To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This paper examines the determinants of financial industry actors’ regulatory preferences—examining why some financial industry actors prefer less stringent financial regulations while others prefer more stringent regulations. The determination of preferences, we argue, can be understood as mutually dependent. How an organization is connected to other organisations through network ties may help to explain its regulatory preferences. Our empirical point of focus is financial industry lobbying in the context of the European Union (EU). Using data from nearly nine hundred lobbying letters related to legislation on banking, insurance, and securities regulation, we map out a “socialization network” that models connections between financial industry firms, their associations, as well as a broad range of other organisations and actors that are auxiliary to this community of organizations. Using these data we find evidence that organizations’ preferences are informed by their location within this socialization network. Controlling for a range of other plausible factors, we find that 1) those connected via common associational ties, 2) those closer to one another in the network and 3) those more “embedded” in this network are all less likely to diverge in terms of their preferences from one another.
Benzobicyclon will be the first 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)–inhibiting herbicide available in US rice production pending registration completion. An observation of benzobicyclon controlling weedy rice in two field trials prompted a greenhouse and field evaluation to determine if benzobicyclon would control weedy rice accessions from Arkansas, Mississippi, and southeastern Missouri. A total of 100 accessions were screened in the greenhouse and field. Percentage mortality was determined in the greenhouse, and percentage control was recorded in the field. Benzobicyclon at 371 g ai ha–1 caused at least 80% mortality of 22 accessions in the greenhouse and at least 80% control of 30 accessions in the field. For most accessions, individual plants within the accession varied in response to benzobicyclon. Based on these results, the sensitivity of weedy rice to benzobicyclon varies across accessions collected in the midsouthern United States, and it may provide an additional control option for weedy rice in some fields.
The financial system is governed not just by formal rules but also by social relationships that pervade the elite strata of society. Understanding such dynamics entails understanding complex relational ties between actors, a task that can be facilitated through the use of network analysis. We argue that a latent feature of interest to scholars of the political economy of finance is one of social distance, which is a measurable concept. Using new data from the financial sector, we measure the social distance between a range of financial firms and one key regulator, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), over time to assess whether or not social distance is related to organizations’ advocacy behavior. We find a positive relationship between how close a given organization is to the SEC and how often it engages in advocacy. The result persists when we control for numerous factors related to organizational characteristics, firm size, and when we measure advocacy frequency in different ways.
The most effective dose of prehospital furosemide in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) has not yet been identified and concerns of worsening renal function have limited its use.
To assess if administering high-dose furosemide is associated with worsening renal function.
The authors conducted a 2-center chart review for patients who presented via a single Emergency Medical Service (EMS) from June 5, 2009 through May 17, 2013. Inclusion criteria were shortness of breath, primarily coded as ADHF, and the administration of furosemide prior to emergency department (ED) arrival. A total of 331 charts were identified. The primary endpoint was an increase in creatinine (Cr) of more than 0.3 mg/dL from admission to any time during hospital stay. Exploratory endpoints included survival, length-of-stay (LOS), disposition, urine output in the ED, change in BUN/Cr from admission to discharge, and change in Cr from admission to 72 hours and discharge.
When treated as a binary variable, there was no association observed between an increase in Cr of more than 0.3 mg/dL and prehospital furosemide dose. Baseline characteristics found to be associated with dose were included in the logistic regression model. Lowering the dose of prehospital furosemide was associated with higher odds of attaining a 0.3 mg/dL increase in Cr (adjusted OR = 1.49 for a 20 mg decrease; P = .019). There was no association found with any of the exploratory endpoints.
Patients who received higher doses of furosemide prehospitally were less likely to have an increase of greater than 0.3 mg/dL in Cr during the hospital course.
NievesLC, MehrtensGM, PoresN, PickrellC, TanisJ, SattyT, ChuangM, YoungTC, MerlinMA. The Effect of Furosemide Dose Administered in the Out-of-hospital Setting on Renal Function Among Patients with Suspected Acute Decompensated Heart Failure. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(1):1-8.
This chapter introduces and describes the process of medical evaluation, also termed medical screening, of the psychiatric patient in the emergency department (ED). It discusses the diagnosis of medical mimics, along with the utility of both the patient history and physical exam and laboratory evaluations. The evaluation that an emergency physician conducts is an extremely important and, albeit, limited chance for the patient to be treated for a medical condition that may be causing their symptoms. The chapter also discusses the use of standard screening algorithms, which have been shown in several studies to decrease testing costs for ED patients undergoing medical screening. Local processes, such as coordination of care, trust between providers, wait times for subsequent psychiatric admission, facility overcrowding, and subgroup demographics may play a strong role in acceptance and accuracy of the emergency medicine evaluation process.
Solid-state neutron detectors from heterostructures that incorporate Gd intrinsically or as a dopant may significantly benefit from the high thermal neutron capture cross section of gadolinium. Semiconducting devices with Gd atoms can act as a neutron capture medium and simultaneously detect the electronic signal that characterizes the interaction. Neutron capture in natural isotopic abundance gadolinium predominantly occurs via the formation of 158mGd, which decays to the ground state through the emission of high-energy gamma rays and an internal conversion electron. Detection of the internal conversion electron and/or the subsequent Auger electron emission provides a distinct and identifiable signature that neutron capture has occurred. Ensuring that the medium responds to these emissions is imperative to maximizing the efficiency and separating out other interactions from the radiation environment. A GEANT4 model, which includes incorporation of the nuclear structure of Gd, has been constructed to simulate the expected device behavior. This model allows the energy deposited from the decay of the meta-stable state to be localized and transported, providing for analysis of various device parameters. Device fabrication has been completed for Gd doped HfO2 on n-type silicon, Gd2O3 on p-type silicon and Gd2O3 on SiC for validation of the code. A preliminary evaluation of neutron detection capabilities of these devices using a GEANT4 modeling approach is presented.
The guinea-pig was previously reported as being sensitive to a niacin-deficient (ND), high-protein diet, suggesting that it is a suitable model for the low tryptophan to NAD+ conversion observed in human subjects. However, these studies were based on growth rates and mortality. The objective of the present study was to determine whether guinea-pigs are suitable for ND studies based on measurements of blood and bone marrow NAD+. Using a 20 % casein diet, ND decreased blood NAD+ after 4 weeks, but this parameter returned to normal after 9 weeks of feeding, while bone marrow was decreased by 35 % at this time point. Using a 15 % casein diet, 7 weeks of ND caused 44 and 42 % decreases in blood and bone marrow NAD+. Using a 10 % casein diet, ND decreased NAD+ by 32 % in blood and 62 % in bone marrow at 7 weeks. Growth rates were directly related to the dietary tryptophan content, with the lowest growth rates seen with the 10 % casein diet. Changes in guinea-pig NAD+ are comparable with the rat model at similar levels of dietary tryptophan, while mortality rates were dramatically higher in the guinea-pig model. The present study concludes that mortality in ND guinea-pigs is not indicative of poor tryptophan conversion, but is due to environmental stresses in guinea-pigs that are not observed with rats. We conclude that guinea-pigs are not suitable for research on niacin deficiency and they present challenges for any study requiring purified diets and wire-bottomed cages.