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Hubei province in China has had the most confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and has reported sustained transmission of the disease. Although Lu'an city is adjacent to Hubei province, its community transmission was blocked at the early stage, and the impact of the epidemic was limited. Therefore, we summarised the overall characteristics of the entire epidemic course in Lu'an to help cities with a few imported cases better contain the epidemic. A total of 69 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 11 asymptomatic carriers were identified in Lu'an during the epidemic from 12 January to 21 February 2020. Fifty-two (65.0%) cases were male, and the median age was 40 years. On admission, 56.5% of cases had a fever as the initial symptom, and pneumonia was present in 89.9% of cases. The mean serial interval and the mean duration of hospitalisation were 6.5 days (95% CI: 4.8–8.2) and 18.2 days (95% CI: 16.8–19.5), respectively. A total of 16 clusters involving 60 cases (17 first-generation cases and 43 secondary cases) were reported during the epidemic. We observed that only 18.9% (7/37) index cases resulted in community transmission during the epidemic in Lu'an, indicating that the scale of the epidemic was limited to a low level in Lu'an city. An asymptomatic carrier caused the largest cluster, involving 13 cases. Spread of COVID-19 by asymptomatic carriers represents an enormous challenge for countries responding to the pandemic.
In the present study, the effect of Al addition on microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, and wear performances of a newly developed Ni–Si-containing complex brass was studied. The results showed that with increasing Al content from 0 to 3 wt%, the corresponding strengthening phase evolves from δ-Ni2Si to [Ni(Al)]2Si phases. Simultaneously, it is of great interest that the increasing Al addition also brings about a remarkable change in morphology of the secondary strengthening phase from dendrite and thin rod to regular block. Additionally, the hardness, yield strength and tensile strength of complex brass effectively increase with increasing Al content, and the fracture mechanism transforms from cleavage failure and microvoids accumulation fracture to cleavage failure. It was also found that the brass with adding 3 wt% Al exhibits the solidification microstructure with the uniform distribution of the block-shaped strengthening phase and has the best wear resistance. This present study provides a potential strategy for further improving the comprehensive performance of existing complex brass.
To identify the association of the glucokinase gene (GCK) rs4607517 polymorphism with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and determine whether sweets consumption could interact with the polymorphism on GDM in Chinese women.
We conducted a case–control study at a hospital including 1015 participants (562 GDM cases and 453 controls). We collected the data of pre-pregnancy BMI, sweets consumption and performed genotyping of the GCK rs4607517 polymorphism. Logistic regression was performed to test the association between the rs4607517 polymorphism and GDM, and the stratified analyses by sweets consumption were conducted, using an additive genetic model.
A case–control study of women at a hospital in Beijing, China.
One thousand and fifteen Chinese women.
The GCK rs4607517 A allele was significantly associated with GDM (OR 1·35, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·77; P = 0·028). Furthermore, stratified analyses showed that the A allele increased the risk of GDM only in women who had a habitual consumption of sweet foods (sweets consumption ≥ once per week) (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·17, 2·21; P = 0·003). Significant interaction on GDM was found between the rs4607517 A allele and sweets consumption (P = 0·004).
This study for the first time reported the interaction between the GCK rs4607517 polymorphism and sweets consumption on GDM. The results provided novel evidence for risk assessment and personalised prevention of GDM.
This study aims to ascertain the long-term epidemic trends of malaria and evaluates the probability of achieving the eradication goal by 2020 in China. Data on malaria incidence and deaths were extracted from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. The epidemic trends by sex, age and spatial distribution and predictions of malaria were estimated by using Joinpoint and Poisson regressions. From 1950 to 2016, 227 668 374 malaria cases were reported in China, with an annualised average incidence of 337.02 (336.98–337.07, 95% confidence interval (CI)) per 100 000 population. The incidence decreased with an average annual per cent change (AAPC) of −11.4% (−16.6 to −6.0). There were 36 085 malaria deaths, with an annualised average mortality of 0.534 (0.529–0.540) per 1 000 000 population. The mortality decreased with an AAPC of −8.7% (−13.7 to −3.4). The predicted number of malaria cases and deaths for 2020 is 2 562 and 10, respectively, and zero for indigenous cases. The disease burden of malaria dramatically decreased in China. Though, the goal of malaria elimination is realistic by 2020 in China, routine clinical and entomological surveillance should be continually conducted, especially for the cross-border areas and imported malaria cases.
Transmission of varicella occurs frequently in schools and households. We investigated the characteristics of varicella cases derived from within-household transmission and the modes of varicella transmission between school and household settings in Shanghai, China, from 2009 to 2018. Within-household transmission occurred in 278 households, of which 134 transmission events were between children. Sixty-one household varicella transmission events may be attributed to isolation procedures for infected students during school outbreaks, and 7.6% of school outbreaks were caused by schoolchildren cases derived from within-household transmission. The frequency of ‘school-household-school’ transmission adds an additional layer of complexity to the control of school varicella outbreaks. Administration of varicella vaccine as post-exposure prophylaxis after exposure is considered to be an effective measure to control varicella spread within households and schools.
The narrow bandgap of Ag2S quantum dots was used to decorate TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTAs) by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method to enhance its photoelectrochemical performance. The micromorphology of the photoanode films prepared by the SILAR under different parameters (including different cycle times, capillary spot sample, and ultrasound-assisted) was systematically analyzed. The photoanode film Ag2S/TiO2 prepared by the SILAR under the ultrasound-assisted method shows Ag2S evenly distributed in TiO2 NTAs. At the same time, the corresponding photoabsorption range has been extended to the visible area, while the photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency have been increased to ~1.8 mA/cm2 and 0.6%, respectively.
The association between milk consumption and the metabolic syndrome remains inconclusive, and data from Chinese populations are scarce. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the association between milk consumption and the metabolic syndrome and its components among the residents of Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, China. A total of 5149 participants were included in the final analysis. A logistic regression model was applied to estimate the OR and 95 % CI for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components according to milk consumption. In addition, the results of our study were further meta-analysed with other published observational studies to quantify the association between the highest v. lowest categories of milk consumption and the metabolic syndrome and its components. There was no significant difference in the odds of having the metabolic syndrome between milk consumers and non-milk consumers (OR 0·86, 95 % CI 0·73, 1·01). However, milk consumers had lower odds of having elevated waist circumference (OR 0·78, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·92), elevated TAG (OR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·70, 0·99) and elevated blood pressure (OR 0·85, 95 % CI 0·73, 0·99). When the results were pooled together with other published studies, higher milk consumption was inversely associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (relative risk 0·80, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·88) and its components (except elevated fasting blood glucose); however, these results should be treated with caution as high heterogeneity was observed. In summary, the currently available evidence from observational studies suggests that higher milk consumption may be inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome.
Freshwater habitats in China are potentially suitable for invasive alien turtle species and, consequently, raising turtles in aquaculture facilities and the trade in turtles this supplies pose risks to habitats and native wetland communities when exotic turtles escape or are released deliberately. Online trade (e-commerce) is making an increasing contribution to turtle sales in China, seemingly driving demand and thus potentially exacerbating the risk of release. We document the scale and spatial pattern of online sales of non-native turtles over 90 days on China's Taobao.com e-commerce site. The majority of sales were in the ecologically sensitive middle and lower Yangtze river basin (82.35% of > 840,000 slider turtles Trachemys scripta elegans, and 68.26% of > 100,000 snapping turtles, Chelydridae spp.). These species are native to the Americas. Concurrently, over 2008–2018, we found 104 mentions of feral turtle issues listed on Baidu News where, among the 53 prefectures mentioned, issues with invasive turtle populations also focused predominantly in the middle and lower Yangtze river basin. Although circumstantial, this association suggests that the substantial online sale of alien turtles could be having detrimental effects in China's Yangtze river basin. It is important to safeguard these wetland habitats, which are of global importance, by improving policies for detecting and regulating invasive alien turtle issues and by warning consumers about the ecological hazard of their purchases.
To investigate the hypothesis that folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake before conception and during pregnancy reduce the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) and to examine the joint effect of folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake on the risk of SGA.
Participants were interviewed by trained study interviewers using a standardized and structured questionnaire. Information on birth outcomes and maternal complications was abstracted from medical records and dietary information was collected via a semi-quantitative FFQ before conception and during pregnancy.
A birth cohort data analysis using the 2010–2012 Gansu Provincial Maternity and Child Care Hospital.
Women (n 8758) and their children enrolled in the study.
Folic acid supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA (OR = 0·72, 95 % CI 0·60, 0·86), with the reduced risk seen mainly for SGA at ≥37 weeks of gestational age (OR = 0·70, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·85) and nulliparous SGA (OR = 0·67, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·84). There was no significant association between dietary folate intake and SGA risk.
Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA and the risk varied by preterm status and parity.
This paper proposes to improve the corrosion resistance of stainless steel using the photocathodic protection (PCP) method with CdS/PbS/titanium dioxide (TiO2) as the photoanode material. Cadmium sulfide (CdS)/lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dot (QD) heterostructure layered on TiO2 enhanced the photoelectrochemical performance and improved the PCP of 304 stainless steel. The photoanode film can protect 304 stainless steel for a period of upto 3 months against corrosion. This work demonstrates that CdS/PbS/TiO2 tandem heterostructure is a promising durable and stable photoanode, which can protect stainless steel in both dark and illuminated conditions.
Heading errors caused by gyroscope drift affect the positioning precision of pedestrian dead reckoning, and these errors are even greater for smartphone-based reckoning. In this study, an optimised improved heuristic drift elimination (O-iHDE) method is proposed to correct the heading errors on a smartphone gyroscope. Based on an analysis of the improved heuristic drift elimination (iHDE) and enhanced improved heuristic drift elimination (E-iHDE) algorithms, the quaternion method is used to update the attitude and angle threshold judgement conditions, and a method for correcting the quaternion is added to eliminate the heading errors caused by random gyro errors. The analysis of multiple sets of experiments shows that the new method improves the ability to discern and correct the walking route, and the heading accuracy is improved by more than 90%, which extends the effective operation time of pedestrian dead reckoning positioning based on the step-by-step system.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
Previous studies have shown that the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet might contribute to managing risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but evidence is limited. We examined the association of DASH diet score (DASH-DS) with NAFLD, as well as the intermediary effects of serum retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4), serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum TAG, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and BMI.
We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study. Dietary data and lifestyle factors were assessed by face-to-face interviews and the DASH-DS was then calculated. We assessed serum RBP4, hs-CRP and TAG and calculated HOMA-IR. The presence and degree of NAFLD were determined by abdominal sonography.
Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study participants, aged 40–75 years at baseline (n 3051).
After adjusting for potential covariates, we found an inverse association between DASH-DS and the presence of NAFLD (Ptrend = 0·009). The OR (95 % CI) of NAFLD for quintiles 2–5 were 0·78 (0·62, 0·98), 0·74 (0·59, 0·94), 0·69 (0·55, 0·86) and 0·77 (0·61, 0·97), respectively. Path analyses indicated that a higher DASH-DS was associated with lower serum RBP4, hs-CRP, TAG, HOMA-IR and BMI, which were positively associated with the degree of NAFLD.
Adherence to the DASH diet was independently associated with a marked lower prevalence of NAFLD in Chinese adults, especially in women and those without abdominal obesity, and might be mediated by reducing RBP4, hs-CRP, TAG, HOMA-IR and BMI.
In this study, we argue that foreign subsidiaries may benefit from the corporate strategies of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in different ways in terms of knowledge transfer and strategic flexibility. From this viewpoint, we explore the relationship between product diversification and financial performance of their subsidiaries under the condition of MNE geographic diversification. Using panel data on foreign subsidiaries in European countries from 2006 to 2011, we find a U-shaped relationship between product diversification and subsidiary performance and the joint effect of product and geographic diversification. Given the importance of transition economies in international business today, we conducted a subsample test contrasting the results based on the transitional (Central and Eastern European) versus Western European countries. The contrasting results provide important implications for other transition economies like China. We validate the relationship in several ways in our robustness tests.
Higher fibre intake reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among healthy population, but such data in dialysis patients are limited. We aimed to examine these associations in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). This single-centre prospective cohort study enrolled 881 incident PD patients between October 2002 and August 2014. All patients were followed until death, transfer to haemodialysis, renal transplantation or until being censored in June 2018. Demographic data were collected at baseline. Biochemical, dietary and nutrition data were examined at baseline and thereafter at regular intervals to calculate the average values throughout the study. The outcomes were defined as all-cause and cardiovascular death. Cox proportional regression models were applied to explore the relationship between fibre intake and outcomes. Participants with higher fibre intake were more likely to be younger, male and have better residual renal function and serum lipids at baseline. They were prone to maintain better nutrient status, higher blood pressure and lower inflammatory status at baseline and afterwards. Neither baseline nor time-averaged fibre intake did show protective effects on all-cause mortality after multivariate adjustment in the whole cohort. Among non-diabetic PD patients, an independent association between fibre intake and all-cause mortality was found, in which each 1 g/d increase in time-averaged fibre intake correlated to 13 % of reduction in all-cause mortality. We did not observe any benefits of fibre intake in the CVD mortality for both whole cohort and subgroups. The present study revealed that higher dietary fibre intake appeared to have a protective effect on all-cause mortality in non-diabetic PD patients, which suggest that PD patients should be encouraged to eat a diet rich in fibres.
Nano-sized TiN-reinforced Ti metal matrix composites were fabricated by powder metallurgical route, which includes high-energy ball milling pretreatment and subsequent hot-press sintering treatment. The phase composition and microstructure of the sintered samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that N2 was absorbed and solubilized into TiH2 by milling pretreatment, and TiN was formed during sintering process and was fine to a grain size of 20–100 nm. The final phase composition of the composites was αTi, βTi, and TiN with solution N in matrix. Mechanical tests showed that with increasing milling time, the hardness of the composites increased by 31, 58, 93, and 101% compared with pure Ti. The compressive strength initially increased and later decreased to 2440 and 2120 MPa when milled for 1.5 and 2 h, respectively.
Under conventional solidification conditions, immiscible alloy melt would undergo large-scale composition segregation after liquid–liquid phase separation, resulting in the loss of properties and application value. In the present study, the ternary immiscible Al70Bi10Sn20 alloy was chosen to study the effect of cooling rate on its resultant microstructure by casting the melt under different cooling conditions. The results indicated that the Al–Bi–Sn alloy with a slow cooling rate exhibits a strong spatial phase separation trend during solidification. However, as the cooling rate increases, the decreasing volume fraction of the segregated Bi–Sn-rich regions indicates the efficient suppression of spatial phase separation. The relatively dispersed distribution of Bi–Sn phase in the Al-rich matrix can be obtained by quenching the melt into water. The influence mechanism of cooling rate on the microstructure of the alloy is also discussed. The present study is beneficial to further tailoring the microstructure of immiscible alloys.
Intestinal barrier inflammatory damage is commonly accompanied by hypoxia. The hypothesis that dietary Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharides (ASPS) might modulate the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signalling pathway and contribute to attenuate intestinal injury was tested in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. Thirty-six weaned pigs were randomly allocated to one of the following three groups: (1) basal diet + saline challenge; (2) basal diet + LPS challenge; (3) basal diet with 800 mg/kg ASPS + LPS challenge. LPS was injected at 15, 18 and 21 d, and intestinal sections were sampled following blood collection at 21 d . The results showed ASPS reversed (P < 0·05) LPS-induced decrease in average daily feed intake and rise (P < 0·05) of diarrhoea incidence and index. Biochemical index reflecting gut barrier damage and function involving ileal pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and enzyme activity (diamine oxidase and lactase), as well as circulatory d-xylose, was normalised (P < 0·05) in LPS-challenged piglets receiving ASPS. ASPS also ameliorated intestinal morphological deterioration of LPS-challenged piglets, proved by elevated ileal villus height (P < 0·05) and improved appearance of epithelial villus and tight junction ultrastructure. Moreover, ASPS prevented LPS-induced amplification of inflammatory mediators, achieved by depressed ileal mRNA abundance of TNF-α, inducible NO synthase and IL-1β concentration. Importantly, ileal protein expressions of HIF-1α, cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and NFκB p65 were also suppressed with ASPS administration (P < 0·05). Collectively, these results suggest the improvement of mucosal inflammatory damage and diarrhoea in immune stress piglets is possibly associated with a novel finding where HIF-1α/COX-2 pathway down-regulation is involved in NFκB p65-inducible releasing of inflammatory cytokines by dietary ASPS.
Concerns over food safety in China not only direct public attention to negative
incidents, but also trigger the government's scrutiny of implicated
firms, particularly MNCs. The question of how to repair legitimacy after media
coverage of negative incidents has become a critical issue for MNCs. Although
the factors for MNCs’ public crises have been identified, how local
contexts and mechanisms shape repair approaches remain unclear. To address this
research gap, we conducted a study of Walmart China's approaches
associated with two negative incidents across two regions. We found that the
negative incidents can be framed differently depending on the local
environment's unfavorability for MNCs. Specifically, the negative
framing gave rise to varying degrees of legitimacy loss and offered different
leeway for MNCs to repair their legitimacy. We also identified the varied
outcomes of different repair approaches. By revealing the linkages among local
context, framing, legitimacy repair, and its outcomes, our study contributes to
research on MNCs’ legitimacy management under institutional
complexity and underscores the China context for legitimacy maintenance. We also
offer insights that advance the institutional approach to legitimacy repair in
this context. Last, we reflect on the techniques for conducting qualitative
research in China.
In this work, atomic layer deposition (ALD), as a novel strategy, has been applied to deposit MgO on nano-sized porous Si (pSi) dendrites obtained by etching Al–Si alloy for LIBs. The reversible specific capacity of pSi@MgO electrode is 969.4 mA h/g after 100 cycles at 100 mA/g between 0.01 and 1.5 V, and it presents the discharge specific capacities of 1253.0, 885.5, 642.4, 366.2, and 101.4 mA h/g at 100, 500, 1000, 2000, and 5000 mA/g, respectively. What is more, it delivers a high reversible capacity of 765.1 mA h/g even at 500 mA/g after 200 cycles. The performance improvement can be attributed to the protection of the MgO layer and built-in space of porous Si for volume expansion upon cycling. These results illustrate that ALD derived coating is a powerful strategy to enhance electrical properties of anode materials with huge volume change for lithium-ion batteries.