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Protein is important for growth, maintenance and protection of the body. Both adequacy of protein quantity and protein quality in the diet are important to guarantee obtaining all the essential amino acids. Protein–energy malnutrition is widely present in developing countries such as Nigeria and might result in stunting and wasting. Needs for protein differ depending on age and physiological status and are higher during growth, pregnancy and lactation. The present review assessed protein quantity and quality in diets of Nigerian infants, children, adolescents, and pregnant and lactating women. Literature reviews and calculations were performed to assess adequacy of Nigerian protein intake and to examine the Nigerian diet. The digestible indispensable amino acid score was used to calculate protein quality of nine Nigerian staple foods and of a mixture of foods. The Nigerian population had mostly adequate protein intake when compared with the most recent protein recommendations by the FAO (2013) and WHO/FAO/UNU (2007). An important exception was the protein intake of adolescent girls and pregnant and lactating women. Most of the assessed Nigerian plant-based staple foods were of low protein quality and predominantly lacked the amino acid lysine. The addition of animal-source foods can bridge the protein quality gap created by predominance of plant-based foods in the Nigerian diet. The methodology of this review can be applied to other low- and middle-income countries where diets are often plant-based and lack variety, which might influence protein intake adequacy.
With increasing numbers of children growing up with conditions that are associated with acquired brain injury, efficient neuropsychological screening for cognitive deficits is pivotal. Brief self-report measures concerning daily complaints can play an important role in such screening. We translated and adapted the pediatric perceived cognitive functioning (PedsPCF) self- and parent-report item bank to Dutch. This study presents (1) psychometric properties, (2) a new short form, and (3) normative data for the short form.
A general population sample of children and parents was recruited. Dimensionality of the PedsPCF was assessed using confirmatory factor analyses and exploratory bifactor analyses. Item response theory (IRT) modeling was used to evaluate model fit of the PedsPCF, to identify differential item functioning (DIF), and to select items for the short form. To select short-form items, we also considered the neuropsychological content of items.
In 1441 families, a parent and/or child participated (response rate 66% at family level). Assessed psychometric properties were satisfactory and the predominantly unidimensional factor structure of the PedsPCF allowed for IRT modeling using the graded response model. One item showed meaningful DIF. For the short form, 10 items were selected.
In this first study of the PedsPCF outside the United States, studied psychometric properties of the translated PedsPCF were satisfactory, and allowed for IRT modeling. Based on the IRT analyses and the content of items, we proposed a new 10-item short form. Further research should determine the relation of PedsPCF outcomes with neurocognitive measures and its ability to facilitate neuropsychological screening in clinical practice.