The primary vehicle for acquiring knowledge on plasticity in the human central nervous system (CNS) has been animal research. Understanding of mechanisms, development of strategies to purposefully modulate these mechanisms, and translation into rational strategies to promote recovery of function are the goals of modern neurorehabilitation. Training leads to specific changes in brain organization in the motor, somatosensory, auditory, and visual domain. Acute and chronic alterations in neurotransmitter regulation after injury affect plasticity, and may thus provide a basis for new pharmacologic targets for stroke recovery. One of the strategies proposed to enhance functional recovery and sensory substitution is to use mechanical devices interfaced with human sensory afferents or interacting with the CNS. Intravenous human umbilical cored blood cells (HUCB) infusion may have a beneficial effect on recovery processes. Growth factors seem to exert their effects by local processes including autocrine, paracrine, and juxtacrine stimulation.