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Studies have examined associations between depressive symptoms and dietary patterns, however few studies have focussed in older adults. This study examines associations between current and past dietary patterns and depression in a community dwelling adult population aged 55 years and over. Adults (n=4082) were recruited into the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life study in Victoria, Australia. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires in 2010 and 2014 including a 111-item food frequency questionnaire, the RAND-36 item survey of health-related quality of life and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale in 2014. Current (2014) and past (2010) dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were assessed using a mixed model analysis with adjustment for covariates. Two similar dietary patterns were identified in men and women (n=2142). In women, a healthy dietary pattern (characterised by frequent intake of vegetables, fruit and fish) was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms (current diet: β = -0.260 95% CI: -0.451, -0.070; past diet: β = -0.201 CI: -0.390, -0.013). A current unhealthy dietary pattern in women (characterised by frequent intake of red and processed meat, potatoes, hot chips, cakes, deserts and ice cream) was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (β = 1.367 CI: 0.679, 2.056). No associations were identified in men. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to understand why differences may occur by sex.
With the aim to elucidate gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR)–risk factors, we undertook a retrospective analysis of the molecular epidemiology and AMR of 104 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from clinical samples (urethra, rectum, pharynx and cervix) of 94 individuals attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Madrid (Spain) from July to October 2016, and explored potential links with socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical factors of patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by E-tests, and isolates were characterised by N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing. Penicillin resistance was recorded for 15.4% of isolates, and most were susceptible to tetracycline, cefixime and azithromycin; a high incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance (~40%) was found. Isolates were grouped into 51 different sequence types (STs) and 10 genogroups (G), with G2400, ST5441, ST2318, ST12547 and G2992 being the most prevalent. A significant association (P = 0.015) was evident between HIV-positive MSM individuals and having a ciprofloxacin-resistant strain. Likewise, a strong association (P = 0.047) was found between patient age of MSM and carriage of isolates expressing decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. A decrease in the incidence of AMR gonococcal strains and a change in the strain populations previously reported from other parts of Spain were observed. Of note, the prevalent multi-drug resistant genogroup G1407 was represented by only three strains in our study, while the pan-susceptible clones such as ST5441, and ST2318, associated with extragenital body sites were the most prevalent.
The relationship between epilepsy and the presence of visceral larva migrans caused by Toxocara canis in Mexican children remains uncertain; however, this relationship needs to be elucidated because these parasite larvae can invade the human central nervous system. Accordingly, this study aimed to determine the frequency and specificity of anti-T. canis antibodies in the sera of children with epilepsy to determine the relationship between this parasite and epilepsy. The sera samples of 214 children were examined: 111 children diagnosed with epilepsy and 103 clinically healthy children without neurological disorders. In the sera of each group, the presence and specificity of anti-T. canis and anti-Ascaris lumbricoides antibodies, as well as the cross-reactivity between them, were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting analysis. Among the children with epilepsy, 25.2% exhibited seropositivity to T. canis. Cross-reactivity against the A. lumbricoides antigen was present in 46.8% of the children with epilepsy, whereas 11.7% of the children with epilepsy and anti-T. canis antibodies did not exhibit cross-reactivity against this antigen. The Western blotting analysis of the sera from the children with epilepsy demonstrated the presence of T. canis proteins, with molecular weights of 24, 35, 55, 70, 120 and 210 kDa, and A lumbricoides proteins with molecular weights of 70, 80 and 110 kDa. Our results revealed the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies in the children with epilepsy; furthermore, cross-reactivity tests with A. lumbricoides showed the importance of the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies in revealing the relationship between this parasite and epilepsy in children.
This study assessed the in vitro anthelmintic (AH) activity of methanol and acetone:water leaf extracts from Annona squamosa, A. muricata and A. reticulata against Haemonchus contortus eggs. The egg hatch test was used to determine the effective concentrations required to inhibit 50% of eggs hatching (EC50). The role of polyphenols on AH activity was measured through bioassays with and without polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). Methanolic extracts mainly caused the death of eggs at the morula stage (ovicidal activity). Meanwhile, acetone:water extracts caused egg-hatching failure of developed larvae (larvae failing eclosion (LFE) activity). The lowest EC50 values against H. contortus eggs were observed for the methanolic extracts from A. reticulata and A. muricata (274.2 and 382.9 µg/ml, respectively). From the six extracts evaluated, the methanolic extracts of A. muricata, A. reticulata and A. squamosa showed the highest ovicidal activity, resulting in 98.9%, 92.8% and 95.1% egg mortality, respectively. When the methanolic extract of A. squamosa was incubated with PVPP, its AH activity increased. Similarly, when acetone:water extracts of A. muriata and A. reticulata were incubated with PVPP, their LFE activity increased. Alkaloids were only evident in methanolic extracts, irrespective of PVPP incubation. The presence of acetogenins was not observed. In conclusion, methanolic extracts obtained from leaves of A. muricata, A. reticulata and A. squamosa showed ovicidal activity affecting the morula of H. contortus eggs, with minor LFE activity. Meanwhile, acetone:water extracts showed mostly LFE activity, with a lower proportion of ovicidal activity.
To provide cross-national data for selected countries of the Americas on service utilization for psychiatric and substance use disorders, the distribution of these services among treatment sectors, treatment adequacy and factors associated with mental health treatment and adequacy of treatment.
Data come from data collected from 6710 adults with 12 month mental disorder surveys across seven surveys in six countries in North (USA), Central (Mexico) and South (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Peru) America who were interviewed 2001–2015 as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. DSM-IV diagnoses were made with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Interviews also assessed service utilization by the treatment sector, adequacy of treatment received and socio-demographic correlates of treatment.
Little over one in four of respondents with any 12 month DSM-IV/CIDI disorder received any treatment. Although the vast majority (87.1%) of this treatment was minimally adequate, only 35.3% of cases received treatment that met acceptable quality guidelines. Indicators of social-advantage (high education and income) were associated with higher rates of service use and adequacy, but a number of other correlates varied across survey sites.
These results shed light on an enormous public health problem involving under-treatment of common mental disorders, although the problem is most extreme among people with social disadvantage. Promoting services that are more accessible, especially for those with few resources, is urgently needed.
Species distribution models (SDMs) are statistical tools used to develop continuous predictions of species occurrence. ‘Integrated SDMs’ (ISDMs) are an elaboration of this approach with potential advantages that allow for the dual use of opportunistically collected presence-only data and site-occupancy data from planned surveys. These models also account for survey bias and imperfect detection through the use of a hierarchical modelling framework that separately estimates the species–environment response and detection process. This is particularly helpful for conservation applications and predictions for rare species, where data are often limited and prediction errors may have significant management consequences. Despite this potential importance, ISDMs remain largely untested under a variety of scenarios. We performed an exploration of key modelling decisions and assumptions on an ISDM using the endangered Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) as a test species. We found that site area had the strongest effect on the magnitude of population estimates and underlying intensity surface and was driven by estimates of model intercepts. Selecting a site area that accounted for the individual movements of the species within an average home range led to population estimates that coincided with expert estimates. ISDMs that do not account for the individual movements of species will likely lead to less accurate estimates of species intensity (number of individuals per unit area) and thus overall population estimates. This bias could be severe and highly detrimental to conservation actions if uninformed ISDMs are used to estimate global populations of threatened and data-deficient species, particularly those that lack natural history and movement information. However, the ISDM was consistently the most accurate model compared to other approaches, which demonstrates the importance of this new modelling framework and the ability to combine opportunistic data with systematic survey data. Thus, we recommend researchers use ISDMs with conservative movement information when estimating population sizes of rare and data-deficient species. ISDMs could be improved by using a similar parameterization to spatial capture–recapture models that explicitly incorporate animal movement as a model parameter, which would further remove the need for spatial subsampling prior to implementation.
In this study, the microstructural characterization of a superplastic Zn-Al-Ag alloy (72, 24, and 4 in % wt. respectively) by using spectroscopy analysis techniques was obtained. The X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques were used. The main objective of this alloy development is to improve its super-plasticity property and increases its corrosion resistance in acid rain environments. The effect of small grain microstructure of the alloy obtained at the end of the fabrication process improved the super-plasticity behavior. The result of the fabrication process was observed by the characterization of crystallographic phases (morphology, size and distribution) and the chemical composition. The obtained results by XRF shown that Zn was the higher proportion element, in addition the Ag (4% wt.) addition to Zn-Al base alloy improves the grain refinement, as was observed by the SEM characterization. The Ag3Al and AgZn3 intermetallic compounds homogeneously dispersed were observed in the microstructure of the Zn-Al solid solution phase. The size grain observed after the rolling process was less than 10 µm, and it was associated to one of the main characteristics of super-plasticity properties. The XRD analysis results corroborated the present phases in the alloy, as was identified with the SEM and EDS characterization.
The alpaca fiber diameter (FD) varies from 18 to 36 μm, being the finer fiber categories highly appreciated. However, the alpaca fiber presents some limitations in the textile industry due to the high incidence of fiber medullation and diameter variability, both reduces the comfort feeling of the garments. Decreasing or even removing medullation could be a possible selection objective in alpaca breeding programs for increasing economic value of the alpaca fiber. Therefore, the present work aimed to estimate genetic parameters regarding medullation traits, as well as the genetic correlations with other economical important traits, to be able to select the appropriate criteria to reduce or remove medullation on alpaca fiber and help to reduce the prickle factor in the garments. The data was collected from 2000 to 2017 and belonged to the Pacomarca experimental farm. There were 3698 medullation records corresponding to 1869 Huacaya and 414 Suri genetic types. The fiber samples were taken from the mid side, and were analyzed in an OFDA 100® device. The traits analyzed were percentage of medullation (PM), medullated fiber diameter (MFD), FD, standard deviation of FD, greasy fleece weight as fiber traits; density, crimp in Huacaya and lock structure in Suri, head conformation, leg coverage as morphological traits; weaning weight and age at first calving as secondary and functional traits. Genetic parameters were estimated via a multitrait restricted maximum likelihood. The heritabilities for PM and MFD were 0.225 and 0.237 in Huacaya genetic type and 0.664 and 0.237 in Suri genetic type, respectively; heritabilities for other traits were moderate for productive and morphological traits, and low to moderate for secondary and functional traits. The genetic correlations PM–FD and MFD–FD were high and favorable in both genetic types, between 0.531 and 0.975; the genetic correlation PM–MFD was 0.121 in Huacaya and 0.427 in Suri. The rest of genetic correlations with other traits were in general moderate and favorable. The repeatabilities were 0.556 and 0.668 for PM, and 0.322 and 0.293 for MFD in Huacaya and Suri genetic types, respectively. As a conclusion, PM was identified to be a good selection criterion, probably combined in an index with FD to reduce prickling factor.
The aim of this study was to assess the associations of intake of different types of meat with semen parameters and reproductive hormones in healthy young men. This cross-sectional study included 206 men, 18–23 years, from Southern Spain. All men completed a validated FFQ, underwent a physical examination, and provided blood and semen samples. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate the associations between meat intake with semen quality parameters and reproductive hormones. Total meat intake was unrelated to semen quality or reproductive hormone levels. When subgroups of meat were separately considered, however, shellfish intake was positively related to progressive motility. The adjusted percentages of progressively motile spermatozoa for men in increasing quartiles of shellfish intake were 45·2, 42·0, 49·4 and 53·2 % with a significant linear trend across quartiles (Ptrend≤0·001). In contrast, men who consumed organ meats had significantly lower progressive sperm motility (51·5 v. 42·8 %; P = 0·001) and higher luteinising hormone levels (4·0 v. 4·6 IU/l; P = 0·03) compared with men who did not consume organ meats. Intake of shellfish and organ meats was low in this population, however. Given the scarcity of data on the relation between specific types of meat with semen quality and reproductive hormone levels, additional research is needed to confirm or refute these findings.
Composites from carbon nanotubes and polymers have been synthesized and studied. The composites were obtained joining carbon nanotubes with polymethyl methacrylate, nylon-6 and polystyrene. The materials were observed through scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the carbon nanotubes dispersion in the polymeric matrices. FTIR and Raman spectroscopies were used to analyze the interactions among functionalized and non-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polymers, demonstrating affinity and peculiar spectra behaviors for each composite with different carbon nanotubes loads.
The present study examined the association between high-quality diet (using the Mediterranean diet (MD) as an example) and well-being cross-sectionally and prospectively in Spanish children and adolescents. Participants included 533 children and 987 adolescents at baseline and 527 children and 798 adolescents at 2-year follow-up, included in the UP&DOWN study (follow-up in schoolchildren and adolescents with and without Down’s syndrome). The present study excluded participants with Down’s syndrome. Adherence to an MD was assessed using the KIDMED index. Well-being was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire. Associations between MD adherence and well-being were assessed using multi-level, mixed-effects linear regression. At baseline, MD adherence was positively related to health-related quality of life in secondary school girls and boys (β=0·41, se 0·10, P<0·001; β=0·46, se 0·10, P<0·001, respectively) and to positive affect in secondary school girls and boys (β=0·16, se 0·05, P=0·006; β=0·20, se 0·05, P<0·001, respectively) and in primary school boys (β=0·20, se 0·08, P=0·019). At 2-year follow-up, MD adherence was negatively related to negative affect in secondary school adolescent girls and boys (β=–0·15, se 0·07, P=0·047; β=–0·16, se 0·06, P=0·019, respectively), and MD adherence was associated with higher positive affect scores in secondary school girls (β=0·30, se 0·06, P<0·001) and in primary school boys (β=0·20, se 0·09, P=0·023). However, MD adherence at baseline did not predict well-being indicators at 2-year follow-up. In conclusion, higher MD adherence was found to behave as a protective factor for positive well-being in cross-sectional analysis.
High Na intake and chronically elevated cortisol levels are independently associated with the development of chronic diseases. In adults, high Na intake is associated with high levels of urinary cortisol. We aimed to determine the association between urinary Na and K and urinary cortisol in a cross-sectional sample of Australian schoolchildren and their mothers. Participants were a sample of Australian children (n 120) and their mothers (n 100) recruited through primary schools. We assessed Na, K, free cortisol and cortisol metabolites in one 24 h urine collection. Associations between 24 h urinary electrolytes and 24 h urinary cortisol were assessed using multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models. In children, urinary Na was positively associated with urinary free cortisol (β=0·31, 95 % CI 0·19, 0·44) and urinary cortisol metabolites (β=0·006, 95 % CI 0·002, 0·010). Positive associations were also observed between urinary K and urinary free cortisol (β=0·65, 95 % CI 0·23, 1·07) and urinary cortisol metabolites (β=0·02, 95 % CI 0·03, 0·031). In mothers, urinary Na was positively associated with urinary free cortisol (β=0·23, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·50) and urinary cortisol metabolites (β=0·008, 95 % CI 0·0007, 0·016). Our findings show that daily Na and K intake were positively associated with cortisol production in children and their mothers. Investigation of the mechanisms involved and the potential impact of Na reduction on cortisol levels in these populations is warranted.
PA6 and PMMA polymers with different MWCNTs addition (5, 7 and 9 wt %) were synthetized through casting solution, resulting in improvement properties in contrast to pristine polymers. SEM images showed the MWCNTs embedded into polymeric matrices. D, G and G´ bands of MWCNTs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and functional groups observed in both nanocomposites by FTIR demonstrated a strong interaction. A significant increasing in electrical conductivity and microhardness was observed in all the nanocomposites. Major microhardness values were obtained in MWCNTs/PA6 (50 HV) however the MWCNTs/PMMA nanocomposites showed the highest electrical conductivity value (6.4×10-4 S/cm).
We study both numerically and experimentally the steady cone-jet mode of electrospraying close to the stability limit of minimum flow rate. The leaky dielectric model is solved for arbitrary values of the relative permittivity and the electrohydrodynamic Reynolds number. The linear stability analysis of the base flows is conducted by calculating their global eigenmodes. The minimum flow rate is determined as that for which the growth factor of the dominant mode becomes positive. We find a good agreement between this theoretical prediction and experimental values. The analysis of the spatial structure of the dominant perturbation may suggest that instability originates in the cone-jet transition region, which shows the local character of the cone-jet mode. The electric relaxation time is considerably smaller than the residence time of a fluid particle in the cone-jet transition region (defined as the region where the surface and bulk intensities are of the same order of magnitude) except for the high-polarity case, where these characteristic times are commensurate with each other. The superficial charge is not relaxed within the cone-jet transition region except for the high-viscosity case, because significant inner electric fields arise in the cone-jet transition region. However, those electric fields are not large enough to invalidate the scaling laws that do not take them into account. Viscosity and polarization forces compete against the driving electric shear stress in the cone-jet transition region for small Reynolds numbers and large relative permittivities, respectively. Capillary forces may also play a significant role in the minimum flow rate stability limit. The experiments show the noticeable stabilizing effect of the feeding capillary for diameters even two orders of magnitude larger than that of the jet. Stable jets with electrification levels higher than the Rayleigh limit are produced. During the jet break-up, two consecutive liquid blobs may coalesce and form a bigger emitted droplet, probably due to the jet acceleration. The size of droplets exceeds Rayleigh’s prediction owing to the stabilizing effect of both the axial electric field and viscosity.
Although the Near Threatened jaguar Panthera onca ranges from the south-west USA to central Argentina, populations outside Amazonia are generally small and isolated. One such area, the Sierra Madre de Chiapas in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, is potentially an important area for jaguar conservation but information on the species in this region is limited and its conservation status is unknown. In this study we documented the occurrence and abundance of jaguars in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas complex. We compiled all available records of the species within the region and conducted a camera-trap survey during August 2015–December 2016. Interviews were conducted to determine the perception of the jaguar by cattle owners and to obtain information on any livestock predation. We found that jaguars still occur throughout the Sierra Madre de Chiapas landscape, including the plains on the Pacific Coast of Chiapas, but its abundance in the region is low. On the basis of our findings we have incorporated the Sierra Madre de Chiapas in Mexico's National Jaguar Conservation Strategy, and recommend that international organizations include this area in their priorities for jaguar conservation. To improve coexistence between jaguars and the communities of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, strategies need to be developed, in collaboration with the local communities, to improve livestock practices for reduction of predation by jaguars, to strengthen government conservation policies and to implement educational and communication programmes about the importance of this species in the region.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.