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Finely resolved geodetic data provide an opportunity to assess the extent and morphology of crevasses and their change over time. Crevasses have the potential to bias geodetic measurements of elevation and mass change unless they are properly accounted for. We developed a framework that automatically maps and extracts crevasse geometry and masks them where they interfere with surface mass-balance assessment. Our study examines airborne light detection and ranging digital elevation models (LiDAR DEMs) from Haig Glacier, which is experiencing a transient response in its crevassed upper regions as the glacier thins, using a self-organizing map algorithm. This method successfully extracts and characterizes ~1000 crevasses, with an overall accuracy of 94%. The resulting map provides insight into stress and flow conditions. The crevasse mask also enables refined geodetic estimates of summer mass balance. From differencing of September and April LiDAR DEMs, the raw LiDAR DEM gives a 9% overestimate in the magnitude of glacier thinning over the summer: −5.48 m compared with a mean elevation change of −5.02 m when crevasses are masked out. Without identification and removal of crevasses, the LiDAR-derived summer mass balance therefore has a negative bias relative to the glaciological surface mass balance.
Pigweed is difficult to manage in grain sorghum because of widespread herbicide resistance, a limited number of registered effective herbicides, and the synchronous emergence of pigweed with grain sorghum in Kansas. The combination of cultural and mechanical control tactics with an herbicide program are commonly recognized as best management strategies; however, limited information is available to adapt these strategies to dryland systems. Our objective for this research was to assess the influence of four components, including a winter wheat cover crop (CC), row-crop cultivation, three row widths, with and without a herbicide program, on pigweed control in a dryland system. Field trials were implemented during 2017 and 2018 at three locations for a total of 6 site-years. The herbicide program component resulted in excellent control (>97%) in all treatments at 3 and 8 weeks after planting (WAP). CC provided approximately 50% reductions in pigweed density and biomass for both timings in half of the site-years; however, mixed results were observed in the remaining site-years, ranging from no attributable difference to a 170% increase in weed density at 8 WAP in 1 site-year. Treatments including row-crop cultivation reduced pigweed biomass and density in most site-years 3 and 8 WAP. An herbicide program is required to achieve pigweed control and should be integrated with row-crop cultivation or narrow row widths to reduce the risk of herbicide resistance. Additional research is required to optimize the use of CC as an integrated pigweed management strategy in dryland grain sorghum.
Successful pigweed management requires an integrated strategy to delay the development of resistance to any single control tactic. Field trials were implemented during 2017 and 2018 in three counties in Kansas on dryland (limited rainfall, nonirrigated), glufosinate-resistant soybean. The objective was to assess pigweed control with combinations of a winter wheat cover crop (CC), three soybean row widths (76, 38, and 19 cm), row-crop cultivation 2.5 weeks after planting (WAP), and an herbicide program to develop integrated pigweed management recommendations. All combinations of the four components were assessed by 16 treatments. All treatments with the herbicide program resulted in excellent (>97%) pigweed control and were analyzed separately from the other components. Treatments containing row-crop cultivation reduced pigweed density and biomass 3 and 8 WAP in all locations compared with the 76-cm row width plus no CC treatment. CC impacts were mixed. In Riley County, Palmer amaranth density and biomass were reduced; in Reno County, no additional Palmer amaranth control was observed; in Franklin County, the CC had greater waterhemp density and biomass compared with the treatments containing no CC. Narrow row widths achieved the most consistent results of all cultural components when data were pooled across locations: Decreasing row widths from 76 to 38 cm resulted in a 23% reduction in pigweed biomass 8 WAP and decreasing row width from 38 to 19 cm achieved a 15% reduction. Row-crop cultivation should be incorporated where possible as a mechanical option to manage pigweed, and narrow row widths should be used to suppress late-season pigweed growth when feasible. Inconsistent pigweed control from CC was achieved and should be given special consideration before implementation. The integral use of these components with an herbicide program as a system should be recommended to achieve the best pigweed control and reduce the risk of developing herbicide resistance.
Clinical Enterobacteriacae isolates with a colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥4 mg/L from a United States hospital were screened for the mcr-1 gene using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. Four colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates contained mcr-1. Two isolates belonged to the same sequence type (ST-632). All subjects had prior international travel and antimicrobial exposure.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether vehicle type based on size (car vs. other = truck/van/SUV) had an impact on the speeding, acceleration, and braking patterns of older male and female drivers (70 years and older) from a Canadian longitudinal study. The primary hypothesis was that older adults driving larger vehicles (e.g., trucks, SUVs, or vans) would be more likely to speed than those driving cars. Participants (n = 493) had a device installed in their vehicles that recorded their everyday driving. The findings suggest that the type of vehicle driven had little or no impact on per cent of time speeding or on the braking and accelerating patterns of older drivers. Given that the propensity for exceeding the speed limit was high among these older drivers, regardless of vehicle type, future research should examine what effect this behaviour has on older-driver road safety.
Using existing data from clinical registries to support clinical trials and other prospective studies has the potential to improve research efficiency. However, little has been reported about staff experiences and lessons learned from implementation of this method in pediatric cardiology.
We describe the process of using existing registry data in the Pediatric Heart Network Residual Lesion Score Study, report stakeholders’ perspectives, and provide recommendations to guide future studies using this methodology.
The Residual Lesion Score Study, a 17-site prospective, observational study, piloted the use of existing local surgical registry data (collected for submission to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons-Congenital Heart Surgery Database) to supplement manual data collection. A survey regarding processes and perceptions was administered to study site and data coordinating center staff.
Survey response rate was 98% (54/55). Overall, 57% perceived that using registry data saved research staff time in the current study, and 74% perceived that it would save time in future studies; 55% noted significant upfront time in developing a methodology for extracting registry data. Survey recommendations included simplifying data extraction processes and tailoring to the needs of the study, understanding registry characteristics to maximise data quality and security, and involving all stakeholders in design and implementation processes.
Use of existing registry data was perceived to save time and promote efficiency. Consideration must be given to the upfront investment of time and resources needed. Ongoing efforts focussed on automating and centralising data management may aid in further optimising this methodology for future studies.
In late summer, sometime between cal a.d. 340–405, a hoard of tightly packed, stacked copper-alloy vessels was deposited in the Vale of Pewsey, Wiltshire. The corrosion of the vessels allowed for the preservation of delicate plant macrofossils and pollen. Analysis of this material has provided insights into the date, season and context of this act of structured deposition. A second hoard of similar vessels was deposited in the fourth or fifth century only a few miles away at Wilcot. The hoards and their deposition relate to Romano-British lifeways, at a time when the region was on the cusp of a dramatic period of change. The distribution of late Roman coins and belt fittings offers further insights into the social and economic character of Wiltshire at their times of deposition.
Epistaxis is the most common ENT emergency. This study aimed to assess one-year mortality rates in patients admitted to a large teaching hospital.
This study was a retrospective case note analysis of all patients admitted to the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital in Glasgow with epistaxis over a 12-month period.
The one-year overall mortality for a patient admitted with epistaxis was 9.8 per cent. The patients who died were older (mean age 77.2 vs 68.8 years; p = 0.002), had a higher Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-Geriatric score (9.9 vs 6.7; p < 0.001) and had a higher performance status score (2 or higher vs less than 2; p < 0.001). Other risk factors were a low admission haemoglobin level (less than 128 g/dl vs 128 g/dl or higher; p = 0.025), abnormal coagulation (p = 0.004), low albumin (less than 36 g/l vs more than 36 g/l; p < 0.001) and longer length of stay (p = 0.046).
There are a number of risk factors associated with increased mortality after admission with epistaxis. This information could help with risk stratification of patients at admission and enable the appropriate patient support to be arranged.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: In a randomized controlled trial in participants with HIV infection, recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) reduced visceral adipose tissue (VAT); addition of rosiglitazone to rhGH prevented the accompanying decline in insulin sensitivity (SI). Within this parent RCT, we sought to determine the effect of rosiglitazone and rhGH intervention on alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), a biomarker of inflammation. We also investigated AGP as an independent risk factor for SI and VAT changes along with any potential effect modification by AGP of the intervention. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Participants with HIV-infection (n = 72) with abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance were randomized to rosiglitazone, rhGH, combination, or placebo for 12 weeks (NCT00130286). SI was determined by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, and VAT by whole body MRI. AGP concentrations were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay in available serum samples at baseline (time 0), 4, and 12 weeks (n = 41 participants with samples at all 3 time points). A linear mixed model was used to assess the impact of intervention over time on AGP concentrations. General linear models were used to assess baseline AGP concentrations as an independent predictor of SI and VAT changes by treatment group with the model initially including age quartile, gender, race, ethnicity, BMI, HIV RNA <400 copies/mL, antiretroviral regimen, CD4 count, Stavudine use, and zidovudine use with step-by-step removal of least significant predictors. Effect modification was assessed by adding an interaction term between AGP and assigned intervention. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: AGP did not differ among treatment groups at baseline; overall median (Q1, Q3): 0.608 (.526,.727) g/L, P = 0.92. Treatment with rosiglitazone, rhGH, or the combination significantly reduced AGP concentrations from baseline to week 12, compared to placebo (time by treatment interaction, P = 0.0038). Baseline AGP was not a significant predictor or effect modifier of SI change in response to treatment (P ≥ 0.50). Baseline AGP (g/L) was an independent predictor of VAT change (L) (β = 1.91, SE = 0.89, P = 0.038) in addition to a treatment effect (P < 0.001) and age quartile effect (P < 0.001). No other predictors or interactions were significant, including effect modification of AGP (AGP by treatment interaction P = 0.50). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: It is known that immune and metabolic pathways are highly integrated, and biomarkers of inflammation have predictive abilities for cardiovascular and metabolic disease outcomes. This analysis provides data showing that treatment with rosiglitazone or rhGH in the context of HIV reduces AGP concentrations, indicating efficacy in reducing systemic inflammation. Baseline AGP was an independent risk factor for VAT changes as those with lower AGP at baseline showed a greater reduction in VAT in response to treatment. Biomarkers of inflammation may provide prognostic information for individualized patient outcomes to help guide treatment and follow-up.
Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) has been associated with depression and can have an impact on quality of life. Therefore, researchers have suggested the potential utility of psychological interventions for targeting depression among CSU patients. Psychological interventions that may hold the most promise are those that are brief and easily transportable, such as brief behavioural activation treatment for depression. We report results of a preliminary investigation of an uncontrolled open trial of a one-session behavioural activation treatment for depression designed for patients with CSU (BATD-CSU) at a university-based allergy and immunology clinic. Participants were 11 females with chronic, poorly controlled urticaria and symptoms of depression. Following the completion of pretreatment questionnaires, participants were administered BATD-CSU primarily by non-mental health professionals trained and supervised in its delivery. One month post-BATD-CSU, participants completed follow-up questionnaires. Participants exhibited significant reductions in depression severity, avoidance/rumination, and work/school impairment. BATD-CSU was also associated with improvements in urticaria control one month post-treatment. Moreover, five of nine patients reported reliable and clinically significant improvement on at least one outcome. Results demonstrate that BATD-CSU may have benefits for CSU patients even when consisting of one session and delivered by professionals with limited background in psychological interventions, thus speaking to its feasibility and transportability.
In Scotland, the base of the Ballagan Formation has traditionally been placed at the first grey mudstone within a contiguous Late Devonian to Carboniferous succession. This convention places the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary within the Old Red Sandstone (ORS) Kinnesswood Formation. The consequences of this placement are that tetrapods from the Ballagan Formation were dated as late Tournaisian in age and that the ranges of typically Devonian fish found in the Kinnesswood Formation continued into the Carboniferous. The Pease Bay specimen of the fish Remigolepis is from the Kinnesswood Formation. Comparisons with its range in Greenland, calibrated against spores, show it was Famennian in age. Detailed palynological sampling at Burnmouth from the base of the Ballagan Formation proves that the early Tournaisian spore zones (VI and HD plus Cl 1) are present. The Schopfites species that occurs through most of the succession is Schopfites delicatus rather than Schopfites claviger. The latter species defines the late Tournaisian CM spore zone. The first spore assemblage that has been found in Upper ‘ORS' strata underlying the Ballagan Formation (Preston, Whiteadder Water), contains Retispora lepidophyta and is from the early latest Famennian LL spore zone. The spore samples are interbedded with volcaniclastic debris, which shows that the Kelso Volcanic Formation is, in part, early latest Famennian in age. These findings demonstrate that the Ballagan Formation includes most of the Tournaisian with the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary positioned close to the top of the Kinnesswood Formation. The Stage 6 calcrete at Pease Bay can be correlated to the equivalent section at Carham, showing that it represents a time gap equivalent to the latest Famennian glaciation(s). Importantly, some of the recently described Ballagan Formation tetrapods are older than previously dated and now fill the key early part of Romer's Gap.
Double-crop grain sorghum after winter wheat harvest is a common cropping system in the southern plains region. Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed in double-crop grain sorghum in Kansas. Populations resistant to various herbicides (e.g., atrazine, glyphosate, metsulfuron, pyrasulfotole) have made Palmer amaranth management even more difficult for producers. To evaluate control of atrazine-resistant and atrazine-susceptible Palmer amaranth in double-crop grain sorghum, we assessed 14 herbicide programs, of which 8 were PRE only and 6 were PRE followed by (fb) POST applications. Visible ratings of Palmer amaranth control were taken at 3 and 8 wk after planting (WAP) grain sorghum. PRE treatments containing very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA)–inhibiting herbicides provided 91% control of atrazine-resistant Palmer amaranth 3 WAP, and reduced weed density 8 WAP compared to atrazine-only PRE treatments. PRE fb POST treatments, especially those that included VLCFA-inhibiting herbicides, provided greater control (71% to 93%) of both atrazine-resistant and atrazine-susceptible Palmer amaranth, respectively, at 8 WAP compared to PRE treatments alone (59% to 79%). These results demonstrated the utility of VLCFA-inhibiting herbicides applied PRE and in a layered PRE fb POST approach in controlling atrazine-resistant Palmer amaranth, as well as the importance of an effective POST application following residual PRE herbicides for controlling both atrazine-resistant and atrazine-susceptible Palmer amaranth in double-crop grain sorghum.
Understanding why ecological communities contain the species they do is a long-standing question in ecology. Two common mechanisms that affect the species found within communities are dispersal limitation and environmental filtering. Correctly identifying the relative influences of these mechanisms has important consequences for our understanding of community assembly. Here variable selection was used to identify the environmental variables that best predict tropical forest primate community similarity in four biogeographic regions: the Neotropics, Afrotropics, Madagascar and the island of Borneo in South-East Asia. The environmental variables included net primary productivity and altitude, as well as multiple temperature, precipitation and topsoil variables. Using the best environmental variables in each region, Mantel and partial Mantel tests were used to reanalyse data from a previously published study. The proportion of variance explained increased for each region. Despite increases, much of the variation remained unexplained for all regions (R2: Africa = 0.45, South America = 0.16, Madagascar = 0.28, Borneo = 0.10), likely due to different evolutionary and biogeographic histories within each region. Nonetheless, substantial variation among regions in the environmental variables that best predicted primate community similarity were documented. For example, none of the 14 environmental variables was included for all four regions, yet each variable was included for at least one region. Contrary to prior results, environmental filtering was an important assembly mechanism for primate communities in tropical forests worldwide. Geographic distance more strongly predicted African and South American communities whereas environmental distance more strongly predicted Malagasy and Bornean communities. These results suggest that dispersal limitation structures primate communities more strongly than environmental filtering in Africa and in South America whereas environmental filtering structures primate communities more strongly than dispersal limitation in Madagascar and Borneo. For communities defined by genera, environmental distance more strongly predicted primate communities than geographic distance in all four regions, which suggests that environmental filtering is a more influential assembly mechanism at the genus level. Therefore, a more nuanced consideration of environmental variables affects conclusions about the influences of environmental filtering and dispersal limitation on primate community structure.
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in red clover (RC) has been shown to reduce both lipolysis and proteolysis in silo and implicated (in vitro) in the rumen. However, all in vivo comparisons have compared RC with other forages, typically with lower levels of PPO, which brings in other confounding factors as to the cause for the greater protection of dietary nitrogen (N) and C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on RC silage. This study compared two RC silages which when ensiled had contrasting PPO activities (RC+ and RC−) against a control of perennial ryegrass silage (PRG) to ascertain the effect of PPO activity on dietary N digestibility and PUFA biohydrogenation. Two studies were performed the first to investigate rumen and duodenal flow with six Hereford×Friesian steers, prepared with rumen and duodenal cannulae, and the second investigating whole tract N balance using six Holstein-Friesian non-lactating dairy cows. All diets were offered at a restricted level based on animal live weight with each experiment consisting of two 3×3 Latin squares using big bale silages ensiled in 2010 and 2011, respectively. For the first experiment digesta flow at the duodenum was estimated using a dual-phase marker system with ytterbium acetate and chromium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as particulate and liquid phase markers, respectively. Total N intake was higher on the RC silages in both experiments and higher on RC− than RC+. Rumen ammonia-N reflected intake with ammonia-N per unit of N intake lower on RC+ than RC−. Microbial N duodenal flow was comparable across all silage diets with non-microbial N higher on RC than the PRG with no difference between RC+ and RC−, even when reported on a N intake basis. C18 PUFA biohydrogenation was lower on RC silage diets than PRG but with no difference between RC+ and RC−. The N balance trial showed a greater retention of N on RC+ over RC−; however, this response is likely related to the difference in N intake over any PPO driven protection. The lack of difference between RC silages, despite contrasting levels of PPO, may reflect a similar level of protein-bound-phenol complexing determined in each RC silage. Previously this complexing has been associated with PPOs protection mechanism; however, this study has shown that protection is not related to total PPO activity.
The lower Mississippian Ballagan Formation of northern Britain is one of only two successions worldwide to yield the earliest known tetrapods with terrestrial capability following the end-Devonian mass extinction event. Studies of the sedimentary environments and habitats in which these beasts lived have been an integral part of a major research project into how, why and under what circumstances this profound step in the evolution of life on Earth occurred. Here, a new palaeogeographic map is constructed from outcrop data integrated with new and archived borehole material. The map shows the extent of a very low-relief coastal wetland developed along the tropical southern continental margin of Laurussia. Coastal floodplains in the Midland Valley and Tweed basins were separated from the marginal marine seaway of the Northumberland–Solway Basin to the south by an archipelago of more elevated areas. A complex mosaic of sedimentary environments was juxtaposed, and included fresh and brackish to saline and hypersaline lakes, a diverse suite of floodplain palaeosols and a persistent fluvial system in the east of the region. The strongly seasonal climate led to the formation of evaporite deposits alternating with flooding events, both meteoric and marine. Storm surges drove marine floods from the SW into both the western Midland Valley and Northumberland–Solway Basin; marine water also flooded into the Tweed Basin and Tayside in the east. The Ballagan Formation is a rare example in the geological record of a tropical, seasonal coastal wetland that contains abundant, small-scale evaporite deposits. The diverse sedimentary environments and palaeosol types indicate a network of different terrestrial and aquatic habitats in which the tetrapods lived.