of 203 patients (126 neonates, 77 infants) were included in the study. Post-operative hypoalbuminemia developed in 12% of neonates and 20% of infants; 97% occurred in the first 48 hours. In multivariable analysis, perioperative hypoalbuminemia was not independently associated with any post-operative morbidity. However, when analysed as a continuous variable, lower serum albumin levels were associated with increased post-operative morbidity. Pre-operative low serum albumin level was independently associated with increased odds of post-operative hypoalbuminemia (OR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.01–13.29) and prolonged length of hospital stay (RR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.08–1.82). Lower 0–24-hour post-operative serum albumin level was independently associated with an increased duration of mechanical ventilation (RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.12–1.64). Future studies should further assess hypoalbuminemia in this population, with emphasis on evaluating clinically meaningful cut-offs and possibly the use of serum albumin levels in perioperative risk stratification models.
Objectives: Visual-spatial neglect is a common attentional disorder after right-hemisphere stroke and is associated with poor rehabilitation outcomes. The presence of neglect symptoms has been reported to vary across personal, peripersonal, and extrapersonal space. Currently, no measure is available to assess neglect severity equally across these spatial regions and may be missing subsets of symptoms or patients with neglect entirely. We sought to provide initial construct validity for a novel assessment tool that measures neglect symptoms equally for these spatial regions: the Halifax Visual Scanning Test (HVST). Methods: In Study I, the HVST was compared to conventional measures of neglect and functional outcome scores (wheelchair navigation) in 15 stroke inpatients and 14 healthy controls. In Study II, 19 additional controls were combined with the control data from Study I to establish cutoffs for impairment. Patterns of neglect in the stroke group were examined. Results: In Study I, performance on all HVST subtests were correlated with the majority of conventional subtests and wheelchair navigation outcomes. In Study II, neglect-related deficits in visual scanning showed dissociations across spatial regions. Four inpatients exhibited symptoms of neglect on the HVST that were not detected on conventional measures, one of which showed symptoms in personal and extrapersonal space exclusively. Conclusions: The HVST appears a useful measure of neglect symptoms in different spatial regions that may not be detected with conventional measures and that correlates with functional wheelchair performance. Preliminary control data are presented and further research to add to this normative database appears warranted. (JINS, 2019, 25, 490–500)
In his short essay published in the Urdu quarterly Fikr-o Nazar, Khaliq Ahmad Nizami (1925–1997), an erudite scholar and eminent historian at Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), makes an interesting observation: ‘Sir Sayyid, in India, had made efforts to prove the uniformity of conceptions of religion and scientific theories. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad has called it unnecessary and even though did not mention the name of Sir Sayyid but … [he] has referred to the same trends of thoughts.’ The ideas, thoughts, and movement represented by Sir Sayyid – as he is known popularly – continued to be debated, challenged, embraced, and opposed during and after his lifetime. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888–1958) was barely 10 years old when Sayyid Ahmad Khan died in 1898. The reference to Azad in this context was but a small part of the engagement Sir Sayyid drew. Succeeding leaders continued to invoke Sayyid Ahmad's thoughts and legacies. One can critique the shortcomings of his work but can hardly disagree that the nature of the tasks he undertook during his time and in the space he inhabited was pioneering. The reception of Sayyid Ahmad's ideas has never been unilinear – neither in his times nor in ours. In fact, as he went along trying to convince his cohorts of the ideas he was deeply committed to in the late nineteenth century, he garnered adversaries and critics alike.
Sayyid Ahmad found strong support in some of his lieutenants such as Nawab Mushtaq Husain Viqar-ul Mulk (1841–1917) and Sayyid Mehdi Ali Mohsin-ul Mulk (1837–1907), both of whom were very close to him – the founder of the Aligarh Movement – and carried on his message shoulder to shoulder, even more vigorously after his death. Those opposing Sayyid Ahmad included both conservatives and liberals, who curtly disapproved of his engagement with Western learning, critiqued his opposition to the Indian National Congress (INC) politics, criticized his deism, and called him naicari (‘naturalist’), a pejorative term meaning someone who had swallowed European agnostic naturalism. Regardless of the support, criticism, or outright rejection, Sayyid Ahmad was a persistent worker, thinker, negotiator, writer, orator, and leader, who tirelessly worked towards his goals, determined not to be cowed down in his vision and mission.
Yasmin Saikia, Professor of History and holds the endowed Hardt-Nickachos Chair in Peace Studies at Arizona State University,
M. Raisur Rahman, Associate Professor of History at Wake Forest University
Sitting high above ground in a basket suspended between two scaffolds parallel to the enormous Qutb Minar, Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1817–1898), a young munshi (clerk) of the English East India Company, read and tried to reproduce the indecipherable inscriptions on the tower in his book Asar-us Sanadid (Traces of Noblemen, also called Great Monuments of Delhi). The determination, courage, and resourcefulness demonstrated here were the hallmarks of Sayyid Ahmad's life, which was full of formidable challenges. With his imaginativeness and a keen sense of history, along with his conviction that evidence of progress is within the Muslim community, Sayyid Ahmad embarked on a progressive vision for Muslim community development in British India. His rationalist approach combined with an ethical outlook and passion transformed the lives of Muslims in India and abroad forever.
Sayyid Ahmad was born on 17 October 1817 in Mughal Delhi. He belonged to an aristocratic Muslim family who traced their genealogical roots to Prophet Muhammad. In 1864, Sayyid Ahmad moved to Aligarh – a small town, approximately 100 miles southeast of the capital city – where he spent the rest of his life. In Indian nationalist historiography, Sayyid Ahmad appears, at times, as a promoter of Hindu–Muslim unity in his early years – to him, Hindus and Muslims were ‘the two eyes of the beautiful bride that is Hindustan’. By contrast, Pakistani historiography remembers him as the architect of the two-nation theory, which eventually led to the creation of Pakistan. It is strange to attribute to him a historic event not anticipated during his time: he passed away in 1898 – forty-two years before the Muslim League raised the demand for the creation of Pakistan. Regardless of this contrasting retelling of history (one from India and the other from Pakistan), Sayyid Ahmad can be considered a true historical marker for Muslims in South Asia. Even today, he remains the unchallenged champion of Muslim modernization and community reform. Throughout his lifetime, Sayyid Ahmad envisaged a modern Muslim society by making efforts to promote modern Western education, scientific knowledge, rational thinking, religious pluralism, political accommodation, and participatory community associations founded on ethics and justice.
This volume examines Sayyid Ahmad Khan's life, his contribution, and legacy in the context of current times. The editors engage his writings, ideas, and activities to read and present his work critically, not as a biographical account of his life but approach his work keeping in mind the tumultuous political events and changes of the nineteenth century, after the failed revolt of 1857 when Indians were transformed into colonial subjects. The collective anxieties of the Indian communities, particularly the Muslims, cried out for a new local leadership; Sayyid Ahmad Khan rose up to this occasion etching the way forward for Indians, in general, and Muslims in particular. Sayyid Ahmad Khan's multifaceted work offers an important understanding for national thinking emerging from the location of the Muslim, but it is not a 'minority' voice with vested political interests rather a constructive and integrative voice of relevance even today for addressing difficult problems.