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The carbon (C) ratios, namely the atomic ratios of C/(C + M), in nano-sized coherent MC precipitates (M = Ti, Nb) with the NaCl-type (B1) structure in ferritic steels, which had been isothermally aged at 580 °C, were investigated using atom probe tomography (APT). Considering the influences of the trajectory aberration, detection loss, and peak overlap, we determined the C ratios to be ~0.40 and ~0.45 for an equivalent volume diameter of 1.5–5 nm and 1–5 nm for the TiC and NbC precipitates, respectively, suggesting that there is a considerable fraction of C vacancies in both nano-sized precipitates. The apparent C ratios show significant scatter with decreasing particle size, while the apparent mean C ratios of very fine TiC particles, smaller than 1.5 nm, decreased with decreasing particle size. With the use of one of the latest APT instruments with a high detection efficiency, the scattering in the apparent C ratios was reduced because the counting statistics were improved; however, the artificial enrichment of C atoms to particular crystallographic directions of ferrite hindered the determination of the C ratio for very fine TiC particles smaller than 1.5 nm.
The Keio Twin Research Center (KoTReC) was established in 2009 at Keio University to combine two longitudinal cohort projects — the Keio Twin Study (KTS) for adolescence and adulthood and the Tokyo Twin Cohort Project (ToTCoP) for infancy and childhood. KoTReC also conducted a two-time panel study of self-control and psychopathology in twin adolescence in 2012 and 2013 and three independent anonymous cross-sectional twin surveys (ToTcross) before 2012 — the ToTCross, the Junior and Senior High School Survey and the High School Survey. This article introduces the recent research designs of KoTReC and its publications.
This paper presents an evaluation of parallel voice conversion (VC) with neural network (NN)-based statistical models for spectral mapping and waveform generation. The NN-based architectures for spectral mapping include deep NN (DNN), deep mixture density network (DMDN), and recurrent NN (RNN) models. WaveNet (WN) vocoder is employed as a high-quality NN-based waveform generation. In VC, though, owing to the oversmoothed characteristics of estimated speech parameters, quality degradation still occurs. To address this problem, we utilize post-conversion for the converted features based on direct waveform modifferential and global variance postfilter. To preserve the consistency with the post-conversion, we further propose a spectrum differential loss for the spectral modeling. The experimental results demonstrate that: (1) the RNN-based spectral modeling achieves higher accuracy with a faster convergence rate and better generalization compared to the DNN-/DMDN-based models; (2) the RNN-based spectral modeling is also capable of producing less oversmoothed spectral trajectory; (3) the use of proposed spectrum differential loss improves the performance in the same-gender conversions; and (4) the proposed post-conversion on converted features for the WN vocoder in VC yields the best performance in both naturalness and speaker similarity compared to the conventional use of WN vocoder.
The Keio Twin Research Center has conducted two longitudinal twin cohort projects and has collected three independent and anonymous twin data sets for studies of phenotypes related to psychological, socio-economic, and mental health factors. The Keio Twin Study has examined adolescent and adult cohorts, with a total of over 2,400 pairs of twins and their parents. DNA samples are available for approximately 600 of these twin pairs. The Tokyo Twin Cohort Project has followed a total of 1,600 twin pairs from infancy to early childhood. The large-scale cross-sectional twin study (CROSS) has collected data from over 4,000 twin pairs, from 3 to 26 years of age, and from two high school twin cohorts containing a total of 1,000 pairs of twins. These data sets of anonymous twin studies have mainly targeted academic performance, attitude, and social environment. The present article introduces the research designs and major findings of our center, such as genetic structures of cognitive abilities, personality traits, and academic performances, developmental effects of genes and environment on attitude, socio-cognitive ability and parenting, genes x environment interaction on attitude and conduct problem, and statistical methodological challenges and so on. We discuss the challenges in conducting twin research in Japan.
A new compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system has been installed in the Kaminoyama Research Institute at Yamagata University (YU). The AMS system is based on a 0.5MV Pelletron accelerator developed by the National Electrostatics Corporation. An automated acid-alkali-acid (AAA) treatment system and an automated graphitization line were also installed in the same facility for sample preparation. Performance tests of the YU-AMS system were carried out by measuring the C-series standard samples (C1–C8) and HOxII provided by IAEA and NIST, respectively. We evaluated the YU-AMS system by comparing the radiocarbon ages of Japanese tree rings with dendrochronologically determined calendar ages with calibration data. We also carried out some performance tests using a control serum and a 14C-labeled drug (oxaliplatin).
Hexagonal ZnO was grown on hexagonal (001) sapphire substrate, then cubic La(Sr)MnO3(LSMO) was grown on ZnO underlayer by ion beam sputtering at substrate temperatures of 550-750°C to obtain double-layer of LSMO/ZnO. Out-of-plane (001) oriented ZnO was grown with in-plane orientation of [10-10](0001)ZnO//[11-20](0001)sapphire. Mixed phase of LSMO with out-of-plane (001), (110) and (111) orientations was grown on (001) ZnO usually. However each single phase of LSMO could be grown by controlling deposition conditions. The LSMO grains have their in-plane orientations of (110)LSMO //[10-10](0001)ZnO and (111)LSMO//[11-20](0001)ZnO.
We have investigated the thickness dependence of critical current for YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) film with artificial pinning centers on metallic substrate. Artificial pinning centers were introduced by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using YBCO target including YSZ particles. The film over 1 μm in thickness exhibited with high critical current (Ic) of 40.7A in applied magnetic field of 3T parallel to the c-axis at 77K. This value was 5 times as high as the normal YBCO film without artificial pinning centers. The large Ic enabled us to approach to a practical application in the near future. Furthermore, it was clarified that the columnar nano-structure formed in the film, we call “the bamboo structure”, was a dominant pinning center because each Jc-θ curve of all thick films formed a universal line by the normalization of Jc. In addition, it was also found that YSZ addition has an optimal concentration for pinning by the study of YSZ concentration in the film.
High-energy (400 keV) implantation of carbon (C) ions was made into LEC-GaAs substrates with C concentration ([C]) of 1019− 1022Cm−3. 2 K photoluminescence (PL) and Hall effect measurements indicated that activation rate of C in LEC GaAs is both optically and electrically extremely low even after furnace-annealing at 850 °C for 20 min. For [C] = 1×1022 cm−3, two novel strong emissions were obtained and PL measurements as a function of excitation power and sample temperature suggested that the two emissions one at 1.485 eV and the other at 1.305 eV should reflect the formation of a new alloy between GaAs and C. Dual implantation of C+ and Ga+ ions was carried out to improve the activation or substitution rate. We found that nearly 90% activation rate can be achieved for C dose of 2.2 × 1013 cm−2.
This article proposes a small sample bounds test for equality between sets of coefficients in two linear regressions with unequal disturbance variances. The probability that our test is inconclusive is given under the null hypothesis. It is also shown that our test is more powerful than the Jayatissa test when the regression coefficients differ substantially.
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