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For 147 hospital-onset bloodstream infections, we assessed the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the National Healthcare Safety Network surveillance definitions of central-line–associated bloodstream infections against the gold standard of physician review, examining the drivers of discrepancies and related implications for reporting and infection prevention.
In this national survey, we found that individual patient assessments by pharmacists were more common at facilities using centralized prescribing for nirmetralvir-ritonavir (Paxlovid) than decentralized prescribing. Provider discomfort was initially less with centralized prescribing, but later, there was no difference in provider discomfort based on prescribing mechanism.
To estimate the association between in situ steroids and spine surgical-site infections (SSIs), assessing spinal instrumentation as an effect modifier and adjusting for confounders.
Rural academic medical center.
We identified 1,058 adults undergoing posterior fusion and laminectomy procedures as defined by the National Healthcare Safety Network without a pre-existing SSI between January 2020 and December 2021. We identified 26 SSI as cases and randomly selected 104 controls from the remaining patients without SSI.
The primary exposure was the intraoperative administration of methylprednisolone in situ (ie, either in the wound bed or as an epidural injection). The primary outcome was a clinical diagnosis of SSI within 6 months of a patient’s first spine surgery at our facility. We quantified the association between the exposure and outcome using logistic regression, using a product term to assess for effect modification by spinal instrumentation and the change-in-estimate approach to select significant confounders.
Adjusting for Charlson comorbidity index and malignancy, in situ steroids were significantly associated with spine SSI relative to no in situ steroids for instrumented procedures (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 9.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54–64.0), but they were not associated with spine SSIs among noninstrumented procedures (aOR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.15–4.93).
In situ steroids were significantly associated with spine SSI among instrumented procedures. The benefits of in situ steroids for pain management following spine surgery should be weighed against the risk of SSI, especially for instrumented procedures.
In this survey of 41 hospitals, 18 (72%) of 25 respondents reporting utilization of National Healthcare Safety Network resources demonstrated accurate central-line–associated bloodstream infection reporting compared to 6 (38%) of 16 without utilization (adjusted odds ratio, 5.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.16–24.8). Adherence to standard definitions is essential for consistent reporting across healthcare facilities.
To evaluate the effect of the burden of Staphylococcus aureus colonization of nursing home residents on the risk of S. aureus transmission to healthcare worker (HCW) gowns and gloves.
Multicenter prospective cohort study.
Setting and participants:
Residents and HCWs from 13 community-based nursing homes in Maryland and Michigan.
Residents were cultured for S. aureus at the anterior nares and perianal skin. The S. aureus burden was estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction detecting the nuc gene. HCWs wore gowns and gloves during usual care activities; gowns and gloves were swabbed and then cultured for the presence of S. aureus.
In total, 403 residents were enrolled; 169 were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and comprised the study population; 232 were not colonized and thus were excluded from this analysis; and 2 were withdrawn prior to being swabbed. After multivariable analysis, perianal colonization with S. aureus conferred the greatest odds for transmission to HCW gowns and gloves, and the odds increased with increasing burden of colonization: adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 2.1 (95% CI, 1.3–3.5) for low-level colonization and aOR 5.2 (95% CI, 3.1–8.7) for high level colonization.
Among nursing home patients colonized with S. aureus, the risk of transmission to HCW gowns and gloves was greater from those colonized with greater quantities of S. aureus on the perianal skin. Our findings inform future infection control practices for both MRSA and MSSA in nursing homes.
Point of care ultrasound in the emergency department (ED) is increasingly being used to diagnose time-sensitive, vision-threatening conditions. We present a case of a 64-year-old female who presented to the ED with a three-day history of worsening left eye floaters. Point of care ocular ultrasound demonstrated a posterior chamber containing many echogenic opacities of varying size without acoustic shadowing. Movement of the eye resulted in significant after-movement of these opacities, giving the classic “washing machine” appearance seen with vitreous hemorrhage (VH). Based on these ultrasound findings, the patient was diagnosed with a VH and was referred to ophthalmology. The consulting ophthalmologist ultimately diagnosed the patient with asteroid hyalosis without VH. Asteroid hyalosis is a benign condition of the vitreous resulting in calcium phosphate and lipid deposits that can mimic more serious VH on point of care ultrasound. Knowledge of this mimic is helpful for communication with specialists and for awareness of the potential for misdiagnosis with ocular ultrasound.