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Personal protective equipment (PPE) is a critical need during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Alternative sources of surgical masks, including 3-dimensionally (3D) printed approaches that may be reused, are urgently needed to prevent PPE shortages. Few data exist identifying decontamination strategies to inactivate viral pathogens and retain 3D-printing material integrity.
To test viral disinfection methods on 3D-printing materials.
The viricidal activity of common disinfectants (10% bleach, quaternary ammonium sanitizer, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 70% isopropanol and exposure to heat (50°C, and 70°C) were tested on four 3D-printed materials used in the healthcare setting, including a surgical mask design developed by the Veterans’ Health Administration. Inactivation was assessed for several clinically relevant RNA and DNA pathogenic viruses, including severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1).
SARS-CoV-2 and all viruses tested were completely inactivated by a single application of bleach, ammonium quaternary compounds, or hydrogen peroxide. Similarly, exposure to dry heat (70°C) for 30 minutes completely inactivated all viruses tested. In contrast, 70% isopropanol reduced viral titers significantly less well following a single application. Inactivation did not interfere with material integrity of the 3D-printed materials.
Several standard decontamination approaches effectively disinfected 3D-printed materials. These approaches were effective in the inactivation SARS-CoV-2, its surrogates, and other clinically relevant viral pathogens. The decontamination of 3D-printed surgical mask materials may be useful during crisis situations in which surgical mask supplies are limited.
We study the variation of the φ-Selmer groups of the elliptic curves y2 = x3 − Dx under quartic twists by square-free integers. We obtain a complete description of the distribution of the size of this group when the integer D is constrained to lie in a family for which the relative Tamagawa number of the isogeny φ is fixed.
We construct algebras of endomorphisms in the derived category of the cohomology of arithmetic manifolds, which are generated by Hecke operators. We construct Galois representations with coefficients in these Hecke algebras and apply this technique to sharpen recent results of P. Scholze.
We study the arithmetic of a family of non-hyperelliptic curves of genus 3 over the field
of rational numbers. These curves are the nearby fibers of the semi-universal deformation of a simple singularity of type
. We show that average size of the 2-Selmer sets of these curves is finite (if it exists). We use this to show that a positive proposition of these curves (when ordered by height) has integral points everywhere locally, but no integral points globally.
We prove a simple level-raising result for regular algebraic, conjugate self-dual automorphic forms on
. This gives a systematic way to construct irreducible Galois representations whose residual representation is reducible.
As the simplest case of Langlands functoriality, one expects the existence of the symmetric power
is an automorphic representation of
denotes the adeles of a number field
. This should be an automorphic representation of
. This is known for
. In this paper we show how to deduce the general case from a recent result of J.T. on deformation theory for ‘Schur representations’, combined with expected results on level-raising, as well as another case (a particular tensor product) of Langlands functoriality. Our methods assume
totally real, and the initial representation
of classical type.
We prove new automorphy lifting theorems for essentially conjugate self-dual Galois representations into GLn. Existing theorems require that the residual representation have ‘big’ image, in a certain technical sense. Our theorems are based on a strengthening of the Taylor–Wiles method which allows one to weaken this hypothesis.
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