Relative position awareness is a vital premise for the implementation of emerging intelligent transportation systems. However, commercial Global Satellite Navigation Systems (GNSS) receivers do not satisfy the requirements of these applications. Fortunately, Cooperative Positioning (CP) systems, based on inter-vehicle communications, have improved performance of relative positioning in a Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET). CP techniques rely primarily on measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) to deliver measurements or positions that describe the location of individual vehicles. In urban environments, the reduced quality or complete unavailability of GPS measurements challenges the effectiveness of any CP algorithm. In this paper, a new enhanced tightly–coupled CP technique is presented by adding the measurements from low-cost inertial sensors and the Doppler shift of the carrier of Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) signals. In the enhanced CP method proposed here, vehicles communicate their Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data and GPS measurements. Each vehicle fuses the GPS measurements and IMU data and the inter-node range-rates based on the Doppler shift of the carrier of DSRC signals. Based on analytical and experimental results, in a full GPS coverage environment, the new tight integration CP outperforms tight CP with Inertial Navigation System (INS), tight CP and differential GPS by at least by 6%, 15%, and 28%, respectively. In a GPS outage, the performance improvement can be up to 60%, 55%, and 66% respectively.