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Energy deficit is common during prolonged periods of strenuous physical activity and limited sleep, but the extent to which appetite suppression contributes is unclear. The aim of this randomized crossover study was to determine the effects of energy balance on appetite and physiologic mediators of appetite during a 72-hr period of high physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE, ˜2300kcal/d) and limited sleep designed to simulate military operations (SUSOPS). Ten men consumed an energy-balanced diet while sedentary for 1d (REST) followed by energy balanced (BAL) and energy deficient (DEF) controlled diets during SUSOPS. Appetite ratings, gastric emptying time (GET), and appetite-mediating hormone concentrations were measured. Energy balance was positive during BAL (18±20%) and negative during DEF (-43±9%). Relative to REST, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption ratings were all higher during DEF (26±40%, 56±71%, 28±34%, respectively), and lower during BAL (-55±25%, -52±27%, -54±21%, respectively; Pcondition<0.05). Fullness ratings did not differ from REST during DEF, but were 65±61% higher during BAL (Pcondition<0.05). Regression analyses predicted hunger and prospective consumption would be reduced and fullness increased if energy balance were maintained during SUSOPS, and energy deficits of ≥25% would be required to elicit increases in appetite. Between-condition differences in GET and appetite-mediating hormones identified slowed gastric emptying, increased anorexigenic hormone concentrations, and decreased fasting acylated ghrelin concentrations as potential mechanisms of appetite suppression. Findings suggest that physiologic responses that suppress appetite may deter energy balance from being achieved during prolonged periods of strenuous activity and limited sleep.
Taxonomic identification of archaeofauna relies on techniques and anatomical traits that should be valid, reliable, and usable, but which are rarely tested. Identification protocols (techniques and anatomical traits), particularly those used to distinguish taxa of similar size and morphology, should be rigorously tested to ensure a solid interpretive foundation. Blind testing of a protocol for identifying stylohyoid bones of North American artiodactyls was performed by three analysts who independently employed the protocol to identify 77 anatomically complete specimens of known taxonomic identity, representing 54 individuals and 11 species. Identifications were identical in 89% of cases and in conflict in 3% of cases. The remainder involved differences in resolution; two analysts identified specimens to species, whereas the third identified specimens to more general taxonomic groups. Inter-analyst variability in identification was a result of differences in protocol application. Identifications were consistent with known taxon in 92%–96% of cases. Results indicate that the protocol is valid, reliable, and usable, and it can be applied to archaeological specimens with confidence. Testing of other identification criteria employed by zooarchaeologists is encouraged.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To characterize the oncogenic potential of HNSCC cell lines harboring 17 non-canonical PIK3CA mutations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Non-canonical PIK3CA mutant constructs generated via site-directed mutagenesis are subcloned into doxycycline-inducible vector pLVX-Puro. Serum-dependent HNSCC cell line (PCI-52-SD1) is then stably transfected with vectors and undergo doxycycline-induction. Cell survival is determined by depriving cells of fetal bovine serum for 72 hours and quantifying remaining cells with 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Cell proliferation and migration is evaluated with colony formation assays and transwell assays respectively. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: To date, the survival behavior of eight non-canonical mutants was assessed. Three mutants – Q75E, V71I, and E970K – exhibited 18.7-26.7% greater survival rate relative to cells transfected with wild-type. Five mutants – R519G, Y606C, W328S, C905S, and M1040I – demonstrated survival rates that differed only by −4.3% to +6.6% relative to wild-type. We hypothesize the three activating mutants that exhibited increased survival will also demonstrate increased cell proliferation and migratory behavior whereas the three neutral mutants will not differ from control. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Ongoing HNSCC PI3K inhibitor trials could be more effective if all PIK3CA hyperactivation mutations are known. Identifying non-canonical mutation effects could result in greater efficacy if drugs are restricted only to those with activating mutations. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: JRG and DEJ are co-inventors of cyclic STAT3 decoy and have financial interests in STAT3 Therapeutics, Inc. STAT3 Therapeutics, Inc. holds an interest in a cyclic STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide. The remaining authors declare no conflicts.
This chapter examines the extent to which there is, or may be, accountability with regard to the exercise of such powers as a result of the administrative mechanism of judicial review. It examines the way in which judges, in exercising restraint, may hinder the bringing of successful review applications with regard to exercises of emergency powers. It also focuses on express attempts by the legislature to limit the availability of judicial review, in the form of privative clauses, and the possible impact of those attempts on the review of emergency powers. Doctrines relating to ‘justiciability’, ‘act of state, ‘deference’, and procedural fairness are highlighted.
This chapter examines the power of Australian governments, both federal and state, to address public disorder against a backdrop of recognised constitutional protections for political assembly, especially the judicially established implied freedom of political communication. The laws, statutory and common law, pertaining to unlawful assembly, anti-association legislative measures, sedition, and special public disorder emergency powers are scrutinised.
The chapter focuses on the constitutional and legal frameworks regulating the call-out of the Australian Defence Force in aid of the civil power. This topic has become more prominent as result of the rise of global terrorism. It examines the implications of the Lindt Café siege and the 1978 Sydney Hilton bombing. The constitutional provisions of section 119 are scrutinised to determine the framework under which the military forces are deployed to assist a state against domestic violence. The Defence Act 1903 (Cth) is discussed.
This chapter describes the sorts of emergencies which have been experienced in Australia, including the contemporary war on terrorism.It explores the definitional problems of 'emergency', the dangers of over-reaction to an emergency as exemplified by the experience in some countries. It makes reference to international norms regulating the exercise of emergency powers.
This chapter examines the panoply of special powers frameworks for dealing with civil emergencies, particularly environmental emergencies, chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear emergencies, and public and biosecurity emergencies. It also looks at ad-hoc legislation conferring special powers in respone to a particular situation of emergency.
This chapter discusses two vital legal weapons that were made available to the authorities to deal with dangers posed by terrorists in the wake of the September 11 attacks in the United States and the many bombing tragedies in a number of countries. It provides an account of how preventative detention measures were considered by the courts in Australia and the United Kingdom. Issues relating to the constitutional validity of preventative detention orders and control orders provided by federal legislation are canvassed by reference to the separation of judicial power doctrine. The persona designata doctrine and the incompatibility doctrine as expounded by the High Court are discussed. Particular attention is given to the landmark case of Thomas v. Mowbray, in which the validity of a control order authorised by a federal judge was upheld by the High Court. Attention is focused on the operation of the Kable principle to determine the validity of state legislation authorising preventative detention orders and control orders.
This chapter explores the executive powers of the Australian government that are of particular relevance in emergency contexts. It focuses on the contemporary interpretation of the High Court on the scope of section 61 of the Commonwealth Constitution, which is viewed as the ultimate source of all national executive power in Australia. It discusses the issue of whether the exercise of the executive power to requisition property for war or emergency purposes is subject to a requirement to pay just compensation. The relationship with the prerogative powers and the notion of a bundle of inherent powers arising from the Commonwealth’s status as a national government are explored. It engages in a discussion of recent cases in relation to measures taken to respond to the global financial crisis of 2007.
This chapter engages in an exegesis on the defence power as set out in the Commonwealth (Australian) Constitution. It highlights the settled features of the defence power, its expansion and contraction by reference to the prevailing wartime or peacetime circumstances. It provides a succinct analysis of the decisions of the High Court of Australia that define the parameters of the power. Special attention is given to the Communist Party Case and the significance of the case for the rule of law. The case of Thomas v. Mowbray is analysed for its impact on the jurisprudence pertaining to the defence power. Attention is given to the application of the proportionality principle and the limits of the defence power.
Democratic countries, such as Australia, face the dilemma of preserving public and national security without sacrificing fundamental freedoms. In the context where the rule of law is an underlying assumption of the constitutional framework, Emergency Powers in Australia provides a succinct analysis of the sorts of emergency which have been experienced in Australia and an evaluation of the legal weapons available to the authorities to cope with these emergencies. It analyses the scope of the defence power to determine the constitutionality of federal legislation to deal with wartime crises and the 'war' on terrorism, the extent of the executive power and its relationship to the prerogative, the deployment of the defence forces in aid of the civil power, the statutory frameworks regulating the responses to civil unrest, and natural disasters. The role of the courts when faced with challenges to the invocation of emergency powers is explained and analysed.
Red Supergiant Stars (RSGs) are important probes of stellar and chemical evolution in star-forming environments. They represent the brightest near-IR stellar components of external galaxies and probe the most recent stellar population to provide robust, independent abundance estimates. The Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy, NGC6822, is a reasonably isolated galaxy with an interesting structure and turbulent history. Using RSGs as chemical abundance probes, we estimate metallicities in the central region of NGC6822, finding a suggestion of a metallicity gradient (in broad agreement with nebular tracers), however, this requires further study for confirmation. With intermediate resolution Multi-object spectroscopy (from e.g. KMOS, EMIR, MOSFIRE) combined with state-of-the-art stellar model atmospheres, we demonstrate how RSGs can be used to estimate stellar abundances in external galaxies. In this context, we compare stellar and nebular abundance tracers in NGC 6822 and by combining stellar and nebular tracers we estimate an abundance gradient of −0.18 ± 0.05 dex/kpc.