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The parasitic nematode Paracapillaria (Ophidiocapillaria) najae De, 1998, found in the Indian cobra Naja naja is redescribed and re-illustrated in the present study. The monocled cobra Naja kaouthia was discovered to be a new host for this parasite in central Thailand. A comprehensive description extending the morphological and molecular characteristics of the parasites is provided to aid species recognition in future studies. The morphometric characters of 41 parasites collected from 5 cobra specimens are compared with those described in the original studies. Phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA genes were performed to provide novel information on the systematics of P. najae. Similar characteristics were observed in the examined nematode samples, despite being found in different hosts, confirming their identity as P. najae. The molecular genetic results support the species status of P. najae, indicating P. najae is well defined and separated from other related nematode species in the family Capillariidae. Morphological descriptions, genetic sequences, evolutionary relationships among capillariids and new host and distribution records of P. najae are discussed. Paracapillaria najae specimens found in the Thai cobra had some morphological variation, and sexual size dimorphism was also indicated. Paracapillaria najae was found to infect various cobra host species and appeared to be common throughout the Oriental regions, consistent with its hosts' distribution.
Gastrointestinal helminth infection likely affects the gut microbiome, in turn affecting host health. To investigate the effect of intestinal parasite status on the gut microbiome, parasitic infection surveys were conducted in communities in Nan Province, Thailand. In total, 1047 participants submitted stool samples for intestinal parasite examination, and 391 parasite-positive cases were identified, equating to an infection prevalence of 37.3%. Intestinal protozoan species were less prevalent (4.6%) than helminth species. The most prevalent parasite was the minute intestinal fluke Haplorchis taichui (35.9%). Amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA was conducted to investigate the gut microbiome profiles of H. taichui-infected participants compared with those of parasite-free participants. Prevotella copri was the dominant bacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in the study population. The relative abundance of three bacterial taxa, Ruminococcus, Roseburia faecis and Veillonella parvula, was significantly increased in the H. taichui-infected group. Parasite-negative group had higher bacterial diversity (α diversity) than the H. taichui-positive group. In addition, a significant difference in bacterial community composition (β diversity) was found between the two groups. The results suggest that H. taichui infection impacts the gut microbiome profile by reducing bacterial diversity and altering bacterial community structure in the gastrointestinal tract.
A dataset of bacterial diversity found in mites was compiled from 193 publications (from 1964 to January 2015). A total of 143 mite species belonging to the 3 orders (Mesostigmata, Sarcoptiformes and Trombidiformes) were recorded and found to be associated with approximately 150 bacteria species (in 85 genera, 51 families, 25 orders and 7 phyla). From the literature, the intracellular symbiont Cardinium, the scrub typhus agent Orientia, and Wolbachia (the most prevalent symbiont of arthropods) were the dominant mite-associated bacteria, with approximately 30 mite species infected each. Moreover, a number of bacteria of medical and veterinary importance were also reported from mites, including species from the genera Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Bartonella, Francisella, Coxiella, Borrelia, Salmonella, Erysipelothrix and Serratia. Significant differences in bacterial infection patterns among mite taxa were identified. These data will not only be useful for raising awareness of the potential for mites to transmit disease, but also enable a deeper understanding of the relationship of symbionts with their arthropod hosts, and may facilitate the development of intervention tools for disease vector control. This review provides a comprehensive overview of mite-associated bacteria and is a valuable reference database for future research on mites of agricultural, veterinary and/or medical importance.
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