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Nano-sized TiN-reinforced Ti metal matrix composites were fabricated by powder metallurgical route, which includes high-energy ball milling pretreatment and subsequent hot-press sintering treatment. The phase composition and microstructure of the sintered samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that N2 was absorbed and solubilized into TiH2 by milling pretreatment, and TiN was formed during sintering process and was fine to a grain size of 20–100 nm. The final phase composition of the composites was αTi, βTi, and TiN with solution N in matrix. Mechanical tests showed that with increasing milling time, the hardness of the composites increased by 31, 58, 93, and 101% compared with pure Ti. The compressive strength initially increased and later decreased to 2440 and 2120 MPa when milled for 1.5 and 2 h, respectively.
Higher fiber intake reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among healthy population, but such data in dialysis patients are limited. We aimed to examine these associations in patients on peritoneal dialysis. This single-center prospective cohort study enrolled 881 incident PD patients between October 2002 and August 2014. All patients were followed until death, transfer to hemodialysis, renal transplantation or until being censored in June 2018. Demographic data were collected at baseline. Biochemical, dietary, and nutrition data were examined at baseline and thereafter at regular intervals to calculate the average values throughout the study. The outcomes were defined as all-cause and cardiovascular death. Cox proportional regression models were applied to explore the relationship between fiber intake and outcomes. Participants with higher fiber intake were more likely to be younger, male, and having better residual renal function and serum lipids at baseline. They were prone to maintain better nutrient status, higher blood pressure and lower inflammatory status at baseline and afterward. Neither baseline nor time-averaged fiber intake did show protective effects on all-cause mortality after multivariate adjustment in the whole cohort. Among non-diabetic PD patients, an independent association between fiber intake and all-cause mortality was found, in which each 1g/day of increase in time-averaged fiber intake correlated to 13% of reduction in all-cause mortality. We did not observe any benefits of fiber intake in the CVD mortality for both whole cohort and subgroups. This study revealed that higher dietary fiber intake appeared to have a protective effect on all-cause mortality in non-diabetic PD patients, which suggest that PD patients should be encouraged to eat a diet rich in fibers.
Under conventional solidification conditions, immiscible alloy melt would undergo large-scale composition segregation after liquid–liquid phase separation, resulting in the loss of properties and application value. In the present study, the ternary immiscible Al70Bi10Sn20 alloy was chosen to study the effect of cooling rate on its resultant microstructure by casting the melt under different cooling conditions. The results indicated that the Al–Bi–Sn alloy with a slow cooling rate exhibits a strong spatial phase separation trend during solidification. However, as the cooling rate increases, the decreasing volume fraction of the segregated Bi–Sn-rich regions indicates the efficient suppression of spatial phase separation. The relatively dispersed distribution of Bi–Sn phase in the Al-rich matrix can be obtained by quenching the melt into water. The influence mechanism of cooling rate on the microstructure of the alloy is also discussed. The present study is beneficial to further tailoring the microstructure of immiscible alloys.
Intestinal barrier inflammatory damage is commonly accompanied by hypoxia. The hypothesis that dietary Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharides (ASPS) might modulate HIF-1α signaling pathway and contribute to attenuate intestinal injury was tested in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. Thirty-six weaned pigs were randomly allocated to one of the following three groups: (1) basal diet+saline challenge; (2) basal diet+LPS challenge; (3) basal diet with 800 mg/kg ASPS+LPS challenge. LPS was injected at 15, 18 and 21 d, and intestinal sections were sampled following blood collection at 21 d of the trial. The results showed ASPS administration reversed (P＜0.05) LPS-induced decrease in average daily feed intake and rise (P＜0.05) of diarrhea incidence and index. Biochemical index reflecting gut barrier damage and function involving ileal pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and enzymes activity (DAO and lactase), as well as circulatory D-xylose were normalized (P＜0.05) in LPS-challenged piglets receiving ASPS. ASPS also ameliorated intestinal morphological deterioration of LPS-challenged piglets, proven by elevated ileal villus height (P＜0.05) and improved appearance of epithelial villus and tight junction ultrastructure. Moreover, ASPS prevented LPS-induced amplification of inflammatory mediators, achieved by depressed mRNA abundance of TNF-α, iNOS, and concentration of IL-1β in ileum. Importantly, ileal protein expressions of HIF-1α, COX-2 and NFκB p65 were also suppressed with ASPS administration (P＜0.05). Collectively, these results suggest that the improvement of mucosal inflammatory damage and diarrhea in immune stress piglets are possibly associated with a novel finding where HIF-1α/COX-2 pathway down-regulation involved in NFκB p65-inducible releasing of inflammatory cytokines by dietary ASPS.
Concerns over food safety in China not only direct public attention to negative
incidents, but also trigger the government's scrutiny of implicated
firms, particularly MNCs. The question of how to repair legitimacy after media
coverage of negative incidents has become a critical issue for MNCs. Although
the factors for MNCs’ public crises have been identified, how local
contexts and mechanisms shape repair approaches remain unclear. To address this
research gap, we conducted a study of Walmart China's approaches
associated with two negative incidents across two regions. We found that the
negative incidents can be framed differently depending on the local
environment's unfavorability for MNCs. Specifically, the negative
framing gave rise to varying degrees of legitimacy loss and offered different
leeway for MNCs to repair their legitimacy. We also identified the varied
outcomes of different repair approaches. By revealing the linkages among local
context, framing, legitimacy repair, and its outcomes, our study contributes to
research on MNCs’ legitimacy management under institutional
complexity and underscores the China context for legitimacy maintenance. We also
offer insights that advance the institutional approach to legitimacy repair in
this context. Last, we reflect on the techniques for conducting qualitative
research in China.
In this work, atomic layer deposition (ALD), as a novel strategy, has been applied to deposit MgO on nano-sized porous Si (pSi) dendrites obtained by etching Al–Si alloy for LIBs. The reversible specific capacity of pSi@MgO electrode is 969.4 mA h/g after 100 cycles at 100 mA/g between 0.01 and 1.5 V, and it presents the discharge specific capacities of 1253.0, 885.5, 642.4, 366.2, and 101.4 mA h/g at 100, 500, 1000, 2000, and 5000 mA/g, respectively. What is more, it delivers a high reversible capacity of 765.1 mA h/g even at 500 mA/g after 200 cycles. The performance improvement can be attributed to the protection of the MgO layer and built-in space of porous Si for volume expansion upon cycling. These results illustrate that ALD derived coating is a powerful strategy to enhance electrical properties of anode materials with huge volume change for lithium-ion batteries.
From a coopetition perspective, we differentiate between a multinational enterprise's product-similar subsidiary network and product-different subsidiary network in a host country. We argue that the product-similar network will have a curvilinear (inverted U-shaped) effect on foreign subsidiary performance, whereas the product-different network will produce a monotonic (positive) effect. Moreover, we introduce host-country economic advantage and intangible resource of the subsidiary as moderators into the relationship between subsidiary network and performance. Using longitudinal panel data of foreign subsidiaries, we find evidence that when host-country economic advantage is large, and the level of intangible asset intensity is high, the inverted U-shaped effect of product-similar subsidiary network is less pronounced. Moreover, host-country economic advantage and intangible asset intensity both enhance the positive effect of product-different subsidiary network. However, the moderating effect of intangible asset intensity is opposite to our prediction.
Coatings with low friction coefficient and excellent anti-wear and anticorrosion performances are of great interest for fundamental research and practical applications. In the present study, Cobalt–nickel–phosphorus/graphene oxide (Co–Ni–P/GO) composite coating is prepared by a pulse electrodeposition method. Effect of the embedded GO sheets on the microstructures, microhardness, and electrochemical and tribological behaviors of the Co–Ni–P/GO composite coating are researched in detail. The results reveal that the co-deposition of GO sheets significantly improves the microhardness of the as-prepared Co–Ni–P/GO composite coating and changes the morphology of the Co–Ni–P coating from hemispheric structure to nodule structure with smaller globular particles for the Co–Ni–P/GO composite coating. In addition, friction and wear tests show that the incorporation of GO sheets endows the Co–Ni–P/GO composite coating with remarkable friction reduction and improved wear resistance. Electrochemical corrosion tests demonstrate that the Co–Ni–P/GO composite coating possesses better corrosion resistance than the Co–Ni–P coating.
Low urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is associated with dyslipidaemia in adults but is not well characterised in adolescents. Because dyslipidaemia is a cardiovascular risk factor, identifying such an association in adolescents would allow for the prescription of appropriate measures to maintain cardiovascular health. The present study addresses this question using data in the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1692 adolescents aged 12–19 years. Primary outcomes were UIC, cardiometabolic risk factors and dyslipidaemia. Data for subjects categorised by low and normal UIC and by sex were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Treating UIC as the independent variable, physical activity level, apoB and lipid profiles differed significantly between subjects with low and normal UIC. Subjects with low UIC had a significantly greater risk of elevated total cholesterol (TC) (95 % CI 1·37, 2·81), elevated non-HDL (95 % CI 1·33, 2·76) and elevated LDL (95 % CI 1·83, 4·19) compared with those with normal UIC. Treating UIC as a dependent variable, the risk of low UIC was significantly greater in those with higher apoB (95 % CI 1·52, 19·08), elevated TC (≥4·4mmol/l) (95 % CI 1·37, 2·81) and elevated non-HDL (≥3·11mmol/l) (95 % CI 1·33, 2·76) than in those with normal UIC. These results show that male and female adolescents with low UIC tend to be at greater risk of dyslipidaemia and abnormal cardiometabolic biomarkers, though the specific abnormal parameters differed between sexes. These results may help to identify youth who would benefit from interventions to improve their cardiometabolic risk.
To assess the effect of famine exposure during early life on dietary patterns, chronic diseases, and the interaction effect between famine exposure and dietary patterns on chronic diseases in adulthood.
Cross-sectional study. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Multivariate quantile regression and log-binomial regression were used to evaluate the impact of famine exposure on dietary patterns, chronic diseases and the interaction effect between famine exposure and dietary patterns on chronic diseases, respectively.
Adults aged 45–60 years (n 939).
‘Healthy’, ‘high-fat and high-salt’, ‘Western’ and ‘traditional Chinese’ dietary patterns were identified. Early-childhood and mid-childhood famine exposure were remarkably correlated with high intake of the traditional Chinese dietary pattern. Compared with the non-exposed group (prevalence ratio (PR); 95 % CI), early-childhood (3·13; 1·43, 6·84) and mid-childhood (2·37; 1·05, 5·36) exposed groups showed an increased PR for diabetes, and the early-childhood (2·07; 1·01, 4·25) exposed group showed an increased PR for hypercholesterolaemia. Additionally, relative to the combination of non-exposed group and low-dichotomous high-fat and high-salt dietary pattern, the combination of famine exposure in early life and high-dichotomous high-fat and high-salt dietary pattern in adulthood had higher PR for diabetes (4·95; 1·66, 9·05) and hypercholesterolaemia (3·71; 1·73, 7·60), and significant additive interactions were observed.
Having suffered the Chinese famine in childhood might affect an individual’s dietary habits and health status, and the joint effect between famine and harmful dietary pattern could have serious consequences on later-life health outcomes.
The microstructure evolution of a typical nickel-based superalloy was studied in the strain range of 0.1–0.9 at 1110 °C/0.01 s−1 by using the electron backscattered diffraction technique. It was found that the evolution of recrystallized microstructures, grain boundary characteristics, and textures was closely related to strain level. With the increasing strain level, the fraction of equiaxed dynamic recrystallization (DRX) grains increased significantly at the expense of the large non-recrystallized grains, and there was a decrease in total low angle grain boundaries fraction and a simultaneous increase in the fraction of high angle grain boundaries. In addition, the occurrence of DRX promoted the formation of Σ3 boundaries, and the coherent Σ3 boundaries were much easier to form at the strain above 0.5. On the other hand, 〈100〉 component of the textures became stronger with the increasing strains, and the lack of 〈111〉 orientations can also be observed in the textures at high strains above 0.7.
A direct prejudgement strategy that takes the diffraction ring as the analysis target is put forward to predict hot images induced by defects of tens of microns in the main amplifier section of high power laser systems. Analysis of hot-image formation process shows that the hot image can be precisely calculated with the extracted intensity oscillation of the diffraction ring on the front surface of the nonlinear plate. The gradient direction matching (GDM) method is adopted to detect diffraction rings. Recognition of simulated diffraction rings shows that it is feasible to directly prejudge hot images induced by those closely spaced defects and the defects that are far apart from each other. Image compression and cluster analysis are utilized to optimize the performance of the GDM method in recognizing actually collected diffraction images. Results show that hot images induced by defects of tens of microns can be directly prejudged without redundant information.
A systematic investigation of influence of the laser hatch style on densification behavior, microstructure, and tribological performance of aluminum parts’ preparation by selective laser melting (SLM) was implemented in this study. The scans with checker board (CB) style left better processing quality of surface morphology and few metallurgical defects to SLM parts in comparison with single fill and cross fill styles, hence leading to a relatively high densification level (99.42%). The CB style of shorter scan length left higher undercooling degree in small checker areas compared with other longer scan lengths, leading to finer equiaxed grains to the solidification microstructure. Accordingly, an enhanced mean microhardness of 129.7 HV0.1 was obtained in this hatch style, due to the grain refinement strengthening effect. The lowest coefficient of friction of 0.49 and wear rate of 2.43 × 10−4 mm3/(N m) were obtained. The improved densification level and formation of refined equiaxed grain and evenly distributed ring-shaped Si particles formed in CB parts changed the mechanism of material removal during sliding from the abrasion to adhesion of the tribolayer, significantly improving the wear resistance of SLM aluminum parts.
We present laboratory measurement and theoretical analysis of silicon K-shell lines in plasmas produced by Shenguang II laser facility, and discuss the application of line ratios to diagnose the electron density and temperature of laser plasmas. Two types of shots were carried out to interpret silicon plasma spectra under two conditions, and the spectra from 6.6 Å to 6.85 Å were measured. The radiative-collisional code based on the flexible atomic code (RCF) is used to identify the lines, and it also well simulates the experimental spectra. Satellite lines, which are populated by dielectron capture and large radiative decay rate, influence the spectrum profile significantly. Because of the blending of lines, the traditional
value are not applicable in diagnosing electron temperature and density of plasma. We take the contribution of satellite lines into the calculation of line ratios of He-
lines, and discuss their relations with the electron temperature and density.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Lung cancer claims 160,000 lives in the United States every year, and lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) is the most frequent type. Early diagnosis is crucial. Computed tomography (CT) is very sensitive in identifying early-stage lung nodules, but has low specificity. Increased glucose uptake is a hallmark of cancer measurable in vivo by fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET). FDG PET is widely used for cancer staging but has low sensitivity in the diagnosis of solitary lung nodules. We have previously identified an alternative glucose transporter, SGLT2, expressed in different types of cancer but not detected by FDG PET. SGLT2 activity can be measured in vivo with the PET tracer methyl-4-fluorodeoxyglucose (Me4FDG). The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that SGLT2 is a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target in FDG-negative, early stage LADC. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To study glucose transporter expression in LADC, we performed immunohistochemistry with SGLT2- and GLUT1-specific antibodies in human lung pre-malignant lesions and LADC samples. To verify the possibility of detecting SGLT2 activity in vivo, we performed microPET imaging with the SGLT-specific tracer Me4FDG in a Kras-driven, p53-null genetically engineered mouse model and in patient-derived xenografts of LADC. Finally, we performed therapeutic trials in genetically engineered and patient-derived mouse models of LADC with the FDA-approved SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We observed a switch in the modality of glucose transport during lung carcinogenesis: SGLT2 was highly expressed in pre-malignant lesions and well-differentiated LADC, whereas GLUT1 was upregulated in advanced, poorly differentiated lesions. This pattern was observed both in human samples and in murine models. This observation led us to hypothesize that early-stage LADCs are often negative on FDG PET because this imaging modality does not detect the activity of SGLT2, which is expressed in early lesions. Therefore, we performed PET imaging with the tracer Me4FDG, that measures SGLT2 activity, in our mouse model, and observed that Me4FDG accumulated in small nodules that were negative with FDG. We confirmed the functionality of SGLT2 in human LADC by Me4FDG PET in patient-derived xenografts. To investigate the role of SGLT2-mediated glucose uptake in the early stages of LADC development, we treated both genetically engineered mice and patient-derived xenografts with FDA-approved SGLT2 inhibitors, showing that SGLT2 inhibition effectively reduced LADC growth and prolonged survival in mouse models. In addition, Me4FDG uptake predicted response to SGLT2 inhibition. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our results show that sodium-dependent glucose transport is a critical metabolic supply strategy in the early stages of lung adenocarcinoma development, and that Me4FDG is a novel biomarker of early LADC and of SGLT-dependent tumor growth. The discovery of SGLT2 in LADC highlighted the need for a re-interpretation of FDG-negative lung nodules, which might rely on SGLT2 for glucose uptake, and therefore may be detected by the new tracer Me4FDG. We anticipate our findings will lead to clinical studies evaluating Me4FDG as a diagnostic tracer for solitary lung nodules and early LADC, and as a biomarker for the selection of patients eligible for treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors.
Data on dietary patterns in relation to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a middle-aged Chinese population are sparse. The present study was performed to determine the major dietary patterns among a population aged 45–59 years and to evaluate their associations with MetS risk in China.
Cross-sectional examination of the association between dietary patterns and MetS. Face-to-face interviews were used to assess dietary intake using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. OR and 95 % CI for MetS were calculated across quartiles of dietary pattern scores using multivariate logistic regression analysis models.
City of Linyi, Shandong Province, China.
Adults (n 1918) aged 45–59 years.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: traditional Chinese, animal food and high-energy. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals in the highest quartile of the traditional Chinese pattern had a reduced risk of MetS relative to the lowest quartile (OR=0·72, 95 % CI 0·596, 0·952; P<0·05). Compared with those in the lowest quartile, individuals in the highest quartile of the animal food pattern had a greater risk of MetS (OR=1·28; 95 % CI 1·103, 1·697; P<0·05). No significant association was observed between the high-energy pattern and risk of MetS.
These findings indicate that the traditional Chinese pattern was associated with a reduced risk, while the animal food pattern was associated with increased risk of MetS. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
The assessment and calibration of representational bias in modern soil phytolith assemblages provide the basis for improving interpretation of fossil phytolith assemblages. We studied soil phytolith representation by comparing phytoliths from living plant communities with those from paired surface soils, representing 39 plant communities in Northeast China. Together with the use of representation indices, the 34 and 30 soil morphotypes observed in forest and grassland samples, respectively, were both classified into the following four groups: “Associated types” were similarly represented in soils and in the corresponding species inventory data; “Over-represented types” and “Under-represented types” were respectively over- and under-represented in soils compared to the inventory data; and, in the case of “Special types,” the relationship with the parent plants was unclear. In addition, the diagnostic types exhibited different degrees of representation, while the most common morphotypes were equally represented between grassland samples and forest samples. On this basis, a comparison between the original and corrected soil phytolith indices of the additional 29 soil samples was conducted. The soil phytoliths frequencies corrected by R-values differed between plots with differing plant compositions, and were moderately consistent with actual plant richness in the plot inventory data. We therefore confirmed that R-values are a promising means of correcting soil phytoliths for representational bias in temperate regions. The corrected soil phytoliths can be used to reliably reflect vegetation variability. Overall, our study provides an improved understanding of soil phytolith representation and offers a potential method for improving the accuracy of paleovegetation reconstruction.
This article is adapted from a speech delivered at the ‘2016 University Presidents Forum’ on 7 April 2016. Modern human society confronts two great challenges: one from the conflict between nature and humankind, the other from the clash of different civilizations. As one of the most innovative components of society, research universities should shoulder the responsibilities for, and contribute to the sustainable development of, human society and the peaceful development of the world. One possible road to take for research universities is to accelerate building innovative universities, and hand-in-hand develop an innovation network with other innovative components of society. Here, the concept of an innovative university, beyond the perspective of a single innovative component, refers to a university with an innovation capacity as well as an organizer, connector and coordinator of various innovative components, (1) adding value through innovation and creating excellence; (2) acquiring the competitiveness for resources, and optimizing and upgrading itself; and (3) developing the capability of consolidating high quality resources through openness, sharing and collaboration. However, research universities should realize that neither the capacity of acquiring nor consolidating high quality resources can be achieved by an individual university or universities in a single region. That means future innovation should be made through networks. Only those who have access to the key nodes of the network can stand on the central stage of the global innovation system. Thus, an innovative university plays an irreplaceable role in the formation and function of such an innovation network to sustain its position in the global innovation system. These are the mission and responsibilities of the leading research universities.