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Test the efficacy and perceived effectiveness of nutrition labels on children’s menus from a full-service chain restaurant in an online study.
Using a between-groups experiment, parents were randomised to view children’s menus displaying one of five children’s nutrition labelling conditions: (i) No Nutrition Information (control); (ii) Calories Only; (iii) Calories + Contextual Statement (CS); (iv) Calories, Sodium + CS; or (v) Calories and Sodium in Traffic Lights + CS. Parents hypothetically ordered up to one entrée, side, beverage and dessert for their child, then rated and ranked all five labelling conditions on the level of perceived effectiveness.
998 parents with a 3–12 year old child.
Parents exposed to menus displaying ‘Calories, Sodium + CS’ selected significantly fewer calories ‘overall’ (entrées + side + dessert + beverage) compared to parents exposed to the control condition (−53·1 calories, P < 0·05). Parents selected ‘entrees’ with significantly fewer calories and lower sodium when exposed to menus with ‘Calories + CS’ (−24·3 calories, P < 0·05); ‘Calories, Sodium + CS’ (−25·4 calories, −56·1 mg sodium, P < 0·05 for both); and ‘Calories and Sodium in Traffic Lights + CS’ (−29·1 calories, −58·6 mg sodium, P < 0·05 for both). Parents exposed to menus with ‘Calories, Sodium + CS’ and ‘Calories and Sodium in Traffic Lights + CS’ were more likely to notice and understand nutrition information compared to other nuntrition labelling conditions. Parents perceived the menu with ‘Calories and Sodium in Traffic Lights + CS’ as most effective (P < 0·05).
Menus disclosing calories, sodium and a contextual statement increased the proportion of parents who noticed and understood nutrition information, and resulted in parents selecting lower calorie and sodium entrées for their children in the hypothetical purchase task.
The association between consumption of added or concentrated sugars and prostate cancer risk is unclear. We examined the association between concentrated sugars in beverages and desserts and prostate cancer risk among 22 720 men in the usual-care arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, enrolled during 1993–2001. After a median follow-up of 9 years, 1996 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for prostate cancer risk and 95 % CI, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Increased consumption of sugars from sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer for men in the highest quartile of sugar consumption (HR: 1·21; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·39), and there was a linear trend (P<0·01). There were no linear associations between prostate cancer risk and consumption of sugars from fruit juices or dessert foods. In conclusion, in this prospective substudy within the PLCO trial, consumption of sugars from sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer among men receiving standard medical care. Our study suggests that limiting intake of sugars from beverages may be important in the prevention of prostate cancer.
Canola (Brassica napus L.) meal is widely used in animal feed as a protein source, and its quality relies on protein and amino acid content. However, little information is available regarding amino acid regulation in canola seed with nitrogen (N) application. The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of N rate and genotype on canola seed amino acid concentrations under field conditions. A split-plot design comprising four N rates (0, 120, 240 and 360 kg N/ha) and three genotypes differing in seed protein content were used in 2010/11 and 2011/12. The results showed that increasing N rate decreased seed oil content linearly but increased seed protein content in all of the genotypes. The total amino acid concentration and absolute concentrations of individual amino acids in canola seed also improved significantly with the N rates in all of the genotypes. Regarding the proportions of amino acids, a group that included glutamic acid (Glu), proline (Pro) and arginine (Arg) dominated and occupied > 0·30 compared with other amino acids. The ratio of amino acids in this group increased by 8·3% with 360 kg N/ha compared with the control. However, the proportions of the other amino acids showed negative responses to the N rates. The results of regression analysis of the responses of individual amino acids to N rate indicated that Glu, Pro and Arg had a greater improvement potential with application of N fertilizer, as revealed by higher slopes in the linear equations compared with the other amino acids. Additionally, the concentrations of sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine, were also a potential target for improving with N application because these are always deficient in major crops. In conclusion, N application cannot only improve seed protein content but also enhance deposition of amino acids such as Glu, Pro and Arg.
Outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections associated with acupuncture has not been reported. Thirteen patients with a painful swollen lump were referred to our hospital. The index patient received acupuncture and paraspinal muscular injection at a local acupuncture clinic in April 2011 and was diagnosed with M. tuberculosis 1 month later. From May 2011 to August 2011, 12 more patients with a swollen lump on the nuchal region or in the lower back or the buttocks region were referred to our hospital. Tuberculin skin test (TST), T-SPOT.TB, acid-fast stain, M. tuberculosis culture, chest radiograph, and lump magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed and the patients were diagnosed with tuberculous abscess of the lump. All 13 patients received intramuscular injection at the paraspinal muscle by two acupuncturists at a local clinic and reported a swollen lump at the injection site. The needles and syringes were reused after autoclave sterilization. The TST was positive in all patients. Twelve patients had positive acid-fast stains. Mycobacterial cultures of abscess specimens were positive in all 13 patients. T-SPOT.TB tests were positive in all patients who underwent the test. The lesions and biopsies were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing by the Disease Control Center of Zhejiang Province, China and the causative agent was identified as M. tuberculosis, Beijing type. In conclusion, physicians should consider the possibility of mycobacterial infections, apart from other bacterial agents, in patients with a swollen paraspinal lump following intramuscular injection.
Although patients with chronic schizophrenia have substantially higher smoking rates than either the general population or patients with other mental illnesses, drug-naive patients with a first episode of schizophrenia have received little systemic study. This study examined smoking rates, the association between smoking and symptom severity and cognitive function in Chinese first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients using cross-sectional and case-control designs.
Two hundred and forty-four drug-naive FES patients and 256 healthy controls matched for gender, age and education completed the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Patients were also rated on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS).
The rate and quantity of smoking were not significantly higher among FES patients compared to the general population. Among patients, smokers scored higher than non-smokers on the total PANSS and the positive symptom subscale scores. There were no significant associations between cognitive function and smoking in either FES patients or healthy controls.
In contrast to studies in patients with chronic schizophrenia, drug-naive FES patients did not smoke more frequently than the general population. Furthermore, patients with psychotic disorders who smoked did not exhibit significant cognitive differences compared with those who did not smoke. However, smoking may have other detrimental effects on physical and mental health, for example on positive symptoms.
The influence of high magnetic field on nitriding behavior was investigated in a mixture of NH3 and H2. It was found that high magnetic field could shift the equilibrium of nitriding reaction; this proved that the critical nitrogen potential to form γ′-Fe4N and ε-Fe3N phase was evidently enhanced compared with conventional nitriding. This research provides a new approach for a selective nitriding process.
Chronic rhinosinusitis is commonly treated by functional endoscopic sinus surgery involving excision of the uncinate process and opening of the osteomeatal complex.
Computational fluid dynamics were used to compare nasal airflow after two different surgical interventions which involved opening the paranasal sinuses, excising the ethmoid sinus, and excising or preserving the uncinate process, in a cadaveric head model. Cross-sectional computed tomography images were obtained before and after the interventions. Imaging data were used to prepare computer simulations, which were used to assess the airflow characteristics of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses during inspiration and expiration, before and after intervention.
Significantly larger nasal cavity airflow velocity changes were apparent following the uncinate process excising procedure. Nasal cavity airflow distribution remained relatively unchanged following the uncinate process preserving procedure. There was a significantly greater increase in airflow volume following the uncinate process excising procedure, compared with the uncinate process preserving procedure.
Preservation of the uncinate process may significantly reduce the alteration of nasal cavity airflow dynamics occurring after functional endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis.
Crystal structure and phase transformation behaviors in two
ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs) with compositions of
Ni53Mn25Ga22 (at. %) as a function of temperature were investigated by in situ neutron diffraction experiments. Neutron diffraction technique proves to be highly efficient in characterizing structural transformation in
FSMAs, which consist of nearby elements in the periodic table. Our neutron results show that
Ni48Mn30Ga22 has a cubic, L21 Heusler structure from 373 to 293 K. Its crystal structure changes into a seven-layered orthorhombic martensitic structure when cooled to 243 K, and no further transformation is observed upon cooling to 19 K. Neutron diffraction results also show that
Ni53Mn25Ga22 has a tetragonal I4/mmm martensitic structure from 20 to 403 K. A pre-transformation around room temperature is observed from an abrupt jump in unit-cell volume of
Ni53Mn25Ga22, which corresponds with an endothermic peak detected in a heated DSC curve.
A ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy Ni48Mn25Ga22Co5 was prepared by the induction melting and isothermal forging process. Dynamic recrystallization occurs during the isothermal forging. The deformation texture was studied by the neutron diffraction technique. The main texture components consist of (110) and (001), which suggested that in-plane plastic flow anisotropy should be expected in the as-forged condition. The uniaxial compression fracture strain in the forged alloy reaches over 9.5%. The final room-temperature fracture of the polycrystalline Ni48Mn25Ga22Co5 is controlled mainly by intergranular mode.
The time-dependent characteristics of incipient plasticity in Ni3Al during nanoindentation in the subcritical load regime were investigated statistically. The waiting time for incipient plasticity to occur at constant load was found to follow a Poisson-like distribution, with the peak shifting toward zero holding time as the load increased and eventually becoming an exponential distribution when the load was close to a critical value. The observed distribution of the strain burst waiting time at loads smaller than the critical value was inconsistent with the picture in which dislocations nucleated homogeneously out of the perfect crystal. The kinetics for the occurrence of strain burst in this case is thought to be governed by the accumulative growth of nucleation precursors.
Research on hydrogen separation membranes is motivated by the increasing demand for an environmentally benign, inexpensive technology for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures. Although most studies of hydrogen separation membranes have focused on proton-conducting oxides by themselves, the addition of metal to these oxides increases their hydrogen permeability and improves their mechanical stability. This study began by determining the electrical and hydrogen permeation properties of SrCe0.8Yb0.2O3−δ (SCYb). The results showed that the hydrogen permeation rate is limited by electron flow at the investigated temperatures (600 – 900°C). To further enhance hydrogen permeability, a cermet (i.e., ceramic-metal composite) membrane was made by adding Ni to the SCYb. The cermet showed no phase change after sintering in a reducing atmosphere. At 900°C, with 20% H2 /balance He as a feed gas (pH2O = 0.03 atm), the hydrogen permeation rate was 0.113 cm3/min-cm2 for Ni/SCYb (0.43-mm thick) and 0.008 cm3/min-cm2 for SCYb (0.7-mm thick). The dependences of hydrogen permeability on temperature, thickness, and hydrogen partial pressure gradients are also determined. The results demonstrate that adding Ni to SCYb considerably increases its hydrogen permeability by increasing its electron conductivity.
We report an investigation of optical-limiting behavior in two neutral nickel complexes with multi-sulfur 1,2 dithiolene ligands, [Ni(medt)2] I (medt = 5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-1,4-dithiin-2,3- dithiolate) and [Ni(phdt)2] 2 (phdt = 5,6-dihydro-5-phenyl-l,4-dithiin-2,3-dithiolate) in benzene solution. The fluence-dependent transmission of the complexes was observed with nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses at 532-nm wavelength. The limiting thresholds of the complexes were ˜0.3 J/cm2, when measured with the picosecond pulses. Both picosecond time-resolved pump-probe and Z-scan measurement revealed that the limiting effects should originate from excited-state absorption and refraction. The transparency window (400˜900 nm), observed in the linear absorption spectra of the complexes, indicated that their limiting response should cover a wider range than those of fullerenes and phthalocyanines.
We have used cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy to study the atomic-scale interface structure of InAs/Ga, _In.xSb superlattices grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. Detailed, quantitative analysis of interface profiles obtained from constant-current images of both (110) and (1ī0) cross-sectional planes of the superlattice indicates that interfaces in the (1ī0) plane exhibit a higher degree of interface roughness than those in the (110) plane, and that the Ga1-xln xAs interfaces are rougher than the InAs-on-Gal1-xInxSb interfaces. The roughness data are consistent with anisotropy in interface structure arising from anisotropic island formation during growth, and in addition with a growth-sequence-dependent interface asymmetry resulting from differences in interfacial bond structure between the superlattice layers. Roughness data are compared with measurements of anisotropy in low-temperature Hall mobilities of the samples.
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