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1 Early Development of Adaptive Skills in Young Children with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum: A Comparison to Monogenetic and Neurodevelopmental Conditions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 December 2023

Lauren D Haisley*
Affiliation:
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Lana Hantzch
Affiliation:
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Jasmin Turner
Affiliation:
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.
Kelly N Botteron
Affiliation:
Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
Stephen Dager
Affiliation:
University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
Annette M Estes
Affiliation:
University of Washington, SeattleWA, WA, USA.
Lisa Flake
Affiliation:
Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
Heather Hazlett
Affiliation:
University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill, Charlotte, NC, USA.
Robert T Schultz
Affiliation:
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Joseph Piven
Affiliation:
University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill, Charlotte, NC, USA.
Lynn K Paul
Affiliation:
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.
Jed T Elison
Affiliation:
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
*
Correspondence: Lauren D Haisley, University of Minnesota, haisl011@umn.edu
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Abstract

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Objective:

Differences in adaptive functioning present early in development for many children with monogenic (Down Syndrome, Fragile X) and neurodevelopmental disorders. At this time, it is unclear whether children with ACC present with early adaptive delays, or if difficulties emerge later as functional tasks become more complex. While potential delays in motor development are frequently reported, other domains such as communication, social and daily living skills are rarely described. We used a prospective, longitudinal design to examine adaptive behavior from 6-24 months in children with ACC and compared their trajectories to those with monogenic and neurodevelopmental conditions.

Participants and Methods:

Our sample included children with primary ACC (n= 27-47 depending on time point) whose caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Interview 3rd Edition, via phone at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Comparison samples (using the Vineland-2) included children with Down Syndrome (DS; n = 15-56), Fragile X (FX; n = 15-20), children at high familial likelihood for autism (HL-; n=192-280), and low likelihood (LL; no family history of autism and no developmental/behavioral diagnosis; n = 111196). A subset of the HL children received an autism diagnosis (HL+; n = 48-74). The DS group did not have an 18-month Vineland.

Results:

A series of linear mixed model analyses (using maximum likelihood) for repeated measures was used to compare groups on three Vineland domains at 6, 12, 18 and 24 month timepoints). All fixed factors (diagnostic group, timepoint, and group X timepoint interaction) accounted for significant variance on all Vineland domains (p < .001). Post hoc comparisons with Bonferroni-correction examined ACC Vineland scores compared to the other diagnostic groups at each timepoint. At 6 months, parent-ratings indicated the ACC group had significantly weaker skills than the LL group in Communication and Motor domains. At 12, 18 and 24 months, ratings revealed weaker Communication, Daily Living and Motor skills in the ACC group compared to both the LL and HL- groups. Compared to the other clinical groups, the ACC group had stronger Socialization and Motor skills than Fragile X at 6 months, and at 24 months had stronger Communication and Socialization skills than both the DS and FX groups, as well as stronger Socialization than the HL+ group.

Conclusions:

Compared to children with low likelihood of ASD, children with primary ACC reportedly have weaker Communication and Motor skills from 6 to 24 months, with weakness in Daily Living Skills appearing at 12 months and all differences increase with age. Compared to Fragile X, the ACC exhibited relative strengths in socialization and motor skills starting at 6 months. By 24 months, the ACC group was outperforming the monogenic groups on Socialization and Communication. In general, the ACC scores were consistent with the HL+ sample, except the ACC group had stronger Social skills at 18 and 24 months. The results clearly inform the need for early intervention in the domains of motor and language skills. Additionally, as we know that children with ACC are at increased risk for social difficulties, research is needed both using more fine-grained social-communication tools, and following children from infancy through middle childhood.

Type
Poster Session 04: Aging | MCI
Copyright
Copyright © INS. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2023