To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Health reform debate understandably focuses on large system design. We should not omit attention to the “last mile” problem of physician payment theory. Achieving fundamental goals of integrative, patient-centered primary care depends on thoughtful financial support. This commentary describes the nature and importance of innovative primary care payment programs.
Background: UV-C light reduces contamination of high-touch clinical surfaces. Few studies have tested the relative efficacy of UV-C devices in real-world clinical environments. Methods: We assessed the efficacy of the Tru-D (SmartUVC) and Moonbeam-3 UV-C (Diversey) devices at eradicating important clinical pathogens in 2 hyperbaric chambers at a tertiary-care hospital. Formica sheets were inoculated with 106–107 CFU of MRSA (USA300) or 104–105 CFU of C. difficile (NAP1). Sheets were placed in 6 predetermined locations throughout the chambers. Two Moonbeam-3 UV-C devices were positioned in the center of each chamber and were run for 3-minute (per manufacturer’s instructions) and 5-minute cycles. One Tru-D was positioned in the center of the chamber and was run on the vegetative cycle for MRSA and the spore cycle for C. difficile. UV-C dosage was measured for both machines. Quantitative cultures were collected using Rodac plates with DE neutralizing agar and were incubated at 37C for 48 hours. C. difficile was likewise plated onto sheep’s blood agar. Results: We ran each combination of chamber, microbe, and UV-C device in triplicate for In total, 108 samples per species.
For MRSA, the Tru-D vegetative cycle, the 5-minute Moonbeam cycle, and the 3-minute Moonbeam cycle resulted in average CFU log10 reductions of 7.02 (95% CI, 7.02–7.02), 6.99 (95% CI, 6.95–7.02), and 6.58 (95% CI, 6.37–6.79), respectively (Fig. 1). The Tru-D vegetative and 5-minute Moonbeam cycles were similarly effective (P > .99), and both were more effective than the 3-minute Moonbeam cycle (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). MRSA samples receiving direct UV-C exposure had significantly greater log10 reductions (6.95; 95% CI, 6.89–7.01) than did indirect exposure (6.67; 95% CI, 6.46–6.87; P < .05) (Fig. 2). For C. difficile, the Tru-D sporicidal, the 5-, and 3-minute Moonbeam cycles resulted in average CFU log10 reductions of 1.78 (95% CI, 1.43–2.12), 0.57 (95% CI, 0.33–0.81) and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.42–0.86), respectively (Fig. 1). Tru-D was significantly more effective than either the 3- or 5-minute Moonbeam cycles (P < .00). C. difficile samples receiving direct UV-C exposure had higher dosage and significantly greater log10 reductions (1.34; 95% CI, 1.10–1.58) than did indirect exposure (0.58; 95% CI, 0.31–0.86; P < .01) (Fig. 2). Conclusions: Use of the Tru-D vegetative cycle and the Moonbeam 3- and 5-minute cycles resulted in similar reductions in MRSA; both resulted in significantly greater reductions than the manufacturer’s recommended 3-minute Moonbeam cycle. Therefore, healthcare facilities should carefully evaluate manufacturer-recommended run times in their specific clinical setting. For C. difficile, the Tru-D sporicidal cycle was significantly more effective than either of the Moonbeam cycles, likely due to higher irradiation levels. As such, direct UV-C exposure resulted in greater average reductions than indirect exposure.
Previous genetic association studies have failed to identify loci robustly associated with sepsis, and there have been no published genetic association studies or polygenic risk score analyses of patients with septic shock, despite evidence suggesting genetic factors may be involved. We systematically collected genotype and clinical outcome data in the context of a randomized controlled trial from patients with septic shock to enrich the presence of disease-associated genetic variants. We performed genomewide association studies of susceptibility and mortality in septic shock using 493 patients with septic shock and 2442 population controls, and polygenic risk score analysis to assess genetic overlap between septic shock risk/mortality with clinically relevant traits. One variant, rs9489328, located in AL589740.1 noncoding RNA, was significantly associated with septic shock (p = 1.05 × 10–10); however, it is likely a false-positive. We were unable to replicate variants previously reported to be associated (p < 1.00 × 10–6 in previous scans) with susceptibility to and mortality from sepsis. Polygenic risk scores for hematocrit and granulocyte count were negatively associated with 28-day mortality (p = 3.04 × 10–3; p = 2.29 × 10–3), and scores for C-reactive protein levels were positively associated with susceptibility to septic shock (p = 1.44 × 10–3). Results suggest that common variants of large effect do not influence septic shock susceptibility, mortality and resolution; however, genetic predispositions to clinically relevant traits are significantly associated with increased susceptibility and mortality in septic individuals.
This article reports on an evaluation of the Keeping Children Safe parent education programme run in Central West New South Wales. The programme, conducted since 2004, and continuing today, primarily targets parents of children at risk and other vulnerable and disadvantaged families. The evaluation covers a 13-year period, from the first group held in May 2004 to February 2017. From the beginning, the authors strategically endeavoured to recruit and retain parents from the target group. Findings from the literature indicate that this group is difficult to engage and retain in parent education groups. Parents targeted for the groups in this study were generally not receiving parent education elsewhere. Using mixed methods, the facilitators have continuously evaluated the programme in terms of attendance rates, process and impact. The results of these evaluations show successful recruitment and retention of participants from the target group over the 13 years of the evaluation reporting period and indicate that the programme’s immediate impact on participants has been favourable. The findings complement other programme evaluations focusing on recruitment and retention to programmes in the child protection context and on hard-to-reach clients. The authors also argue the importance of education for parents about child abuse and neglect.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is acute lung injury in the first three days after lung transplant. Patients that experience PGD have increased mortality and an increased risk of chronic lung allograft dysfunction. The pathogenesis is thought to be an ischemia-reperfusion injury but is incompletely understood and there are no specific therapies. We investigated the role of the microbiome in PGD and associations with inflammation and markers of aspiration. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We collected airway lavage samples from lung transplant donors before procurement and recipients after reperfusion. We extracted DNA, amplified the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, and sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. QIIME2 and Deblur were used for bioinformatic analysis. R packages were used for downstream analysis and visualizations. The host response was quantified using the Milipore 41-plex Luminex and an ELISA for pepsin. Clinical data was collected by the Penn Lung Transplant Outcomes Group. PGD was assessed by degree of hypoxemia and chest X-ray findings in the 72 hours after transplant. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: There was no significant difference in alpha diversity (Shannon index, p = 0.51), biomass (via comparison of 16S amplicon PicoGreen, p = 0.6), or beta diversity (Weighted UniFrac, p = 0.472, PERMANOVA) between subjects with PGD grade 3 (n = 36) and those that did not (n = 96). On taxonomic analysis, we found an enrichment of Prevotella in donor and recipient lungs that went on to develop PGD (p = 0.05). To follow up this finding we measured immune response and pepsin concentrations in recipient lungs. We found elevated levels in 35/41 cytokines measured in subjects that developed PGD as well as an elevation in pepsin and a correlation between pepsin concentration and Prevotella relative abundance (Figure 1). Additionally, Prevotella relative abundance had statistically significant positive correlations with multiple cytokines such as IL-6 (Pearson’s = 0.26, p = 0.009) and eotaxin (Pearson’s = 0.24, p = 0.016). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: There is an enrichment of oral anerobes in lung allografts that eventually develop PGD. This is associated with elevated levels of pepsin and markers of inflammation. These lines of evidence suggest aspiration contributes to priming the allograft for PGD.
Although there is some evidence that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is geographically stable, few have examined whether the phenomenon is temporally stable. We examined DUP in two cohorts within two discrete time periods (1995–1999 and 2003–2005) spanning a decade in the same geographically defined community psychiatric service with no early intervention programme. Patients were diagnosed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) and we determined the DUP using the Beiser Scale. The DUP of the 240 participants did not differ significantly between study periods.
Biases in cognition such as Jumping to Conclusions (JTC) and Verbal Self-Monitoring (VSM) are thought to underlie the formation of psychotic symptoms. This prospective study in people with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS) for psychosis examined how these cognitive biases changed over time, and predicted clinical and functional outcomes. Twenty-three participants were assessed at clinical presentation and a mean of 31 months later. Performance on a JTC and VSM tasks were measured at both time points. Relationships to symptom severity, level of function and the incidence of psychotic disorder were then examined. The levels of symptoms, function and VSM all improved over time, while JTC was stable. Five participants (22%) developed a psychotic disorder during the follow-up period, but the risk of transition was not related to performance on either task at baseline, or to longitudinal changes in task performance. JTC performance correlated with symptom severity at baseline and follow-up. Similarly, performance on the two tasks was not related to the level of functioning at follow-up. Thus, while the ARMS is associated with both VSM and JTC biases, neither predict the onset of psychosis or the overall functional outcome.
The Genomics Used to Improve DEpresssion Decisions (GUIDED) trial assessed outcomes associated with combinatorial pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Analyses used the 17-item Hamilton Depression (HAM-D17) rating scale; however, studies demonstrate that the abbreviated, core depression symptom-focused, HAM-D6 rating scale may have greater sensitivity toward detecting differences between treatment and placebo. However, the sensitivity of HAM-D6 has not been tested for two active treatment arms. Here, we evaluated the sensitivity of the HAM-D6 scale, relative to the HAM-D17 scale, when assessing outcomes for actively treated patients in the GUIDED trial.
Outpatients (N=1,298) diagnosed with MDD and an inadequate treatment response to >1 psychotropic medication were randomized into treatment as usual (TAU) or combinatorial PGx-guided (guided-care) arms. Combinatorial PGx testing was performed on all patients, though test reports were only available to the guided-care arm. All patients and raters were blinded to study arm until after week 8. Medications on the combinatorial PGx test report were categorized based on the level of predicted gene-drug interactions: ‘use as directed’, ‘moderate gene-drug interactions’, or ‘significant gene-drug interactions.’ Patient outcomes were assessed by arm at week 8 using HAM-D6 and HAM-D17 rating scales, including symptom improvement (percent change in scale), response (≥50% decrease in scale), and remission (HAM-D6 ≤4 and HAM-D17 ≤7).
At week 8, the guided-care arm demonstrated statistically significant symptom improvement over TAU using HAM-D6 scale (Δ=4.4%, p=0.023), but not using the HAM-D17 scale (Δ=3.2%, p=0.069). The response rate increased significantly for guided-care compared with TAU using both HAM-D6 (Δ=7.0%, p=0.004) and HAM-D17 (Δ=6.3%, p=0.007). Remission rates were also significantly greater for guided-care versus TAU using both scales (HAM-D6 Δ=4.6%, p=0.031; HAM-D17 Δ=5.5%, p=0.005). Patients taking medication(s) predicted to have gene-drug interactions at baseline showed further increased benefit over TAU at week 8 using HAM-D6 for symptom improvement (Δ=7.3%, p=0.004) response (Δ=10.0%, p=0.001) and remission (Δ=7.9%, p=0.005). Comparatively, the magnitude of the differences in outcomes between arms at week 8 was lower using HAM-D17 (symptom improvement Δ=5.0%, p=0.029; response Δ=8.0%, p=0.008; remission Δ=7.5%, p=0.003).
Combinatorial PGx-guided care achieved significantly better patient outcomes compared with TAU when assessed using the HAM-D6 scale. These findings suggest that the HAM-D6 scale is better suited than is the HAM-D17 for evaluating change in randomized, controlled trials comparing active treatment arms.
Balloon aortic valvuloplasty and open surgical valvotomy are procedures to treat neonatal aortic stenosis, and there is controversy as to which method has superior outcomes.
We reviewed the records of patients at our institution since 2000 who had a balloon aortic valvuloplasty or surgical valvotomy via an open commissurotomy prior to 2 months of age.
Forty patients had balloon aortic valvuloplasty and 15 patients had surgical valvotomy via an open commissurotomy. There was no difference in post-procedure mean gradient by transthoracic echocardiogram, which were 25.8 mmHg for balloon aortic valvuloplasty and 26.2 mmHg for surgical valvotomy, p = 0.87. Post-procedure, 15% of balloon aortic valvuloplasty patients had moderate aortic insufficiency and 2.5% of patients had severe aortic insufficiency, while no surgical valvotomy patients had moderate or severe aortic insufficiency. The average number of post-procedure hospital days was 14.2 for balloon aortic valvuloplasty and 19.8 for surgical valvotomy (p = 0.52). Freedom from re-intervention was 69% for balloon aortic valvuloplasty and 67% for surgical valvotomy at 1 year, and 43% for balloon aortic valvuloplasty and 67% for surgical valvotomy at 5 years (p = 0.60).
Balloon aortic valvuloplasty and surgical valvotomy provide similar short-term reduction in valve gradient. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty has a slightly shorter but not statistically significant hospital stay. Freedom from re-intervention is similar at 1 year. At 5 years, it is slightly higher in surgical valvotomy, though not statistically different. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty had a higher incidence of significant aortic insufficiency. Long-term comparisons cannot be made given the lack of long-term follow-up with surgical valvotomy.
Chapter 1 introduced the basic ‘tools’ of performance and reward management, including key aspects of purpose and practice. In this chapter we introduce two overarching concepts of alignment that recur throughout this book: ‘strategic alignment’ and ‘psychological engagement’. The design, implementation and maintenance of effective performance and reward management systems requires simultaneous, systematic and constant attention to both of these dimensions of alignment.
‘Strategic alignment’ refers to the plans, processes and actions involved in establishing and maintaining an alignment between an organisation’s overarching purpose or intent and how it manages employee performance and reward, as well as all other aspects of people management.
This is a book about two of the core activities integral in the field of human resource management: managing employee performance and managing how employees are rewarded. As we shall see throughout the book, there is a close and complex inter-dependence between these two activities; so much so that it makes little sense to consider them in isolation from each other. Equally, while the book’s central concerns are with performance and reward practices and processes, attention is also paid throughout to recognising and analysing the interconnectedness of these and other aspects of human resource management. Performance management systems provide inputs into other HR functions such as training and employee development, as well as evaluating HR decisions such as recruitment and selection.