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This chapter describes the grammar of groups and phrases in Korean – covering nominal groups, verbal groups, adverbial groups and co-verbal phrases. The function structure of each unit is introduced and their meaning potential is formalised in system networks. The realisation of systems by function structures and their realisation in turn by words and morphemes or by embedded groups or clauses is outlined. Korean morphology is brought into the picture to clarify the realisation of choices for meaning at group/phrase rank.
This chapter focuses on grammatical resources for construing experience – transitivity. It begins with a basic introduction to experiential clause structure, covering participants, processes and circumstances. It then presents the distinctive structures of material, mental, relational and verbal clauses. The meaning potential of each clause type is consolidated in a system network whose realisation in structure is specified. Following a discussion of diathesis (covering voice and causatives), a range of types of circumstance are surveyed.
This chapter focuses on grammatical resources for composing information flow, focusing on theme. It begins with a basic introduction to textual clause structure – Theme and Rheme. It then describes the different types of Theme (Topical Theme, Interpersonal Theme and Textual Theme) and their grammatical realisation. The contribution of each type of Theme is illustrated in short texts illustrating their role in managing texture. The chapter concludes with a discussion of thematic progression and introduces guidelines for recognising types of Theme in discourse.
This chapter introduces the appliable linguistics theory, Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), informing this grammar of Korean. The three basic theoretical dimensions of SFL are outlined – stratification (levels of language), rank (constituency) and metafunction (kinds of meaning). The approach to the distinctive relation of system to structure in SFL is then explained, including the formalisation of paradigmatic relations in system networks. The chapter closes with an outline of the book as a whole.
This chapter focuses on grammatical resources for construing logical relations between clauses. The chapter begins by clarifying the distinction between a clause simplex and a clause complex and the distinction between a clause complex and a verbal group complex. Subsequently the basic oppositions between parataxis and hypotaxis on the one hand and between projection and expansion on the other are introduced and relevant resources are then presented, section by section, in more detail. A sample analysis of a longer clause complex rounds off the discussion.
The final chapter explores the relevance of this grammar of Korean to two particular contexts of application (i) teaching Korean as a foreign language and (ii) translation and interpreting (T&I). It begins with a discussion of traditional approaches to teaching Korean as a foreign language and then illustrates the way the grammar can be drawn on to inform a pedagogic practice based on Reading to Learn (R2L) – focusing on locative relational clauses. The chapter then turns to relevance of the grammar to the field of translation and interpreting, beginning with an interpretation example and moving on to a translation example. The chapter concludes with a brief note on additional fields of application.
This chapter focuses on grammatical resources for enacting social relations – mood. A basic distinction is drawn between the systems of formal mood and addressee deference on the one hand and the systems of informal mood, stance and politeness on the other. Subsequently the systems of polarity, modality, participant deference, highlight, comment and expletion are outlined. For each system the relevant choices for meaning are consolidated in system networks and their realisation in structure at clause, group/phrase and word ranks is specified.
Using the framework of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), this pioneering book provides the first comprehensive account of Korean grammar, building foundations for an engagement with Korean texts across a range of spoken and written registers and genres. It treats grammar as a meaning-making resource, comprising experiential resources for construing reality, interpersonal resources for enacting social relations, textual resources for composing coherent discourse, and logical resources for linking clauses. It deals not only with clause systems and structures but also focuses on their realisation as groups and phrases (and clause rank particles), and the realisation of these groups and phrases in words (including clitics and relevant suffixation). Its concluding chapter demonstrates how this grammar can be applied – for teaching Korean as a foreign language and for translation and interpreting studies. This book is essential reading for scholars and students of Asian languages and linguistics and functional approaches to grammar description.
The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory 7.0.2 (MINI-7) is a widely used tool and known to have sound psychometric properties; but very little is known about its use in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the MINI-7 psychosis items in a sample of 8609 participants across four countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.
We examined the latent factor structure and the item difficulty of the MINI-7 psychosis items in the full sample and across four countries.
Multiple group confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) revealed an adequate fitting unidimensional model for the full sample; however, single group CFAs at the country level revealed that the underlying latent structure of psychosis was not invariant. Specifically, although the unidimensional structure was an adequate model fit for Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Africa, it was a poor fit for Uganda. Instead, a 2-factor latent structure of the MINI-7 psychosis items provided the optimal fit for Uganda. Examination of item difficulties revealed that MINI-7 item K7, measuring visual hallucinations, had the lowest difficulty across the four countries. In contrast, the items with the highest difficulty were different across the four countries, suggesting that MINI-7 items that are the most predictive of being high on the latent factor of psychosis are different for each country.
The present study is the first to provide evidence that the factor structure and item functioning of the MINI-7 psychosis vary across different settings and populations in Africa.
To estimate the association between in situ steroids and spine surgical-site infections (SSIs), assessing spinal instrumentation as an effect modifier and adjusting for confounders.
Rural academic medical center.
We identified 1,058 adults undergoing posterior fusion and laminectomy procedures as defined by the National Healthcare Safety Network without a pre-existing SSI between January 2020 and December 2021. We identified 26 SSI as cases and randomly selected 104 controls from the remaining patients without SSI.
The primary exposure was the intraoperative administration of methylprednisolone in situ (ie, either in the wound bed or as an epidural injection). The primary outcome was a clinical diagnosis of SSI within 6 months of a patient’s first spine surgery at our facility. We quantified the association between the exposure and outcome using logistic regression, using a product term to assess for effect modification by spinal instrumentation and the change-in-estimate approach to select significant confounders.
Adjusting for Charlson comorbidity index and malignancy, in situ steroids were significantly associated with spine SSI relative to no in situ steroids for instrumented procedures (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 9.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54–64.0), but they were not associated with spine SSIs among noninstrumented procedures (aOR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.15–4.93).
In situ steroids were significantly associated with spine SSI among instrumented procedures. The benefits of in situ steroids for pain management following spine surgery should be weighed against the risk of SSI, especially for instrumented procedures.
Nurses perform several functions that are integral for antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). However, nurses are underrepresented in research and underutilized in implementation of AMS interventions. The objective of this pilot study was to assess the effect of asynchronous microlearning on inpatient nursing staff knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding AMS principles.
A team of pharmacists, physicians, and nurses developed 9 case-based, multiple-choice questions with accompanying educational explanations on associated AMS principles. One case was delivered to participants daily via an institutional web-based application (QuizTime). A KAP survey with 20 questions on a 5-point Likert scale was administered before and after the intervention. Survey results were compared using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
Participants’ mean survey score after the intervention demonstrated statistically significant improvement for 18 (90%) of 20 items compared to before the intervention. Participants’ confidence improved in key AMS activities: (1) differentiating between colonization and infection (mean difference, 0.63; P < .001), (2) identifying unnecessary urine cultures and inappropriate treatment of urinary tract infections (mean difference, 0.94; P < .001), (3) recognizing opportunities for intravenous to oral therapy conversion (mean difference, 1.07; P < .001), and (4) assessing for antibiotic-associated adverse effects (mean difference, 0.54; P < .001).
Nursing education provided through an asynchronous, microlearning format via a mobile platform resulted in statistically significant improvement in most KAP topics. Nurses are integral members of a multidisciplinary AMS team, and novel education methods can help equip them with the necessary AMS tools. This pilot study forms the basis for expanded AMS educational efforts in all healthcare professionals.