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Triage at mass gatherings in Australia is commonly performed by staff members with first aid training. There have been no evaluations of the performance of first aid staff with respect to diagnostic accuracy or identification of presentations requiring ambulance transport to hospital.
It was hypothesized that triage decisions by first aid staff would be considered correct in at least 61% of presentations.
A retrospective audit of 1,048 presentations to a single supplier of event health care services in Australia was conducted. The presentations were assessed based on the first measured set of physiological parameters, and the primary triage decision was classified as “expected” if the primary and secondary triage classifications were the same or “not expected” if they differed. The performance of the two triage systems was compared using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analysis.
The expected decision was made by first aid staff in 674 (71%) of presentations. Under-triage occurred in 131 (14%) presentations and over-triage in 142 (15%) presentations. The primary triage strategy had an AUROC of 0.7644, while the secondary triage strategy had an AUROC of 0.6280, which was significantly different (P = .0199).
The results support the continued use of first aid trained staff members in triage roles at Australian mass gatherings. Triage tools should be simple, and the addition of physiological variables to improve the sensitivity of triage tools is not recommended because such an approach does not improve the discriminatory capacity of the tools.
Diversity is key for sustainable weed management and can be achieved via both chemical and nonchemical control tactics. Genetically modified crops with two-way or three-way stacked herbicide-tolerant traits allow use of herbicide mixtures that would otherwise be phytotoxic to the crop. Early weed management (EWM) strategies promote the use of PRE herbicides with residual activity to keep the field free of weeds early in the season for successful crop establishment. To evaluate the respective sustainability and practicality of the two chemical-based management tactics (i.e., stacked traits and EWM), we used a population model of waterhemp, Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer (syn. rudis), to simulate the evolution of resistance in this key weed species in midwestern U.S. soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] agroecosystems. The model tested scenarios with a varying number of herbicide sites of action (SOAs), application timings (PRE and POST), and preexisting levels of resistance. Results showed that both tactics provided opportunity for controlling resistant A. tuberculatus populations. In general, each pass over the field should include at least two effective herbicide SOAs. Nevertheless, the potential evolution of cross-resistance may void the weed control programs embraced by stacked traits and diverse herbicide SOAs. Economic calculations suggested that the diversified programs could double long-term profitability when compared to the conventional system, because of improved yield and grain quality. Ultimately, the essence of a sustainable herbicide resistance management strategy is to be proactive. Although a herbicide-dominated approach to diversifying weed management has been prevalent, the increasing presence of weed populations with multiple resistance means that finding herbicides to which weed populations are still susceptible is becoming increasingly difficult, and thus the importance of reintroducing cultural and mechanical practices to support herbicides must be recognized.
In this final chapter we broach the subject of Aldana's use of the mythological genre in his poetic exploration of the nature of love. First, by way of orientation, I wish to consider the mythological tradition before moving on to analyse the love between two human characters in a fragment based on the story of Medoro and Angelica from Ariosto's Orlando furioso (1532), in which the character of Cupid plays an interesting and ambiguous role. The second part of this chapter is concerned with the effects of love, both positive and negative, on two divine figures: Mars and Venus. The deities emerge as protagonists in two distinct texts, one a sonnet and the other an incomplete fragment in octavas, which differ greatly in their ends. The three texts, which are grouped by the commonality of their mythological content, also offer a variety of perspectives on sensual love and its potential consequences. Through close textual analysis we will see how the complex, interwoven textual roots from both contemporary and classical sources permit Aldana to produce mythological texts that are less overtly moral than their contemporary Spanish counterparts. The resultant mix of sensuality, physicality and spirituality ultimately showcases the poet's view regarding the powerful and pervasive nature of love in the earthly realm and beyond.
The growth of the mythological as a medium for didactic poetry, as well as its broader cultural significance in the Renaissance more generally, is attributed by Bush to a continued fascination with the medieval tradition of moralising literature. From the twelfth century onwards biblical exegesis of mythological tales had proved a popular method for the continued inculcation of religious beliefs to help foster piety. The ability of myth to gain such a strong footing in Renaissance culture is attributable to its synthesis with the moralising tradition of the medieval era. The popular examples of the Ovide moralisé (c. 1317–28), Giovanni Bonsignori's Metamorfoseo volgare (1497), and their numerous reprints, best exemplify this process. These translations of mythological texts, sometimes in the loosest terms possible, were joined by mythographies, such as Giovanni Boccaccio's Genealogia deorum gentilium (1472), Vincenzo Cartari's Immagini degli dei degli antichi (1556), Natale Conti's Mythologiae (1567) and Pérez de Moya's Philosofía secreta (1585).
Aldana's poetic response with respect to love was to synthesise a variety of existing philosophies – both classical and contemporary – so as to arrive at something distinct from what Spain had to offer at the time, which was probably the result of his upbringing and education beyond the mainland. We saw in the previous chapter how Petrarchism was appropriated and mobilised as the vanguard for the dissemination of Neoplatonic thought in the period. The use of Petrarchism as a vector is of interest regarding Aldana's approach and informs the analyses contained both in this chapter and this study as a whole. Centred on one of his longer poetic texts, ‘Pues tan piadosa luz de estrella amiga’, this chapter also incorporates philosophical and consolatio material from elsewhere in Aldana's corpus to ensure the requisite breadth and cohesion. In order to highlight Aldana's innovation, I will continue to make use of contemporary Spanish poetry as well as treatises on love to give context to both the period and literary landscape in which Aldana wrote. Additionally, in acknowledging the time as one of flux when the most pertinent theoretical veins showed imbrication, an assessment of Aldana's interaction with these areas of overlap will also be of concern to us.
The poems selected for analysis at this juncture present routinely deployed tropes and topoi that are subject to slippage with respect to their most common literary connotations. By slippage, I mean the space generated by the poet in the mind of the reader as a result of the differences between the original commonplace and its apparent function when redeployed in another (con)text. These gaps help generate incremental movement away from the traditional connotation at the textual level via the paradoxical exploitation of the safety of existing poetic models. For example, as the reader progresses through the (macro)text, the repeated incremental slippages interlink to generate momentum that distances the commonplaces from their original significations and encourages the reader to synthesise new meanings based on the combined effects of the iterative shifts and the new poetic contexts in which they are found. The outcome is that the commonplace is deemed not to be what it prima facie appears. Such consolidation is the fruit of time spent by the reader reflecting upon their experience of a series of poems as a whole.
The successful orientation and exploration of Francisco de Aldana's lyric requires the introduction of two fundamental concepts that underpin not only the present study, but also the love poetry of the Early Modern period. First, Neoplatonism, born of Ficino's take on the philosophical system that was subsequently imported from Italy to Spain, and Petrarchism, a school of love poetry built upon the selective reception of Francesco Petrarca's Canzoniere in light of the Questione della lingua. My intention in this initial chapter is to chart the development of these concepts via key texts on the philosophy of love in the Renaissance. For example, the changing nature of Neoplatonism after Ficino's De amore (1484) is examined in light of Pietro Bembo's Gli Asolani (1505), Baldassare Castiglione's Il Cortegiano (1528), Leone Ebreo's Dialoghi d'amore (1535), Tullia D'Aragona's Dialogo dell'infinità d'amore (1547) and Agostino Nifo's De pulchro et amore (1549). The revival of Petrarchan poetics is treated through the lens of Bembo's Prose della volgar lingua (1525) and the Neoplatonic Academy of Florence, of which Garcilaso de la Vega and Juan Boscán were also part. Subsequent to this survey of the contemporary interrogation and alteration of both concepts, I will move on to examine Aldana's reception of each and consider which predecessors may have informed his approach, as well as to what extent he alters the role of each concept in its synthesis with his poetry.
Ficinian Neoplatonism was a philosophical trend that helped to explain the effects and varieties of love experienced in a Christian context. Its presentation of an ideal love included transcendence to a spiritual plane of true knowledge that was envisaged to be accomplishable via the appreciation and contemplation of the fusion of beauty and love. Neoplatonism was a widespread phenomenon throughout Europe and beyond, with particularly strong evidence for its reception in Spain and its Empire indicated by the Hispanic translations of texts including Castiglione's Il Cortegiano by Boscán (1534), the anonymous rendering of Bembo's Gli Asolani (1551), and Ebreo's Dialoghi d'amore by El Inca Garcilaso de la Vega (1586). These texts ran concurrent with a corpus of Neoplatonic poetry composed in the new lyric models made popular by Garcilaso de la Vega and Juan Boscán, among others, after their time in Italy.
To synthesise my thoughts and offer conclusions regarding Aldana's love poetry, I present a critical reading of the poem ‘Entre el Asia y Europa es repartido’, which brings together the various facets explored in the preceding chapters. The poem is a gloss of Garcilaso de la Vega's well-known sonnet ‘Pasando el mar Leandro el animoso’, first published in 1543 as part of the fourth book of Las obras de Boscán y algunas de Garcilaso de la Vega. Aldana's poem differs insofar as the form is concerned, since it is written in octaves, and incorporates a line of Garcilaso's poem at the end of each strophe. As was also the situation for the philosophical fragments considered in the opening chapter of this study, the poem was published in an incomplete state and lacked lines 6–7 of Garcilaso's original, signalling a total of two missing strophes. This fact was made clear to readers unfamiliar with Garcilaso's original sonnet via the addition of ‘de la qual faltan dos octauas’ to the title of the piece in Cosme's edited volume. A recent study would appear to have found a version of the missing content in a manuscript held at the Biblioteca Nacional de España, although the scholar notes that it is ‘representiva de un estudio redaccional primitivo’. As the incomplete version served as the basis for the majority of contemporary readers’ interactions with the poem, and bearing in mind the early draft nature of the two missing stanzas, I have chosen to engage with the poem in its incomplete form for the purposes of this analysis.
The myth of Hero and Leander had become popular owing to the fifteenth-century printing of Musaeus’ poem, the lasting legacy of Ovid's Metamorphoses, and the poetry that followed in the Early Modern period across Europe. The myth tells the story of two young lovers separated by the Hellespont, a narrow stretch of sea between the continents of Europe and Asia Minor. On the European shore was Hero, a priestess of Aphrodite, while on the other was Leander, a young man from Abydos, who would visit her from Asia Minor on a nightly basis. Hero would light a lamp to help guide the youth as he swam to her in the darkness.
Resistance to colistin, a last resort antibiotic, has emerged in India. We investigated colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae(ColR-KP) in a hospital in India to describe infections, characterize resistance of isolates, compare concordance of detection methods, and identify transmission events.
Retrospective observational study.
Case-patients were defined as individuals from whom ColR-KP was isolated from a clinical specimen between January 2016 and October 2017. Isolates resistant to colistin by Vitek 2 were confirmed by broth microdilution (BMD). Isolates underwent colistin susceptibility testing by disk diffusion and whole-genome sequencing. Medical records were reviewed.
Of 846 K. pneumoniae isolates, 34 (4%) were colistin resistant. In total, 22 case-patients were identified. Most (90%) were male; their median age was 33 years. Half were transferred from another hospital; 45% died. Case-patients were admitted for a median of 14 days before detection of ColR-KP. Also, 7 case-patients (32%) received colistin before detection of ColR-KP. All isolates were resistant to carbapenems and susceptible to tigecycline. Isolates resistant to colistin by Vitek 2 were also resistant by BMD; 2 ColR-KP isolates were resistant by disk diffusion. Moreover, 8 multilocus sequence types were identified. Isolates were negative for mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes. Based on sequencing analysis, in-hospital transmission may have occurred with 8 case-patients (38%).
Multiple infections caused by highly resistant, mcr-negative ColR-KP with substantial mortality were identified. Disk diffusion correlated poorly with Vitek 2 and BMD for detection of ColR-KP. Sequencing indicated multiple importation and in-hospital transmission events. Enhanced detection for ColR-KP may be warranted in India.
Previously, we saw how Aldana's lyric voice put forward a hypothetical scenario that outlined the unrivalled power of reciprocal love, and it was clear from the praise for the female beloved that the rhetorical force was meant to engender a shared love with the dama in question. This chapter marks a transition to the pastoral genre and considers the opportunities it affords both poet and reader to examine a less idealised approach to love than that at play in contemporary treatises, such as those examined in Chapter 1. Aldana's pastoral, I contend, does not replicate the idealised loves and landscapes of yore; rather, it takes advantage of the genre's blurred boundaries in the Renaissance to present an alternative to the songs of unrequited love that typified contemporary Spanish amatory lyric.
It is apparent from the wealth and breadth of scholarship on the pastoral that many have attempted to provide a comprehensive and overarching definition of the genre, but this has proven counterproductive given its myriad definitions, dependent as much on critic as poet. For this reason, my intention is to highlight those facets of the genre applicable to the Renaissance pastoral, and, more specifically, Aldana's poetry, before I reflect on how they contribute to his representation of love. Primarily, this will involve an investigation of Aldana's attempts to effect a reconciliation between physicality and spirituality in love-related issues beyond the remit of the idealised pastoral genre. These are realised in poems that were most likely written for literary salons, but that ultimately found a wider audience thanks to their publication by Cosme de Aldana. Four poems from Aldana's pastoral corpus, selected for their unique and revelatory perspectives on love, will be examined in two pairings. The first pair consists of ‘Cuál es la causa, mi Damón’ and ‘Mil veces digo, entre los brazos puesto’, while the second sees ‘De sus hermosos ojos, dulcemente’ and ‘Solías tú, Galatea, tanto quererme’ brought together for analysis. In light of the first pair of poems, whose perceived interrelationship has been a subject of debate between Ferraté and Walters, I intend to demonstrate Aldana's use of the pastoral genre to illustrate his thoughts on the nature of love.
The oft-overlooked poetic corpus of the Spanish-Neapolitan Francisco de Aldana (c. 1540–78) lies at the heart of this study in which I revisit and reassess our appreciation and understanding of the articulation of love in his lyric. Much like Garcilaso de la Vega and Juan Boscán before him, Aldana serves as a quintessential example of what we have come to acknowledge as the figure of the warrior-poet. Born to Extremaduran parents in the Spanish Kingdom of Naples, he grew up to be educated at the University of Florence where he dedicated himself to the study of classical languages and literatures. He was closely aligned with the family of Cosimo de’ Medici and formed part of Benedetto Varchi's literary circle. Aldana later became a soldier in the service of the Spanish Empire, like his father before him, for which he was recognised by Carlos V for his valiant efforts, and he was made an aide to the nephew of Felipe II of Spain, Don Sebastian of Portugal, until his death. Aldana's poetry was never published in his own lifetime, for it appears he had no inclination to do so, and so it was not until his brother Cosme took it upon himself to collect, edit and print Francisco's works after his death at the Battle of Alcazarquivir (1578) that his poetry came to light. The first part of his collected works was published in Milan in 1589, the second in Madrid in 1591, and a compendium volume again in Madrid in 1593. Two subsequent editions with minor adjustments were printed, most likely in Brussels, after 1593.
The history of Aldana's corpus is of interest by virtue of its fragmented, posthumous circulation. Cosme de Aldana, himself a self-published poet, was responsible for both the preparation and publication of Francisco's poetry. Both contemporary critics, such as Francisco de Quevedo, as well as modern scholars have lambasted Cosme's efforts as the editor of his brother's oeuvre. These critical opinions, however, could be said to mask the particularly interesting role he played in fashioning and curating Francisco's posthumous image as a poet. For example, the allographic writings that act as an intermediary and help shape the relationship between reader and text in the editions include Cosme's own poetry.
The present study focused on parents’ social cue use in relation to young children's attention. Participants were ten parent–child dyads; all children were 36 to 60 months old and were either typically developing (TD) or were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children wore a head-mounted camera that recorded the proximate child view while their parent played with them. The study compared the following between the TD and ASD groups: (a) frequency of parent's gesture use; (b) parents’ monitoring of their child's face; and (c) how children looked at parents’ gestures. Results from Bayesian estimation indicated that, compared to the TD group, parents of children with ASD produced more gestures, more closely monitored their children's faces, and provided more scaffolding for their children's visual experiences. Our findings suggest the importance of further investigating parents’ visual and gestural scaffolding as a potential developmental mechanism for children's early learning, including for children with ASD.
Herd immunity, a concept normally applied in vaccinated populations, is a preventative measure to determine if a significant portion of a population can protect vulnerable individuals against a certain disease. Like vaccines, tourniquet education can be a form of herd immunity to protect vulnerable individuals in a population and prevent the loss of life from a peripheral hemorrhage. The authors have identified a deficiency in simple, quick, and effective hemorrhage control education. Therefore, to maximize herd immunity, the novel educational platform evaluates the efficacy of “Just-in-Time” (JiT) tourniquet application training.
The authors hypothesize that the utilization of JiT training will be effective in promoting both competence and confidence for individuals to utilize tourniquets in response to a disaster environment.
This Institutional Review Board-approved study recruited medical students who were trained in hemorrhage control measures at a Level 1 Trauma Center. Tourniquet training sessions were held, and naïve civilians received tourniquet education. The subjects received a five- to ten-minute lesson on indications, contraindications, and application techniques of commercial and improvisational tourniquets. Participants subsequently applied a tourniquet to an instructor’s arm to demonstrate proper tourniquet application for a brachial artery hemorrhage. Pre- and post-educational surveys were completed to test participant competency and confidence.
Of the 104 subjects who completed the course, 97 had no prior training in hemorrhage control techniques, including commercial and improvisational tourniquet application. The mean pre-test score was 2.27/5.00 and the mean post-test score was 4.38/5.00, P <.001 (n = 97). When queried “How competent would you feel applying a tourniquet (commercial or improvisational) on an individual with a bleeding wound?” 92/97 felt confident (95%), one felt less confident, and four felt no difference in confidence levels (P <.001).
Just-in-Time training is an effective method in teaching naïve civilians proper tourniquet application. This platform could serve as an alternative to more extensive training programs and requires less time, costs, and resources. If a significant number of individuals in a local community can effectively apply a tourniquet in a disaster scenario, a “herd immunity” effect could be achieved to control peripheral hemorrhages.
Habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity worldwide, and little is known about their effects on bats in Africa. We investigated effects of forest fragmentation on bat assemblages at Kakamega Forest, western Kenya, examining captures at edge and interior locations in three forest fragments (Buyangu, 3950 ha; Kisere, 400 ha; and Malava, 100 ha) varying in forest area and human-use regimes. Basal area, canopy cover, tree density and intensity of human use were used as predictors of bat abundance and species richness. A total of 3456 mist-net hours and 3168 harp-trap hours resulted in the capture of 4983 bats representing 26 species, eight families and four foraging ensembles (frugivores, forest-interior insectivores, forest-edge insectivores and open-space insectivores). Frugivores were frequently captured at the edges of the larger, better-protected forests, but also in the interior of the smaller, more open fragment. Forest-interior insectivores and narrow-space foragers predominated in the interiors of larger fragments but avoided the smallest one. Forest specialists showed positive associations with forest variables (canopy cover, basal area and tree density), whereas frugivores responded positively to the human-use indicators. On these bases, specialist species appear to be especially vulnerable to forest fragmentation.