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Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
Quality of life (QOL) is lower in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). QOL generally improves following cognitive-behavioral treatment for GAD. Little is known, however, about additional variables predicting changes in QOL in older adults with GAD. This study examined predictors of change in QOL among older participants in a randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for GAD, relative to enhanced usual care (EUC).
Hierarchical multilevel mixed-model analyses were used to examine inter-individual and intra-individual factors that predicted QOL over time. Predictors were categorized into treatment, personal and clinical characteristics.
QOL improved over time, and there was significant variability between participants in change in QOL. Controlling for treatment condition, baseline general self-efficacy, baseline social support, within-person variation in worry and depression and average levels of depression across different time points predicted changes in QOL.
QOL has increasingly been used as an outcome measure in treatment outcome studies to focus on overall improvement in functioning. Attention to improvement in symptoms of depression and worry, along with psychosocial variables, such as social support and self-efficacy, may help improve QOL in older adults with GAD.
This study was a secondary study of data from a randomized clinical trial (NCT00308724) registered with clinical.trials.gov.
Chemical reactions that occur at a metal/III-V compound-semiconductor interface should be minimized if the change in Gibbs free energy of the bulk materials with respect to any possible reaction products is positive. However, the large positive change in entropy caused by vaporization of the highly volatile group V elements is a very important contribution to the Gibbs free energy of these systems, especially at higher temperatures. Thus, a particular metal/III-V compound-semiconductor interface may be thermody-namically stable at one temperature, but unstable with respect to sublimation of elemental group V species at a higher temperature if the enthalpy change for the reaction is positive. Examination of bulk phase diagrams makes it possible to rationalize the reaction products observed and to predict which will be the most stable interface for any particular metal/III-V system.
Synaptic development and elimination are normal neurodevelopmental processes, which if altered could contribute to various neuropsychiatric disorders. 31P-1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams were conducted on 105 healthy children ages 6–18 years old to identify neuromolecular indices of synaptic development and elimination. Over the age range studied, age-related changes in high-energy phosphate (phosphocreatine), membrane phospholipid metabolism (precursors and breakdown products), and percent gray matter volume were found. These neuromolecular and structural indices of synaptic development and elimination are associated with development of several cognitive domains. Monitoring of these molecular markers is essential for devising treatment strategies for neurodevelopmental disorders. (JINS, 2009, 15, 671–683.)