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Introduction: Acute psychosis is a disruptive change in mental state that requires the mobilization of significant resources for its immediate treatment and ongoing management in the emergency department (ED). Cannabis-induced psychotic disorder (CIP) is one potential cause; however, the diagnosis may be overlooked due to limited understanding of the etiology of CIP. Methods: This study employed a retrospective cohort analysis of all CIP cases admitted from a tertiary care ED in Edmonton, Alberta between 10/2016 and 10/2018 – the month cannabis was legalized in Canada. Charts were identified based on a most responsible diagnosis of CIP, as defined by ICD-10 code F12.5. Two reviewers abstracted data using a standardized form, which was entered into a database; 10% of charts were analyzed by both reviewers to examine inter-rater reliability. Patients were excluded if there was any documentation of methamphetamine use within the week prior to presentation. Outcomes included management, symptom profile, and length of stay. Results: In total there were 44 cases of CIP identified in 40 unique patients during the two-year period. The largest age group of patients (n = 14, 35%) were between 15-20 years old and the median length of admission was 6 days. A minority of patients (n = 13, 32.5%) had a previous psychiatric diagnosis. A distinct clinical picture evolved during the summation of patient symptoms in the ED with 65% of patients (n = 26) exhibiting persecutory delusions and 52.5% endorsing auditory hallucinations (n = 21). Only four patients were found to have visual hallucinations, three of which also had auditory hallucinations. Most patients (n = 34, 85%) were treated with an antipsychotic medication in the ED and during their time as inpatients, but only 70% of patients were prescribed an antipsychotic medication at the time of discharge (n = 28). Conclusion: This study is the first of its kind describing a cohort of patients with CIP in a Canadian ED setting. The patients presenting to the ED who would later be diagnosed CIP were more likely to be 15-20 years old, experiencing persecutory delusions, and unlikely to be experiencing isolated visual hallucinations. With the recent legalization of cannabis in Canada, further prospective research is required to determine any changes in the characteristics, incidence, and prevalence of CIP, as well as data from other centers to look for any regional differences in the presentation and management of CIP.
Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset, using a large, international database.
The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth cohort. Model-based clustering (mixture analysis) was then performed on the age of onset data using the residuals. Clinical variables in subgroups were compared.
There was a strong birth cohort effect. Without adjusting for the birth cohort, three subgroups were found by clustering. After adjusting for the birth cohort or when considering only those born after 1959, two subgroups were found. With results of either two or three subgroups, the youngest subgroup was more likely to have a family history of mood disorders and a first episode with depressed polarity. However, without adjusting for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups.
These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based on the age of onset, and that there is a birth cohort effect. Including the birth cohort adjustment altered the number and characteristics of subgroups detected when clustering by age of onset. Further investigation is needed to determine if combining both approaches will identify subgroups that are more useful for research.
Identifying routes of transmission among hospitalized patients during a healthcare-associated outbreak can be tedious, particularly among patients with complex hospital stays and multiple exposures. Data mining of the electronic health record (EHR) has the potential to rapidly identify common exposures among patients suspected of being part of an outbreak.
We retrospectively analyzed 9 hospital outbreaks that occurred during 2011–2016 and that had previously been characterized both according to transmission route and by molecular characterization of the bacterial isolates. We determined (1) the ability of data mining of the EHR to identify the correct route of transmission, (2) how early the correct route was identified during the timeline of the outbreak, and (3) how many cases in the outbreaks could have been prevented had the system been running in real time.
Correct routes were identified for all outbreaks at the second patient, except for one outbreak involving >1 transmission route that was detected at the eighth patient. Up to 40 or 34 infections (78% or 66% of possible preventable infections, respectively) could have been prevented if data mining had been implemented in real time, assuming the initiation of an effective intervention within 7 or 14 days of identification of the transmission route, respectively.
Data mining of the EHR was accurate for identifying routes of transmission among patients who were part of the outbreak. Prospective validation of this approach using routine whole-genome sequencing and data mining of the EHR for both outbreak detection and route attribution is ongoing.
In 2011 the Incidence Assay Critical Path Working Group reviewed the current state of HIV incidence assays and helped to determine a critical path to the introduction of an HIV incidence assay. At that time the Consortium for Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays (CEPHIA) was formed to spur progress and raise standards among assay developers, scientists and laboratories involved in HIV incidence measurement and to structure and conduct a direct independent comparative evaluation of the performance of 10 existing HIV incidence assays, to be considered singly and in combinations as recent infection test algorithms. In this paper we report on a new framework for HIV incidence assay evaluation that has emerged from this effort over the past 5 years, which includes a preliminary target product profile for an incidence assay, a consensus around key performance metrics along with analytical tools and deployment of a standardized approach for incidence assay evaluation. The specimen panels for this evaluation have been collected in large volumes, characterized using a novel approach for infection dating rules and assembled into panels designed to assess the impact of important sources of measurement error with incidence assays such as viral subtype, elite host control of viraemia and antiretroviral treatment. We present the specific rationale for several of these innovations, and discuss important resources for assay developers and researchers that have recently become available. Finally, we summarize the key remaining steps on the path to development and implementation of reliable assays for monitoring HIV incidence at a population level.
We used data from the Genitourinary Medicine Clinic Activity Dataset (GUMCAD) over a 3-year period (2009–2011) to investigate the distribution and risk factors of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in England. Socio-demographic and clinical risk factors associated with a diagnosis of T. vaginalis were explored using multivariable logistic regression. Rates of T. vaginalis infection were highest in London and the West Midlands. For men and women, T. vaginalis infection was significantly associated with: older age compared to those aged 20–24 years, non-white ethnicity (in particular black Caribbean and black ‘other’ ethnic groups), and birth in the Caribbean vs. birth in the UK. Current gonorrhoea or chlamydia infection was associated with a diagnosis of T. vaginalis in women. Further research is required to assess the public health impact and cost-effectiveness of introducing targeted screening for women at high risk of infection in areas of higher prevalence.
We discuss the optimal detection of point sources from multiwavelength imaging data using an approach, referred to as MDET, which requires no prior knowledge of the source spectrum. MDET may be regarded as a somewhat more general version of the so-called ‘chi-squared’ technique. We describe the theoretical basis of the technique, and show examples of its performance with four-channel infrared broadband imaging data from the WISE mission. We also discuss the potential benefits of applying it to the multifrequency data cubes of the ASKAP surveys, and suggest that it could increase the detection sensitivity of searches for neutral hydrogen emission at moderately high redshifts.
In this work we present an experimental study where energetic ions were produced in an underdense 2.5 × 1019 cm−3 plasma created by a 50 fs Ti:Sapphire laser with 5 TWs of power. The plasma comprises 95% He and 5% N2 gases. Ionization-induced trapping of nitrogen K-shell electrons in the laser-induced wakefield generates an electron beam with a mean energy of 40 MeV and ~1 nC of charge. Some of the helium ions at the wake–vacuum interface are accelerated with a measured minimum ion energy of He1+ ions of 1.2 MeV and He2+ ions of 4 MeV. The physics of the interaction is studied with 2D particle-in-cell simulations. These reveal the formation of an ion filament on the axis of the plasma due to space charge attraction of the wakefield-accelerated high-charge electron bunch. Some of these high-energy electrons escape the plasma to form a sheath at the plasma–vacuum boundary that accelerates some of the ions in the filament in the forward direction. Electrons with energy less than the sheath potential cannot escape and return to the plasma boundary in a vortex-like motion. This in turn produces a time-varying azimuthal magnetic field, which generates a longitudinal electric field at the interface that further accelerates and collimates the ions.
The economical production of flexible, chemically-functionalized carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes is appealing for the manufacture of electronic textiles with integrated charge storage capability. In this paper, a commercial CNT sheet is treated with 0.02 M potassium permanganate at room temperature to accomplish in-situ deposition of manganese dioxide. The morphology, elemental oxidation states, and crystallinity of the modified CNT sheet are studied using SEM, EDX, XPS, and XRD. Manganese loading is varied from 4 to 20 weight-percent by tuning solution treatment time, and metal oxide hydration state is influenced by thermal annealing at 200 °C. Electrochemical measurements reveal that charge is stored not only via CNT-induced electrical double-layer capacitance, but also through metal oxide-mediated Faradic reactions. The MnO2-decorated CNT sheet exhibits a specific capacitance of 89.6 F/g at 1 A/g, a tenfold enhancement compared to pristine CNT sheet. Overall, this simplified processing approach holds promise for cost-effective incorporation of electrochemical capacitors into functional fabrics for energy-generation applications.
The cognitive profile of early onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD) has not been clearly defined. Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common genetic risk factor for EOPD and may offer information about the neuropsychological pattern of performance in both symptomatic and asymptomatic mutation carriers. EOPD probands and their first-degree relatives who did not have Parkinson’s disease (PD) were genotyped for mutations in the parkin gene and administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Performance was compared between EOPD probands with (N = 43) and without (N = 52) parkin mutations. The same neuropsychological battery was administered to 217 first-degree relatives to assess neuropsychological function in individuals who carry parkin mutations but do not have PD. No significant differences in neuropsychological test performance were found between parkin carrier and noncarrier probands. Performance also did not differ between EOPD noncarriers and carrier subgroups (i.e., heterozygotes, compound heterozygotes/homozygotes). Similarly, no differences were found among unaffected family members across genotypes. Mean neuropsychological test performance was within normal range in all probands and relatives. Carriers of parkin mutations, whether or not they have PD, do not perform differently on neuropsychological measures as compared to noncarriers. The cognitive functioning of parkin carriers over time warrants further study. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1–10)
Patients who have undergone tracheoesophageal puncture for surgical voice restoration often use unnaturally high oesophageal air pressures during speech. This study examined the effect of high oesophageal air pressure on oesophageal body motility, lower oesophageal sphincter function and dyspeptic symptoms.
Cross-sectional study using several investigative tests of oesophageal function.
Materials and methods:
Sixteen patients who used tracheoesophageal fistula speech underwent several investigations, including: oesophageal manometry, videofluoroscopy, barium swallow, and tracheal pressure measurements during speech. The patients were also asked to complete a dyspepsia questionnaire.
We demonstrated that more than 50 per cent of these patients had subjective or objective disordered oesophageal function. Videofluoroscopy and manometry identified oesophageal dysmotility in the same patients.
Oesophageal function appears to be altered by tracheoesophageal fistula speech. However, our study showed that there is no contraindication to proceeding with tracheoesophageal fistula voicing even in patients with a history of oesophageal dysfunction.