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We measured the concentrations of antifouling biocides in sediment, mangrove leaves and seagrasses from Merambong and Tinggi Island, Johor, Malaysia to evaluate their contamination levels. Although the concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) in mangrove leaves in Merambong in 2013 were significantly lower than those in 2012, the Sea-Nine 211 concentration in 2013 was significantly higher than that in 2012, suggesting that the use of antifouling biocides changed from TBT to Sea-Nine 211. The concentration of each BT (butyltin) and PT (phenyltin) in the mangrove area was significantly higher than the corresponding concentration in the seagrass area in Merambong, but the concentrations of Sea-Nine 211, diuron, chlorothalonil, Irgarol 1051 and M1 in seagrasses were significantly higher than those in mangrove leaves. There were differences in the accumulation profiles of OTs (organotins) and alternative biocides between the seagrass shoots and roots. The concentration of OTs in the seagrass roots was almost the same or higher than those in the shoots, whereas those of alternative biocides shows the opposite pattern to the OTs. Significant high relationships were observed between stable carbon isotope (δ13C) and OTs, Sea-Nine 211 and Irgarols in mangrove leaves. The concentrations of these compounds increased along with the δ13C values of the mangroves. These results suggest that mangroves take up the bicarbonate ions and nutrients in sediment and/or seawater through their roots, along with OTs, Sea-Nine 211 and Irgarols which were accumulated in sediment.
The concentrations of organotin (OT) compounds, butyltin (BT) and phenyltin (PT), in aquatic organisms from Merambong and Tinggi Island, Malaysia, which differ in industrial and economic activities, were measured. Tributyltin (TBT) compounds among BTs ranged from 2.9–28 and <0.1–21 ng g−1 ww in aquatic organisms from Merambong and Tinggi Island, respectively. Triphenyltin (TPT) compounds among PTs ranged from <0.1–25 ng g−1 ww and <0.1–61 ng g−1 ww in aquatic organisms from Merambong and Tinggi Island, respectively. A survey of OT concentrations among the species of OT compounds revealed that the concentrations of BTs and PTs in crabs and clams were high while those in fish were low. Correlation analysis with stable nitrogen isotopes suggest that OT compounds did not accumulate in aquatic organisms through the food web. The measurement of OT compounds in tissues and organs of fish revealed that BT concentrations in liver were higher than those in muscle and that BTs were detected in eggs of fish.
To elucidate the details of both the current status of contamination and the accumulation of organotin compounds (OTs) in mangroves in coastal ecosystems, we determined the concentrations of butyltin compounds (BTs) and phenyltin compounds (PTs) in sediment and mangrove leaves collected from mangrove forests in Merambong and Tinggi Island, Malaysia. Butyltins were detected in all sediment samples collected from both regions, whereas PTs were not detected. The levels of tributyltin (TBT) compounds in the sediment samples were lower than those from previous studies conducted in Malaysia and at other sites in South-east Asia. In both Merambong and Tinggi Island, the average proportions of dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT), which are degradation products of TBT, were ~70%. This result suggests that the input of TBT has decreased in Malaysia. The proportions of DBT and MBT in the sediment from Merambong were higher than those from Tinggi Island. The concentrations of TBT in mangrove leaves from Tinggi Island were significantly higher than those from Merambong. MBT was the most dominant type among the BTs in mangrove leaves from both Merambong and Tinggi Island. The ratios of the BTs burden in mangrove leaves to the BTs concentration in sediment from Merambong and Tinggi Island averaged 3.1 and 6.2, respectively. Among the values of BTs, the MBT values were found to be the highest in both regions.
Engagement represents how much a user is interested in and willing to continue the current dialogue. Engagement recognition will provide an important clue for dialogue systems to generate adaptive behaviors for the user. This paper addresses engagement recognition based on multimodal listener behaviors of backchannels, laughing, head nodding, and eye gaze. In the annotation of engagement, the ground-truth data often differs from one annotator to another due to the subjectivity of the perception of engagement. To deal with this, we assume that each annotator has a latent character that affects his/her perception of engagement. We propose a hierarchical Bayesian model that estimates both engagement and the character of each annotator as latent variables. Furthermore, we integrate the engagement recognition model with automatic detection of the listener behaviors to realize online engagement recognition. Experimental results show that the proposed model improves recognition accuracy compared with other methods which do not consider the character such as majority voting. We also achieve online engagement recognition without degrading accuracy.
Conversations in poster sessions in academic events, referred to as poster conversations, pose interesting, and challenging topics on multi-modal signal and information processing. We have developed a smart posterboard for multi-modal recording and analysis of poster conversations. The smart posterboard has multiple sensing devices to record poster conversations, so we can review who came to the poster and what kind of questions or comments he/she made. The conversation analysis incorporates face and eye-gaze tracking for effective speaker diarization. It is demonstrated that eye-gaze information is useful for predicting turn-taking and also improving speaker diarization. Moreover, high-level indexing of interest and comprehension level of the audience is explored based on the multi-modal behaviors during the conversation. This is realized by predicting the audience's speech acts such as questions and reactive tokens.
Elemental distributions in a magnetic multilayer system with the structure Si substrate/Ta/NiFe/Ru/CoFeB/Ru/NiFe were studied using atom probe tomography (APT) along different analysis directions. The distributions of Ru and B atoms, which require a high evaporation field, were strongly influenced by the APT analysis direction. In particular, B in the CoFeB layer appeared near the interface with the lower Ru layer when the analysis was anti-parallel to the film growth direction, while B atoms were observed at the other side of the CoFeB layer when the analysis was parallel to the film growth direction. Moreover, when the analysis was perpendicular to the film growth direction, a homogenous distribution of B atoms was found within the CoFeB layer. Owing to this B behavior, the underlying Ru layer was affected in both of these analysis directions. In APT measurements of such a multilayer system composed of a stack of different evaporation field materials, evaluation of the elemental distribution around interfaces should be performed from more than one analysis direction.
In order to integrate porous dielectric materials into the next generation of Cu/low-k interconnect, the porous material has to be sealed against metal barrier precursor. We have reported pore sealants which forms ultra-thin (< 3 nm-thick) layer on top of the surface of porous low-k film while the pore sealant does not diffuse into pores. In this study, it was investigated how pore seal layer is formed on the surface of porous material and how pore mouths are sealed by pore seal layer. It was found that 1) thickness of the pore seal layer is well-controlled in the range < 5 nm, by varying spin rate and concentration of solid, 2) minimal thicknesses of the pore seal layer needed to achieve an efficient sealing for porous low-k films whose pore radius is 1.5 nm was 2.6 nm. 3) Larger pores, whose pore radius is 4.2 nm, were sealed completely with an expansion of our technology.
Deformation behavior of an 18R-type long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase in the Mg-Zn-Y system was studied by micro-pillar compressions of single crystalline specimens prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) technique as a function of loading axis orientation and specimen dimensions. When the loading axis is inclined to the basal plane of the LPSO phase by 42°, basal slip of (0001)<11$\bar 2$0>-type is activated irrespective of the specimen dimensions. When the loading axis is parallel to the basal plane, the formation of thick deformation bands are observed for all specimens tested. Strong size-dependence of yield stress values is observed for both types of micro-pillar specimens with different loading axis orientations.
The development of laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT) and specimen preparation techniques using a focused ion beam equipped with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has significantly advanced the characterization of semiconductor devices by APT. The capability of APT to map out elements in devices at the atomic scale with high sensitivity meets the characterization requirements of semiconductor devices such as the determination of elemental distributions for each device region.
From the deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps ecosystems, more than 600 species containing many endemic species have been discovered. The deep-sea mussels of the genus Bathymodiolus are dominant species at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps throughout the world. They are known to rely on the nutrients produced by the chemosynthetic symbiont in their gills. In 2009, we found a colony of bathymodiolin mussels at a hydrothermal vent of Myojinsho (Myojin Reef), which is a hardly investigated area. Myojinsho lies in the northern segment of the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) Arc and had been volcanically active until recently. We collected specimens from the colony using a remotely operated vehicle. We identified them as Bathymodiolus aduloides by morphological observation and phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial DNA sequencing. We could not find any other species of mussels during the dive. This result is interesting because this species has not been discovered from hydrothermal vents in this region; the dominant species in this region, including the neighbouring Myojin Knoll Caldera, is B. septemdierum.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as the most common liver disease in industrialised countries. Various mushrooms have been used in Eastern folk medicine for the treatment of lifestyle diseases. We previously found that the dietary intake of powdered whole Panellus serotinus (Mukitake) alleviates NAFLD in obese, diabetic db/db mice. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Mukitake fractional extracts on the development of NAFLD in db/db mice. A significant reduction in the hepatic TAG content, macrovesicular hepatocytes and activities of key enzymes for de novo synthesis of the fatty acid was observed in both the water-soluble Mukitake extract (WE) diet and the ethanol-soluble Mukitake extract (EE) diet groups compared with the control diet group of the db/db mice. The serum level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which is known to exacerbate insulin resistance, was significantly decreased in the WE group. On the other hand, the serum level of adiponectin, which plays a protective role against the metabolic syndrome, was significantly increased in the EE group. Additionally, differential analysis between Mukitake and Shiitake, mycelia from the same family, using liquid chromatography time-of-flight MS technology revealed that only seven and five compounds exist in WE and EE from Mukitake, respectively. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that Mukitake displays at least two different physiological actions that alleviate NAFLD: one through the reduction in inflammatory damage by its suppression in MCP-1 production and the other through an increase in level of serum adiponectin and the prevention of visceral fat accumulation.
A nonlinear circuit model (NCM) with physical parameters is proposed for direct simulation of the RF characteristics of GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (GaN HEMTs) on the basis of device structure. The physical equations are used for the construction of the model in order to connect strongly the model parameters with the device/physical parameters. Hyperbolic tangent functions are used as the model equations to ensure good model convergence and rapid simulation (short simulation time). The usefulness of these equations is confirmed by technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation. The number of model parameters for the nonlinear components (Ids, Cgs, Cgd) is reduced to 17 by using common physical parameters for modeling the drain current and capacitance. The accuracy of this model is verified by applying to GaN HEMTs. The modeled I–V and capacitance characteristics agree well with the measurement data over a wide voltage range. Furthermore, this model can be used for the accurate evaluation of S-parameters and large-signal RF characteristics.
Sea-ice melting processes were inferred from in situ sea-ice and ocean condition data obtained in the Arctic in summer 2006 and 2007. the relationship between ice concentration observed by on-board ice watches and water temperature showed negative correlations. This implies that as ice concentration decreases, the upper ocean becomes warmer due to greater absorption of solar radiation into open water, which promotes ice melting. However, heating of surface water is significant even in regions that were almost completely ice-covered, suggesting that transmitted solar radiation through the ice is also effective at melting sea ice. A simplified ice–upper-ocean coupled model was applied to examine the effect of heat input from open water, thick ice and thin ice. the ponded thin ice is estimated to transmit approximately three times more solar radiation than ponded thick ice. Model results suggest that transmission of solar radiation through ponded ice amplified the ice-albedo feedback mechanism, particularly in thin ice regions. Recently, the extent of old and thick multi-year ice in the Arctic Ocean has been rapidly reduced. As a result, heat input to the upper ocean through the ice is enhanced and ice melt is further accelerated.
Recently, the large number of investigations concerning acid-catalyzed photopolymer systems such as chemically amplified photoresists and UV-curing materials has been reported. On the other hand, analogous systems utilizing base-catalyzed reactions have received far less attention, because low quantum yields for photobase generation to lead to low photosensitivity of these systems. To improve this problem, we proposed introduction of the concept of base proliferation reactions into the photopolymer systems using base-catalyzed reactions. The concept involves the autocatalytic base-catalyzed decomposition of a compound, referred to as a base amplifier which releases a newborn amine, leading to its autocatalytic decomposition. In fact, the addition of the base amplifiers such as 9-fluorenylmethyl carbamate, phenylsulfonylethyl carbamate, and 3-nitropentane-2-yl carbamate to a photopolymer consisting of an epoxy polymer sensitized and a photobase generator (PBG) resulted in the marked improvement of photosensitivity.
However, these base amplifiers with low molecular weight are not suitable for photopatterning because of the volatility and the excessive diffusion of amines proliferated in polymer films. We report here novel base-amplifying silicone resins tethering phenylsulfonylethyl carbamoyl groups which proliferate primary amino groups or secondary amino groups in their side chains.
Base-catalyzed decomposition behavior of films of these resins containing PBG was evaluated by UV absorption measurements. A film consisting of the resin proliferating primary amino groups and 10 wt% of PBG decomposed immediately in a nonlinear manner by 365 nm irradiation and subsequent heat treatment at 120oC for 6 min. On the other hand, this film without UV irradiation was thermally stable for 18 min at 120oC. These results indicate that photoinduced base proliferation reaction of the resin proceeded. A film consisting of the resin generating secondary amino groups and PBG decomposed in a way similar to that of the resin proliferating primary amino groups. Furthermore, lithographic evaluation of the film comprising the resin to generate secondary amines and PBG obtained 7ÊS positive images with an exposure dose of 75 mJ/cm2 which shows higher sensitivity when compared to conventional base-catalyzed photopolymers.
A small p-n diode array was fabricated on a polycrystalline Si substrate and the electrical characteristics were measured for each small diode to evaluate the distribution of energy conversion efficiency in the substrate. The crystal qualities in conjunction with the electrical characteristics were also evaluated. We found large variations in measuring the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the p-n diode. We also observed variations in quality even in diodes without any grain boundaries at the p-n junction. Therefore, we evaluated crystalline quality using various techniques to compare the diode characteristics. We found clear evidence in photo-luminescence (PL) mapping, where grains, including degraded diodes, were darker in the mapping, implying lower PL intensities than the others. The PL spectra obtained from the “dark grains” included D-lines indicating the existence of dislocations. We could conclude that the electrical characteristics of p-n diodes were not only affected by grain boundaries but also by crystalline defects evaluation such as dislocations. We observed a Secco-etched surface for crystalline defects evaluation using an optical microscope. The origins of etch pits were also determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and three different types of defects were confirmed.
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