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Households, communities, and society exist in a mutually constituting relationship, shaping and being shaped by one another. Daily life within households can have political dimensions and affect societal organization. Research at the Maya farming community of Chan in Belize demonstrates how households shaped their lives, history, and politics for 2,000 years (800 b.c.–a.d. 1200). We examine the households of Chan's leaders and the social, economic, political, and religious relationships between leading households and other households across the community to show how novel forms of political practice arose through household interaction. Community leaders and households across the community developed community-focused ritual practices and group-oriented social, economic, ideological, and political strategies that were critical in the development of their community, were distinctive from normative individual-focused political practices of the Classic Maya kings, and may have influenced the later development of more diverse political strategies in the Maya area in the Postclassic period.
We present comprehensive grids of model spectra from far-UV to IR, covering the parameter space of [WC] (Keller et al. 2011) and PG1159 stars. Models are calculated with the CMFGEN code, accounting for non-LTE, line blanketing, wind, clumping, and including ions previously neglected. The grids are available at http://dolomiti.pha.jhu.edu/planetarynebulae.html. We used them to analyse UV and far-UV spectra of NGC6905's and NGC5189's central stars.
We studied the effect of extended defects on electrical characteristics of Si doped n-type nonpolar a-plane GaN films. The n-type GaN layers were grown on co-loaded reduced defect density sidewall lateral epitaxial overgrowth (SLEO) a-plane GaN templates and high defect density planar a-plane GaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The highest conductivity value was observed at the carrier concentration of 1.05 × 1019 cm−3 as 261.12 cm2/Vs for SLEO a-GaN and 106.77 cm2/Vs for the planar a-plane GaN samples. At the same doping level, the carrier compensation for SLEO samples was ∼12% less than planar samples.
Neutron diffraction at different temperatures has been used to study the crystal structure and possible phase transitions of Li2NH. It was found that the crystal structure and phase transition are related to the synthesis methods. A phase transition from the low temperature phase 16-350 K to the high temperature phase above 370 K has been confirmed for the ケ-Li2NH sample prepared by reacting Li3N with LiNH2. The Li2NH (β-Li2NH) prepared by decomposition of LiNH2 shows only the high temperature phase. The reaction of LiH+LiNH2 at 300°C for 12 h under vacuum produces some Li2NH (γ-Li2NH) with partially unreacted LiNH2 and LiH as impurities. There is no phase transition in the temperature range from 16 K to 400 K for the - and β-Li2NH phases.ケ-Li2NH exhibits a higher reversible hydrogen storage capacity and faster kinetics. The structural differences among the lithium imides may lead to different reaction mechanisms for hydrogen absorption/desorption in the Li-N-H system.
As originally developed in the 1960's, flow cytometry was primarily a technique for the analysis of mammalian cells. Analysis of cellular constituents such as DNA or cell surface antigens made fluorescent by a variety of reagents has been the main stay of flow cytometric applications. Over the years, flow cytometric analysis techniques have been developed that range from multicellular spheroids containing a million or more cells down to single molecule detection. An outgrowth of single molecule detection capability is DNA fragment size analysis.
DNA fragment size analysis starts with a sample of naked DNA that can be derived from a variety of sources including PCR products, double stranded viral genomes, BAC/PAC clones, and bacterial genomes. For genomic or cloned DNA, restriction enzyme digests are analyzed to produce a fingerprint pattern. The fingerprint, i. e., the distribution of fragment sizes produced by the restriction enzyme digestion, is characteristic of the source of DNA and forms the basis for identifying the source.
X-ray topography and rocking curve experiments were performed on α-mercuric iodide samples. As-grown crystals were examined for intrinsic defects and crystallinity. Orientation of certain defects depends on the direction of crystal growth. The propagation of as-grown crystalline features was documented. The extent of crystal damage introduced during various steps of device fabrication such as sawing, polishing, etching and contact deposition was explored. Coefficients of linear thermal expansion of α33 = 54 ± 5 (10−6/°C) along the tetragonal c-axis, \001] direction and ±ll = 11 ± 4 (10−6/°C) in the \100] direction were measured.
We have used the TRIGA reactor and the Ion Beam Facility at Cornell to illustrate neutron induced autoradiography and PIXE analysis of known pigments in demonstration paintings made for our undergraduate course, ‘Art, Isotopes and Analysis’. A group of pigments were chosen containing elements with half-lives detectable by the neutron activation process. The pigments (suspended in a binding medium of linseed oil) were first painted on test swatches of acetate and their characteristic x-ray lines measured with a 5 Mev beam of protons directed through a thin Kapton film for external (in air) analysis (PIXE).
Three layers of images, each painted with a different pigment, overlay one another. The painting is then taken to the TRIGA reactor for neutron activation. After activation, the painting is placed in contact with sheets of Polaroid type AR positive transparency film at different times after exposure. The gamma spectra during the sequence are also measured to provide identification of the ‘active’ isotopes during each film exposure.
The possibility of site-selective substitution of 18O into YBa2Cu3O7 was explored. Samples containing various quantities of 18O were prepared by processing in 18O2 both at 950 °C and at 400 °C. The samples were characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and reduction (TPR), Raman spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. Measurements of the shifts in the Raman active modes with 18O substitution and of the ratios of 18O to 16O by TPD, TPR, and SIMS show that even for temperatures as low as 400 °C and times as short as 2 h. 18O is not substituted exclusively into the chain site (O1) in YBa2Cu3O7. In addition, there is no consistent variation in the shifts in Tc with the degree of substitution; therefore, the isotope effect for a sample with 100% 18O cannot be predicted by a linear extrapolation of data obtained for samples with partial 18O substitution. The mechanism of oxygen substitution, the difficulties of measuring the true magnitude of the oxygen isotope shift, and the meaning of the small isotope shift are discussed.
Flows of incompressible inviscid heavy fluids with free or rigid boundary surfaces are considered. For slender streams of fluid, the flow and the free boundaries are represented by a number of different asymptotic expansions in powers of the slenderness ratio. There are three kinds of outer expansions representing respectively jets, which have two free boundaries, wall flows, which have one free and one rigid boundary, and channel flows, which have two rigid boundaries. The flow at the junction of two or more outer flows is represented by an inner expansion. Previously we constructed the three outer expansions and the inner expansion at the junction of a wall flow and a jet (Keller & Geer 1973). Now we construct the inner expansions at the junctions of a channel flow and a jet, a channel flow and a wall flow, and a jet and the two wall flows into which it splits upon hitting a wall. We also match each inner expansion to the adjacent outer expansions. These seven expansions can be combined to solve many problems involving flows of slender streams.
A method is developed for determining any thin steady two-dimensional potential flow with free and/or rigid boundaries in the presence of gravity. The flow is divided into a number of parts and in each part the flow and its free boundaries are represented as asymptotic series in powers of the slenderness ratio of the stream. There are three basic flows, having two, one and no free boundaries and called jet flow, wall flow and channel flow, respectively. First the three expansions for these flows are found, extending results of Keller & Weitz (1952). They are called outer expansions to distinguish them from the inner expansions which apply near the ends of the stream or at the junction of two different types of flow. The inner and outer expansions must be matched at a junction to find how the emerging flow is related to the entering flow. This process can be continued to build up any complex flow involving thin streams. The method is illustrated in the case of a wall flow that leaves the wall to become a jet, which includes the case of a waterfall treated by Clarke (1965) in a similar way. In part 2 (to be published) other inner expansions are found and matched to outer expansions, providing the ingredients for the construction of the solutions of many flow problems.