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We present initial results of a survey of the FUV spectra of disk-accreting cataclysmic variables obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE).
FUSE covers the 905 - 1188 Å range at spectral resolutions ≃0.1 Å. To date, FUSE has observed more than 65 cataclysmic variables (CVs). Publicly-available data include observations of 11 dwarf novae (DN), 15 non-magnetic novalikes (NLs), 7 intermediate polars and DQ Her stars, at least 15 polars, and 4 super-soft X-ray binaries.
The effects of soluble fiber inclusion in gestation diets with varying fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)-profile) on lactational feed intake of sows and their piglet growth over two parities were investigated using an in vitro–in vivo methodology. After breeding, 90 multiparous Landrace sows were randomized to one of three experimental diets: the control (CON) diet, konjac flour (KF) diet or sugar beet pulp (SBP) diet. All diets had similar levels of net energy, CP, insoluble fiber and NDF, but KF and SBP diets had higher soluble fiber levels than the CON diet. During gestation, the sows were restrictively fed with three different diets, but during lactation, all the sows were similarly fed ad libitum. The three gestation diets were enzymatically hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin, and enzymolyzed residues were used in in vitro fermentation. Gas and SCFA production were monitored during fermentation. After fermentation, enzymolyzed residues of KF or SBP diets resulted in higher final asymptotic gas volume than those of the CON diet. The enzymolyzed residues of KF diet were mainly part of rapidly fermented fractions, whereas those of SBP diet were mainly part of slowly fermented fractions. In addition, the acetic acid, butyric acid and total SCFA concentrations of enzymolyzed residues of KF diet were higher (P<0.01) than the control and SBP diets. In the in vivo studies, on day 90 of gestation, the KF diet sows had higher plasma SCFA concentration (P<0.05) at 4 h after feeding than the CON diet sows. Furthermore, the KF diet sows had lower plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration (P<0.01) at 4 h after feeding, and a lower value of homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance (P<0.05), but a higher value of HOMA-insulin sensitivity (P<0.01). The KF diet sows also consumed more feed during lactation (P<0.01) and weaned significantly heavier pigs (P<0.01) than the CON diet sows. The overall results showed that the high fermentation capacity KF diet contributed to an increased lactational feed intake and improved performance of piglets in the second reproductive cycle.
Previous studies in sheep and cattle have demonstrated that the urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) provides an index of the intestinal flow of microbial protein (Chen et al. 1990). Yak is the most important ruminant species in Tibetan Plateau. It was of interest to establish whether the approach of PD excretion to estimate microbial protein supply is applicable in yaks. The objective of this work is to measure the effect of fasting and different levels of feeding on PD excretion in yaks.
The feeding experiments were carried out in Xi-ning, China at an altitude of 3100m and a latitude of 36.8° N. Six 5-year old female yaks were used and 3 experiments were completed.
Persistent katabatic winds form widely distributed localized areas of near-zero net surface accumulation on the East Antarctic ice sheet (EAIS) plateau. These areas have been called 'glaze' surfaces due to their polished appearance. They are typically 2-200 km2 in area and are found on leeward slopes of ice-sheet undulations and megadunes. Adjacent, leeward high-accumulation regions (isolated dunes) are generally smaller and do not compensate for the local low in surface mass balance (SMB). We use a combination of satellite remote sensing and field-gathered datasets to map the extent of wind glaze in the EAIS above 1500 m elevation. Mapping criteria are derived from distinctive surface and subsurface characteristics of glaze areas resulting from many years of intense annual temperature cycling without significant burial. Our results show that 11.2 ± 1.7%, or 950 ± 143 × 103km2, of the EAIS above 1500 m is wind glaze. Studies of SMB interpolate values across glaze regions, leading to overestimates of net mass input. Using our derived wind-glaze extent, we estimate this excess in three recent models of Antarctic SMB at 46-82 Gt. The lowest-input model appears to best match the mean in regions of extensive wind glaze.
We report the optical identification of four Balmer-dominated supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Both the Balmer-dominated spectra and the presence of a broad Hα component in one remnant can be understood in terms of a very high velocity non-radiative shock encountering gas which is partially neutral, as proposed originally by Chevalier and Raymond to account for the similar spectra of the galactic remnants, Tycho and SN1006. From a consideration of the optical and X-ray luminosities of the SNR with broad Hα emission, we infer that the fraction of neutral gas in the medium is ≲ 30%. Radio observations of the LMC remnants show that their surface brightnesses are anomalously low; this could be intrinsic to the supernova themselves, or a result of their environment. Finally, we argue that the four SNRs all resulted from Type I supernovae, in which case they are the first such remnants to be identified outside the Galaxy.
Optical identifications of 32 X-ray sources in the Magellanic Clouds confirm that they are SNRs. They are separated into four classes: the evolved, the oxygen-rich, the Balmer-dominated and the Crab-like. High velocity HI emission is observed from an extended region near 0525–66.0. It is suggested that this is produced by a possible Type III supernova which occurred out of the plane of the LMC and on the far side of the disk. The cumulative number-diameter relation for the LMC SNRs shows that they have evolved much faster than expected from the Sedov theory. It is suggested that this apparent “free-expansion” up to quite large diameters is due to the gradual conversion of the kinetic energy of the ejecta into thermal energy as they overtake the decelerating blast wave.
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of early and mid-gestation nutrient restriction on maternal metabolites and foetal growth. Primiparous Angus cows were synchronized and inseminated with semen from one sire. Dietary treatments were: control to gain 1 kg/week (CON) or 0.55% maintenance energy and CP requirements (nutrient restricted; NR). A subset of dams was fed NR (n=8) or CON (n=8) from days 30 to 110 of gestation. Another group was fed CON (n=8), days 30 to 190; NR (n=7), days 30 to 110 followed by CON days 110 to 190; or CON, (n=7) days 30 to 110 followed by NR days 110 to 190. Cows were harvested at days 110 or 190 of gestation, when foetal measurements and samples were collected. Cows that were NR during days 30 to 110 or 110 to 190 of gestation lost significant BW and body condition score (P<0.001), this was associated with reduced plasma glucose during NR (P<0.002). Foetal weights, empty foetal weights, abdominal and thoracic circumferences were all reduced (P<0.03) in day 110 NR animals. Foetal perirenal adipose as a percentage of empty foetal weight was increased (P=0.01) in NR day 110 female foetuses compared with CON foetus. Maternal serum triglycerides at day 110 of gestation were decreased (P<0.05) in NR dams, whereas foetal serum triglycerides were increased (P<0.05) in response to maternal NR. Foetal weights tended to be reduced (P=0.08) in NR/CON and CON/NR v. CON/CON cattle at day 190 of gestation. Empty foetal weights, abdominal and thoracic circumferences were reduced (P⩽0.03) in NR/CON and CON/NR v. CON/CON cattle. Brain weight as a percentage of empty foetal weight was increased (P<0.001) in NR/CON and CON/NR v. CON/CON cattle. Foetal perirenal adipose as a percentage of empty foetal weight was increased (P=0.003) in NR/CON and CON/NR v. CON/CON cattle. Maternal serum triglycerides at day 190 of gestation were decreased (P<0.05) in association with maternal NR. Foetal serum triglycerides at day 190 of gestation were increased (P<0.05) in response to maternal NR during early gestation but decreased by NR in mid gestation compared with CON foetuses. The data show that maternal nutrient restriction during early or mid-gestation cause’s asymmetrical foetal growth restriction, regardless if the restriction is preceded or followed by a period of non-restriction.
We conducted a longitudinal assessment in 466 underweight and 446 normal-weight children aged 6–24 months living in the urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh to determine the association between vitamin D and other micronutrient status with upper respiratory tract infection (URI) and acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). Incidence rate ratios of URI and ALRI were estimated using multivariable generalized estimating equations. Our results indicate that underweight children with insufficient and deficient vitamin D status were associated with 20% and 23–25% reduced risk of URI, respectively, compared to children with sufficient status. Underweight children, those with serum retinol deficiency were at 1·8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·4–2·4] times higher risk of ALRI than those with retinol sufficiency. In normal-weight children there were no significant differences between different vitamin D status and the incidence of URI and ALRI. However, normal-weight children with zinc insufficiency and those that were serum retinol deficient had 1·2 (95% CI 1·0–1·5) times higher risk of URI and 1·9 (95% CI 1·4–2·6) times higher risk of ALRI, respectively. Thus, our results should encourage efforts to increase the intake of retinol-enriched food or supplementation in this population. However, the mechanisms through which vitamin D exerts beneficial effects on the incidence of childhood respiratory tract infection still needs further research.
We report the discovery of 15 s oscillations in HST/STIS far-UV spectroscopic observations of WZ Sge in decline, one month after the start of its 2001 outburst. We discuss the implications of this finding for both the magnetic and pulsating white dwarf models that have been proposed to account for the 28 s oscillations.
The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (P<0.001), hepatic reactive oxygen species (P<0.05) and carbonyl group levels (P<0.001), but decreased plasma glutathione levels (P=0.006) in laying hens. These unfavorable changes induced by the oxidized sunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (P<0.05). PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E diminished the oxidized sunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) and maintained these indices at the similar levels to the fresh oil diet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (P<0.05) and tail moment (P<0.05) compared with the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length and tail moment to the basal levels in fresh oil diet. These results indicate that PQQ.Na2 is a potential antioxidant and is as effective against oxidized oil-related liver injury in laying hens as vitamin E. The protective effects of PQQ.Na2 against liver damage induced by oxidized oil may be partially due to its role in the scavenging of free radicals, inhibiting of lipid peroxidation and enhancing of antioxidant defense systems.
In this work we study the stellar-dynamical hardening of unequal mass massive black hole (MBH) binaries in the central regions of galactic nuclei. We present a comprehensive set of direct N-body simulations of the problem, varying both the total mass and the mass ratio of the MBH binary. Our initial model starts as an axisymmetric, rotating galactic nucleus, to describe the situation right after the galaxies have merged, but the black holes are still unbound to each other. We confirm that results presented in earlier works (Berczik et al. 2006; Khan et al. 2013; Wang et al. 2014) about the solution of the “last parsec problem” (sufficiently fast black hole coalescence for black hole growth in cosmological context) are robust for both for the case of unequal black hole masses and large particle numbers. The MBH binary hardening rate depends on the reduced mass ratio through a single parameter function, which quantitatively quite well agrees with standard 3 body scattering theory (see e.g., Hills 1983). Based on our results we conclude that MBH binaries at high redshifts are expected to merge with a factor of ~ 2 more efficiently, which is important to determine the possible overall gravitational wave signals. However, we have not yet fully covered all the possible parameter space, in particular with respect to the preceding of the galaxy mergers, which may lead to a wider variety of initial models, such as initially more oblate and / or even significantly triaxial galactic nuclei. Our N-body simulations were carried out on a new special supercomputers using the hardware acceleration with graphic processing units (GPUs).
Previous research on globular clusters (GCs) dynamics is mostly based on semi-analytic, Fokker-Planck, Monte-Carlo methods and on direct N-body (NB) simulations. These works have great advantages but also limits since GCs are massive and compact and close encounters and binaries play very important roles in their dynamics. The former three methods make approximations and assumptions, while expensive computing time and number of stars limit the latter method. The current largest direct NB simulation has ~ 500k stars (Heggie 2014). Here, we accelerate the direct NB code NBODY6++ (which extends NBODY6 to supercomputers by using MPI) with new parallel computing technologies (GPU, OpenMP + SSE/AVX). Our aim is to handle large N (up to 106) direct NB simulations to obtain better understanding of the dynamical evolution of GCs.
Triple supermassive black holes (SMBH) can form during the hierarchical mergers of massive galaxies with an existing binary. Perturbations by a third black hole may accelerate the merging process of an inner binary, for example through the Kozai mechanism. We analyze the evolution of simulated hierarchical triple SMBHs in galactic centers, and find resonances in the evolution of the semi-major axis, the eccentricity and the inclination, for both the inner and the outer orbits of the triple system, which are not only Kozai like. Through resonant oscillations, SMBH can trigger a significant increase of the inner SMBH binary eccentricity shortening the merger timescale expected from gravitational wave (GW) emission. As hierarchical triple SMBHs may be frequent in massive galaxies, the influence of orbital resonances is of great importance to our understanding of black hole coalescence and gravitational wave detection. Although Kozai mechanism is believed to play an important role in this process, detailed studies on the pattern of these resonances is necessary.
Positron annihilation and electron spin resonance (ESR) have been used to study defects introduced by lMeV electron irradiation in n-type cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) epitaxially grown on Si by chemical vapor deposition. Positron annihilation measurements by using variable-energy positron beams indicated the narrowing of the Doppler-broadened energy spectrum of annihilation gamma-rays and the decrease in the effective diffusion length of positrons with increasing the electron fluence. These results show the formation of vacancy-type defects in 3C-SiC. An ESR spectrum labeled T1, which has an isotropie g-value of 2.0029±0.0001, was observed in electron irradiated 3C-SiC. The T1 spectrum is interpreted by hyperfine interactions of paramagnetic electrons with 13C at four carbon sites and 29Si at twelve silicon sites, leads that the Tl center results from a point defect at a silicon sublattice site. The production rate of the Tl center was in good agreement with the carrier removal rate, indicating that the Tl center captures an electron from the conduction band. All these results are accounted for by the introduction of negatively charged vacancies at silicon sublattice sites in 3C-SiC by the irradiation.
MOS device interfaces are investigated using carrier injection and monoenergetic positron beam experiments. Carrier injection reveals that the holes injected into gate S1O2 film seem to be the main cause of the interface state generation and the dielectric breakdown of thin-gate SiO2. Positron annihilation experiments show that the positron diffuse along the electric field in the Si and the gate SiO2 and are trapped in the interface region before annihilation. The obtained value of 5 at the SiO2/Si interface was 0.500 ±0.003. The behavior of holes in the SiO2 and SiO2/Si interface are simulated using the monoenergetic positron annihilation technique.
In members of the Bocavirus genus, that contain three open reading frames (ORFs) of the Parvovirinae subfamily, porcine bocaviruses (PoBoVs) exhibit the most genetic diversity. Based on the ORF2-encoded viral protein (VP1) classification, the six reported porcine bocaviruses were grouped into four species: PoBoV1 (porcine boca-like virus or PBoLV), PoBoV2 (porcine parvovirus 4 or PPV4), PoBoV3 (PBoV1/PBoV2) and PoBoV4 (6V/7V), with PoBoV3 and PoBoV4 each having two genotype viruses. All four PoBoV species were detected in the 166 samples collected in 2010 from swine herds located in ten provinces of China. The detection rates for PoBoV1-4 were 28·9%, 6·6%, 19·3% and 39·7%, respectively. The co-infection combinations involving these six porcine bocaviruses in the collected samples were very complex. Furthermore, mixed infections with viruses from other families (porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, classic swine fever virus and porcine circovirus type 2) were also detected.
Vacancy type defects introduced by As+, P+, Si+ and B+ ion implantations into Si (100) single crystals were studied by a variable-energy positron beam. Depth distributions of the defects were obtained from measurements of Doppler broadening profiles of the positron annihilation as a function of incident positron energy. The results showed that this technique is sensitive not only to a vacancy type defect but to formation of amorphous regions. The defects introduced by lower doses were identified as vacancy clusters from isochronal annealing experiments. By higher doses such as 5×1014 /cm2, amorphous layers were formed for 150KeV As+, 150KeV P+, and 200KeV Si+ ions, and it was not formed for 80KeV B+ by the dose of 5×1015 /cm2. These results are consistent with the calculated critical doses. In the case of B+, pre-amorphous formation was observed with higher ion beam current over 5mA and a dose of 5×1015 /cm2.
Atom-probe techniques have been used to characterise nanostructured metallic materials prepared by thermal evaporation and by sputtering. Multilayer samples of Fe-Cr have been prepared by sputter deposition and analysed using the Oxford position-sensitive atom probe. This has made it possible to observe the quality of interfaces in the material, and also accurately determine local compositions at each layer within the multilayer stack. Preliminary experiments aimed at producing dual phase nanocrystalline films by thermal evaporator deposition are also reported.
A new conducting polymer, poly (benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-4,8-diyl vinylene) (1), has been prepared by pyrolysis of a precursor polymer 2, which, in turn, was prepared by a multistep synthetic sequence (Scheme 1). The polymer has a UV-vis spectral maximum at 501 nm (2.48 eV), band-gap (band edge) of 1.92 eV and with FeC?3 doping a conductivity of 15 S cm1. Quantum Mechanical calculations using PRDDO, ab-initio and modified extended Hiickel Methodology on the Monomers, trimers and polymers, both aromatic and quinoid, provided structures and an absorption maximum band-gap which is consistent with either a planar aromatic polymer or a polymer which has both aromatic and quinoid units.