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Physiological regulation may interact with early experiences such as maltreatment to increase risk for behavior problems. In the current study, we investigate the role of parasympathetic nervous system regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA] at rest and in response to a frustration task) as a moderator of the association between early risk for maltreatment (i.e., involvement with Child Protective Services; CPS) and externalizing behavior problems in middle childhood. CPS involvement was associated with elevated externalizing problems, but only among children with average to high RSA at rest and average to high RSA withdrawal in response to frustration. Effects appeared to be specific to CPS involvement as the association between cumulative risk (i.e., nonmaltreatment experiences of early adversity) and externalizing problems was not significantly moderated by RSA activity. These findings are consistent with the theoretical idea that the consequences of early maltreatment for later externalizing behavior problems depend on children's biological regulation abilities.
National and international research has shown the association between depression and anxiety disorders with the risk of planned and impulsive suicidal behavior. Patients with depression may have severe anxiety or agitation associated with their depression with or without comorbid additional anxiety disorder diagnoses.
1. Evaluate differences between self rated overall suicide risk of inpatients on a treatment resistant depression unit based on presence or absence of comorbid anxiety disorder.
2. Evaluate association of pharmacogenetic testing results with self-ratings of suicide risk.
1. To determine if suicide risk of psychiatric inpatients is higher in patients with depression and comorbid anxiety disorder.
2. To determine utility of pharmacogenetic testing with suicide risk assessment and patterns of use in patients with treatment resistant depression at a large academic medical center.
This is a retrospective records review study of a sample of over 700 inpatients on a treatment resistant depression unit at the Mayo Clinic. Patients overall suicide risk self-assessments will be analyzed for differences in suicide risk assessment controlling for diagnoses, age, and sex. Pharmacogenetic testing results, including serotonin transporter and p450 2D6 testing results, will be analyzed for their association with suicide risk.
Statistical analyses results are pending at time of abstract submission.
At a population level, the interplay between anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms is felt to be key to understanding the progression from suicidal ideation to suicidal behavior. Factors complicating this at an individual patient level along with results of research study will be discussed.
Infant colic is a condition of unknown cause which can result in carer distress and attachment difficulties. Recent studies have implicated the gut microbiota in infant colic, and certain probiotics have demonstrated possible efficacy. We aim to investigate whether the intestinal microbiota composition in infants with colic is associated with cry/fuss time at baseline, persistence of cry/fuss at 4-week follow-up, or child behavior at 2 years of age. Fecal samples from infants with colic (n = 118, 53% male) were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. After examining the alpha and beta diversity of the clinical samples, we performed a differential abundance analysis of the 16S data to look for taxa that associate with baseline and future behavior, while adjusting for potential confounding variables. In addition, we used random forest classifiers to evaluate how well baseline gut microbiota can predict future crying time. Alpha diversity of the fecal microbiota was strongly influenced by birth mode, feed type, and child gender, but did not significantly associate with crying or behavioral outcomes. Several taxa within the microbiota (including Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, and Klebsiella) associate with colic severity, and the baseline microbiota composition can predict further crying at 4 weeks with up to 65% accuracy. The combination of machine learning findings with associative relationships demonstrates the potential prognostic utility of the infant fecal microbiota in predicting subsequent infant crying problems.
The importance of timely identification and treatment of psychosis are increasingly the focus of early interventions, with research targeting the initial high-risk period in the months following first-episode hospitalization. However, ongoing psychiatric treatment and service utilization after the symptoms have been stabilized over the initial years following first-episode has received less research attention.
To model the variables predicting continued service utilization with psychiatrists for adolescents following their first-episode psychosis; examine associated temporal patterns in continued psychiatric service utilization.
This study utilized a cohort design to assess adolescents (age 14.4 ± 2.5 years) discharged following their index hospitalization for first-episode psychosis. Bivariate analyses were conducted on predictor variables associated with psychiatric service utilization. All significant predictor variables were included in a logistic regression model.
Variables that were significantly associated with psychiatric service utilization included: diagnosis with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder rather than major mood disorder with psychotic features (OR = 24.0; P = 0.02), a first degree relative with depression (OR = 0.12; P = 0.05), and months since last psychiatric inpatient discharge (OR = 0.92; P = 0.02). Further examination of time since last hospitalization found that all adolescents continued service utilization up to 18 months post-discharge.
Key findings highlight the importance of early diagnosis, that a first degree relative with depression may negatively influence the adolescent's ongoing service utilization, and that 18 months post-discharge may a critical time to review current treatment strategies and collaborate with youth and families to ensure that services continue to meet their needs.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The hepatic safety of agomelatine was assessed in 49 phase II and III studies. The aim was to analyze the characteristics of patients who developed an increase in transaminases whilst taking agomelatine.
A retrospective pooled analysis of changes in serum transaminase in 7605 patients treated with agomelatine (25 mg or 50 mg/day) from 49 completed studies was undertaken. A significant increase in serum transaminase was defined as > 3-fold the upper limit of normal (> 3 ULN). Final causality was determined in a case-by-case review by five academic experts.
Transaminase increased to > 3 ULN in 1.3% and 2.5% of patients treated with 25 mg and 50 mg of agomelatine respectively, compared to 0.5% for placebo. The onset of increased transaminases occurred at < 12 weeks in 64% of patients. The median time to recovery (to ≤ 2ULN) was 14 days following treatment withdrawal. Liver function tests recovered in 36.1% patients despite the continuation of agomelatine, suggesting the presence of a liver adaptive mechanism. Patients with elevated transaminases at baseline, secondary to obesity and fatty liver disease (NAFLD), had an equally increased risk of developing further elevations of transaminases with agomelatine and placebo. This reflects the widespread fluctuations of serum transaminases in patients with NAFLD.
The overall incidence of abnormal transaminases was low and dose dependent. No specific population was identified regarding potential risk factors. Withdrawal of agomelatine led to rapid recovery, and some patients exhibited an adaptive phenomenon. The liver profile of agomelatine seems safe when serum transaminases are monitored.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Nearly half of care home residents with advanced dementia have clinically significant agitation. Little is known about costs associated with these symptoms toward the end of life. We calculated monetary costs associated with agitation from UK National Health Service, personal social services, and societal perspectives.
Prospective cohort study.
Thirteen nursing homes in London and the southeast of England.
Seventy-nine people with advanced dementia (Functional Assessment Staging Tool grade 6e and above) residing in nursing homes, and thirty-five of their informal carers.
Data collected at study entry and monthly for up to 9 months, extrapolated for expression per annum. Agitation was assessed using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). Health and social care costs of residing in care homes, and costs of contacts with health and social care services were calculated from national unit costs; for a societal perspective, costs of providing informal care were estimated using the resource utilization in dementia (RUD)-Lite scale.
After adjustment, health and social care costs, and costs of providing informal care varied significantly by level of agitation as death approached, from £23,000 over a 1-year period with no agitation symptoms (CMAI agitation score 0–10) to £45,000 at the most severe level (CMAI agitation score >100). On average, agitation accounted for 30% of health and social care costs. Informal care costs were substantial, constituting 29% of total costs.
With the increasing prevalence of dementia, costs of care will impact on healthcare and social services systems, as well as informal carers. Agitation is a key driver of these costs in people with advanced dementia presenting complex challenges for symptom management, service planners, and providers.
The Wisconsin Twin Project comprises multiple longitudinal studies that span infancy to early adulthood. We summarize recent papers that show how twin designs with deep phenotyping, including biological measures, can inform questions about phenotypic structure, etiology, comorbidity, heterogeneity, and gene–environment interplay of temperamental constructs and mental and physical health conditions of children and adolescents. The general framework for investigations begins with rich characterization of early temperament and follows with study of experiences and exposures across childhood and adolescence. Many studies incorporate neuroimaging and hormone assays.
The efficient and effective movement of research into practice is acknowledged as crucial to improving population health and assuring return on investment in healthcare research. The National Center for Advancing Translational Science which sponsors Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) recognizes that dissemination and implementation (D&I) sciences have matured over the last 15 years and are central to its goals to shift academic health institutions to better align with this reality. In 2016, the CTSA Collaboration and Engagement Domain Task Force chartered a D&I Science Workgroup to explore the role of D&I sciences across the translational research spectrum. This special communication discusses the conceptual distinctions and purposes of dissemination, implementation, and translational sciences. We propose an integrated framework and provide real-world examples for articulating the role of D&I sciences within and across all of the translational research spectrum. The framework’s major proposition is that it situates D&I sciences as targeted “sub-sciences” of translational science to be used by CTSAs, and others, to identify and investigate coherent strategies for more routinely and proactively accelerating research translation. The framework highlights the importance of D&I thought leaders in extending D&I principles to all research stages.
Methamphetamine (MA) dependence contributes to neurotoxicity and neurocognitive deficits. Although combined alcohol and MA misuse is common, how alcohol consumption relates to neurocognitive performance among MA users remains unclear. We hypothesized that alcohol and MA use would synergistically diminish neurocognitive functioning, such that greater reported alcohol consumption would exert larger negative effects on neurocognition among MA-dependent individuals compared to MA-nonusing persons.
Eighty-seven MA-dependent (MA+) and 114 MA-nonusing (MA−) adults underwent neuropsychological and substance use assessments. Linear and logistic regressions examined the interaction between MA status and lifetime average drinks per drinking day on demographically corrected global neurocognitive T scores and impairment rates, controlling for recent alcohol use, lifetime cannabis use, WRAT reading performance, and lifetime depression.
MA+ displayed moderately higher rates of impairment and lower T scores compared to MA−. Lifetime alcohol use significantly interacted with MA status to predict global impairment (ORR = 0.70, p = .003) such that greater lifetime alcohol use increased likelihood of impairment in MA−, but decreased likelihood of impairment in MA+. Greater lifetime alcohol use predicted poorer global T scores among MA− (b = −0.44, p = .030) but not MA+ (b = 0.08, p = .586).
Contrary to expectations, greater lifetime alcohol use related to reduced risk of neurocognitive impairment among MA users. Findings are supported by prior research identifying neurobiological mechanisms by which alcohol may attenuate stimulant-driven vasoconstriction and brain thermotoxicity. Replication and examination of neurophysiologic mechanisms underlying alcohol use in the context of MA dependence are warranted to elucidate whether alcohol confers a degree of neuroprotection.
To determine the best nursing home facility characteristics for aggregating antibiotic susceptibility testing results across nursing homes to produce a useful annual antibiogram that nursing homes can use in their antimicrobial stewardship programs.
Derivation cohort study.
Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) certified skilled nursing facilities in Georgia (N = 231).
All residents of eligible facilities submitting urine culture specimens for microbiologic testing at a regional referral laboratory.
Crude and adjusted metrics of antibiotic resistance prevalence (percent of isolates testing susceptible) for 5 bacterial species commonly recovered from urine specimens were calculated using mixed linear models to determine which facility characteristics were predictive of testing antibiotic susceptibility.
In a single year, most facilities had an insufficient number of isolates tested to create facility-specific antibiograms: 49% of facilities had sufficient Escherichia coli isolates tested, but only about 1 in 10 had sufficient isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After accounting for antibiotic tested and age of the patient, facility characteristics predictive of susceptibility were: E. coli, region, year, average length of stay; K. pneumoniae, region, bed size; P. mirabilis, region; and for E. faecalis or P. aerginosa no facility parameter remained in the model.
Nursing homes often have insufficient data to create facility-specific antibiograms; aggregating data across nursing homes in a region is a statistically sound approach to overcoming data shortages in nursing home stewardship programs.
Introduction: Low acuity patients have been controversially tagged as a source of emergency department (ED) misuse. Authorities for many Canadian health regions have set up policies so these patients preferably present to walk-in clinics (WIC). We compared the cost and quality of the care given to low acuity patients in an academic ED and a WIC of Québec City during fiscal year 2015-16. Methods: We conducted an ambidirectional (prospective and retrospective) cohort study using a time-driven activity-based costing method. This method uses duration of care processes (e.g., triage) to allocate to patient care all direct costs (e.g., personnel, consumables), overheads (e.g., building maintenance) and physician charges. We included consecutive adult patients, ambulatory at all time and discharged from the ED or WIC with a diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), urinary tract infection (UTI) or low back pain. Mean cost [95%CI] per patient per condition was compared between settings after risk-adjustment for age, sex, vital signs, number of regular medications and co-morbidities using generalized log-gamma regression models. Proportions [95%CI] of antibiotic prescription and chest X-Ray use in URTI, compliance with provincial guidelines on use of antibiotics in UTI, and column X-Ray use in low back pain were compared between settings using a Pearson Chi-Square test. Results: A total of 409 patients were included. ED and WIC groups were similar in terms of age, sex and vital signs on presentation, but ED patients had a greater burden of comorbidities. Adjusted mean cost (2016 CAN$) of care was significantly higher in the ED than in the WIC (p < 0.0001) for URTI (78.42[64.85-94.82] vs. 59.43[50.43-70.06]), UTI (78.88[69.53-89.48] vs. 53.29[43.68-65.03]), and low back pain (87.97[68.30-113.32] vs. 61.71[47.90-79.51]). For URTI, antibiotics were more frequently prescribed in the WIC (44.1%[34.3-54.3] vs. 5.8%[1.2-16.0]; p < 0.0001) and chest X-Rays, more frequently used in the ED (26.9%[15.6-41.0] vs. 13.7%[7.7-22.0]; p = 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the compliance with guidelines on use of antibiotics in UTI and in the use of column X-Ray in low back pain. Conclusion: Total cost of care for low acuity patients is lower in walk-in clinics than in EDs. However, our results suggest that quality-of-care issues should be considered in determining the best alternate setting for treating ambulatory emergency patients.
Objectives: Studies of neurocognitively elite older adults, termed SuperAgers, have identified clinical predictors and neurobiological indicators of resilience against age-related neurocognitive decline. Despite rising rates of older persons living with HIV (PLWH), SuperAging (SA) in PLWH remains undefined. We aimed to establish neuropsychological criteria for SA in PLWH and examined clinically relevant correlates of SA. Methods: 734 PLWH and 123 HIV-uninfected participants between 50 and 64 years of age underwent neuropsychological and neuromedical evaluations. SA was defined as demographically corrected (i.e., sex, race/ethnicity, education) global neurocognitive performance within normal range for 25-year-olds. Remaining participants were labeled cognitively normal (CN) or impaired (CI) based on actual age. Chi-square and analysis of variance tests examined HIV group differences on neurocognitive status and demographics. Within PLWH, neurocognitive status differences were tested on HIV disease characteristics, medical comorbidities, and everyday functioning. Multinomial logistic regression explored independent predictors of neurocognitive status. Results: Neurocognitive status rates and demographic characteristics differed between PLWH (SA=17%; CN=38%; CI=45%) and HIV-uninfected participants (SA=35%; CN=55%; CI=11%). In PLWH, neurocognitive groups were comparable on demographic and HIV disease characteristics. Younger age, higher verbal IQ, absence of diabetes, fewer depressive symptoms, and lifetime cannabis use disorder increased likelihood of SA. SA reported increased independence in everyday functioning, employment, and health-related quality of life than non-SA. Conclusions: Despite combined neurological risk of aging and HIV, youthful neurocognitive performance is possible for older PLWH. SA relates to improved real-world functioning and may be better explained by cognitive reserve and maintenance of cardiometabolic and mental health than HIV disease severity. Future research investigating biomarker and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity) correlates of SA may help identify modifiable neuroprotective factors against HIV-related neurobiological aging. (JINS, 2019, 25, 507–519)
Although school-based programmes for the identification of children and young people (CYP) with mental health difficulties (MHD) have the potential to improve short- and long-term outcomes across a range of mental disorders, the evidence-base on the effectiveness of these programmes is underdeveloped. In this systematic review, we sought to identify and synthesise evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of school-based methods to identify students experiencing MHD, as measured by accurate identification, referral rates, and service uptake.
Electronic bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, ERIC, British Education Index and ASSIA were searched. Comparative studies were included if they assessed the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of strategies to identify students in formal education aged 3–18 years with MHD, presenting symptoms of mental ill health, or exposed to psychosocial risks that increase the likelihood of developing a MHD.
We identified 27 studies describing 44 unique identification programmes. Only one study was a randomised controlled trial. Most studies evaluated the utility of universal screening programmes; where comparison of identification rates was made, the comparator test varied across studies. The heterogeneity of studies, the absence of randomised studies and poor outcome reporting make for a weak evidence-base that only generate tentative conclusions about the effectiveness of school-based identification programmes.
Well-designed pragmatic trials that include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness and detailed process evaluations are necessary to establish the accuracy of different identification models, as well as their effectiveness in connecting students to appropriate support in real-world settings.