Despite recent emphasis on the profound importance of the fetal environment in “programming” postnatal development, measurement of offspring development typically begins after birth. Using a novel coding strategy combining direct fetal observation via ultrasound and actocardiography, we investigated the impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on fetal neurobehavior; we also investigated links between fetal and infant neurobehavior. Participants were 90 pregnant mothers and their infants (52 MSDP-exposed; 51% minorities; ages 18–40). Fetal neurobehavior at baseline and in response to vibro-acoustic stimulus was assessed via ultrasound and actocardiography at M = 35 weeks gestation and coded via the Fetal Neurobehavioral Assessment System (FENS). After delivery, the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale was administered up to seven times over the first postnatal month. MSDP was associated with increased fetal activity and fetal limb movements. Fetal activity, complex body movements, and cardiac–somatic coupling were associated with infants' ability to attend to stimuli and to self-regulate over the first postnatal month. Furthermore, differential associations emerged by MSDP group between fetal activity, complex body movements, quality of movement, and coupling, and infant attention and self-regulation. The present study adds to a growing literature establishing the validity of fetal neurobehavioral measures in elucidating fetal programming pathways.