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The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) is a widely used measure in developmental science that assesses adults’ current states of mind regarding early attachment-related experiences with their primary caregivers. The standard system for coding the AAI recommends classifying individuals categorically as having an autonomous, dismissing, preoccupied, or unresolved attachment state of mind. However, previous factor and taxometric analyses suggest that: (a) adults’ attachment states of mind are captured by two weakly correlated factors reflecting adults’ dismissing and preoccupied states of mind and (b) individual differences on these factors are continuously rather than categorically distributed. The current study revisited these suggestions about the latent structure of AAI scales by leveraging individual participant data from 40 studies (N = 3,218), with a particular focus on the controversial observation from prior factor analytic work that indicators of preoccupied states of mind and indicators of unresolved states of mind about loss and trauma loaded on a common factor. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that: (a) a 2-factor model with weakly correlated dismissing and preoccupied factors and (b) a 3-factor model that further distinguished unresolved from preoccupied states of mind were both compatible with the data. The preoccupied and unresolved factors in the 3-factor model were highly correlated. Taxometric analyses suggested that individual differences in dismissing, preoccupied, and unresolved states of mind were more consistent with a continuous than a categorical model. The importance of additional tests of predictive validity of the various models is emphasized.
To conduct international comparisons of self-reports, collateral reports, and cross-informant agreement regarding older adult psychopathology.
We compared self-ratings of problems (e.g. I cry a lot) and personal strengths (e.g. I like to help others) for 10,686 adults aged 60–102 years from 19 societies and collateral ratings for 7,065 of these adults from 12 societies.
Data were obtained via the Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) and the Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL; Achenbach et al., 2004).
Cronbach’s alphas were .76 (OASR) and .80 (OABCL) averaged across societies. Across societies, 27 of the 30 problem items with the highest mean ratings and 28 of the 30 items with the lowest mean ratings were the same on the OASR and the OABCL. Q correlations between the means of the 0–1–2 ratings for the 113 problem items averaged across all pairs of societies yielded means of .77 (OASR) and .78 (OABCL). For the OASR and OABCL, respectively, analyses of variance (ANOVAs) yielded effect sizes (ESs) for society of 15% and 18% for Total Problems and 42% and 31% for Personal Strengths, respectively. For 5,584 cross-informant dyads in 12 societies, cross-informant correlations averaged across societies were .68 for Total Problems and .58 for Personal Strengths. Mixed-model ANOVAs yielded large effects for society on both Total Problems (ES = 17%) and Personal Strengths (ES = 36%).
The OASR and OABCL are efficient, low-cost, easily administered mental health assessments that can be used internationally to screen for many problems and strengths.
The aeroelastic phenomenon of limit-cycle oscillations (LCOs) is analysed using a projection-based reduced-order model (PROM) and Navier–Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the time domain. The proposed approach employs incompressible Navier–Stokes CFD to construct the full-order model flow field. A proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the snapshot matrix is conducted to extract the POD modes and corresponding temporal coefficients. The POD modes are directly projected to the incompressible Navier–Stokes equation to reconstruct the flow field efficiently. The methodology is applied to a plunging cylinder and an aerofoil undergoing LCOs. This scheme decreases the computational time while preserving the capability to predict the flow field accurately. The ROM is capable of reducing the computational time by at least 70% while maintaining the discrepancy within 0.1%. The causes of LCOs are also investigated. The scheme can be used to analyse non-linear aeroelastic phenomena in the time domain with reduced computational time.
Ex utero intrapartum treatment (‘EXIT’ procedure) is a well described method for maintaining maternal–fetal circulation in the setting of airway obstruction from compressive neck masses. When ex utero intrapartum treatment to airway is not feasible, ex utero intrapartum treatment to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (‘ECMO’) has been described in fetal cardiopulmonary abnormalities.
This paper presents the case of a massively compressive midline neck teratoma managed with ex utero intrapartum treatment to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, allowing for neonatal survival, with controlled airway management and subsequent resection.
A 34-year-old-female presented with a fetal magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrating a 15 cm compressive midline neck teratoma. Concern for failure of ex utero intrapartum treatment to airway was high. The addition of the ex utero intrapartum treatment to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation procedure provided time for the planned subsequent resection of the mass and tracheostomy.
Ex utero intrapartum treatment procedures allow for securement of the difficult neonatal airway, while maintaining a supply of oxygenated blood to the newborn. Ex utero intrapartum treatment circulation lasts on average less than 30 minutes. The arrival of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has enabled the survival of neonates with disease processes previously incompatible with life.
Patulous Eustachian tube appears to be caused by a concave defect in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve of the Eustachian tube. This study aimed to compare the clinical features of patulous Eustachian tube patients with or without a defect in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve.
Sixty-six patients with a patulous Eustachian tube completed a questionnaire, which was evaluated alongside endoscopic findings of the tympanic membrane, nasal cavity and Eustachian tube orifice.
Females were more frequently diagnosed with a patulous Eustachian tube, but the valve defect was more common in males (p = 0.007). The ratio of patulous Eustachian tube patients with or without defects in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve was 1.6:1. Weight loss in the previous six months and being refractory to conservative management were significantly associated with the defect (p = 0.035 and 0.037, respectively). Symptom severity was significantly higher in patients with the defect.
Patulous Eustachian tube patients without a defect in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve can be non-surgically treated more often than those with the defect. Identification of the defect could assist in making treatment decisions for patulous Eustachian tube patients.
Earlier studies examining structural brain abnormalities associated with cognitively derived subgroups were mainly cross-sectional in design and had mixed findings. Thus, we obtained cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize the extent and trajectory of brain structure abnormalities underlying distinct cognitive subtypes (“preserved,” “deteriorated,” and “compromised”) seen in psychotic spectrum disorders.
Data from 364 subjects (225 patients with psychotic conditions and 139 healthy controls) were first used to determine the relationship of cognitive subtypes with cross-sectional measures of subcortical volume and cortical thickness. To probe neurodevelopmental abnormalities, brain structure laterality was examined. To examine whether neuroprogressive abnormalities persist, longitudinal brain structural changes over 5 years were examined within a subset of 101 subjects. Subsequent discriminant analysis using the identified brain measures was performed on an independent subject group.
Cross-sectional comparisons showed that cortical thinning and limbic volume reductions were most widespread in “deteriorated” cognitive subtype. Laterality comparisons showed more rightward amygdala lateralization in “compromised” than “preserved” subtype. Longitudinal comparisons revealed progressive hippocampal shrinkage in “deteriorated” compared with healthy controls and “preserved” subtype, which correlated with worse negative symptoms, cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Post-hoc discrimination analysis on an independent group of 52 subjects using the identified brain structures found an overall accuracy of 71% for classification of cognitive subtypes.
These findings point toward distinct extent and trajectory of corticolimbic abnormalities associated with cognitive subtypes in psychosis, which can allow further understanding of the biological course of cognitive functioning over illness course and with treatment.
Bupropion is a catecholamine reuptake inhibitor and also a potent noncompetitive ion channel site antagonist at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Bupropion is indicated for use in combination with behavioral modification programs for smoking cessation. There have been a few studies about the effect of bupropion on smoking cessation in schizophrenia. Therefore, we aimed investigated the change of the symptomatology after smoking cessation with bupropion in the patients with schizophrenia.
There were fifty-six patients with smoking in the psychiatric ward of Hapcheon Korea Hospital. among them, thirty-nine inpatients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia were recruited. for 4 weeks, treatment team persuaded the patients to enter the program of smoking cessation. with the exception, if the patients did not agree the program, the patients were able to be transferred to another ward that smoking was permitted. All patients agreed to the program. Postive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), Temperament and Character Inventory(TCI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI), Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence(FTND) were evaluated at the beginning of the study and 12 weeks of Bupropion treatment.
At 12 weeks after successful smoking cessation with bupropion, FTND scores were significantly decreased after smoking cessation. the scores of STAI and PANSS were not significantly changed. the subcale of TCI, Novelty Seeking showed decreasing tendency after smoking cessation, although there was no statistical significance(p=0.054).
These results suggest that bupropion is an effective antidepressant on smoking cessation and does not aggravate the psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Further investigation with larger number of subjects is needed.
The prevalence of internet game use among children and adolescents has been increased in the recent years.
Internet addiction has been found to cause various psychiatric symptoms and psychological problems. Internet addiction has been found to cause various psychiatric symptoms and psychological problems.
The aim of this study was to examine the association between problematic internet game use and psychiatric symptoms in a sample of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic, Ulsan University Hospital.
We analyzed data from 447 subjects who first visit the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic of the Ulsan University Hospital. The level of Internet addiction was categorized as either high-risk (≥108; group 3), potential risk (95 to 107; group 2), or no risk (≤94, group 1) based on the total score. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and one-way ANOVA and multiple logistic regression method were used.
Thirteen adolescents met the criteria for high risk group of internet game addiction. in the high risk group, 10 were male and 3 were female adolescents. There was an mean difference among group 3 (high risk)< 1 (no risk),2 (potential risk) in AHI ; whereas group 3 (high risk)>1 (no risk), 2 (potential risk) in BDI, BAI, inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and K-ARS score. with multiple logistic regression analysis, K-scale was significantly related with male sex, BDI, ARShyperactivity/ impulsivity score.
We conclude that having male sex, happiness and depressive symptoms is associated with the risk of developing internet use disorders.
Sensory information plays an important role to determine psycho-emotional behaviors of individuals. in this study, we have examined psycho-emotional behaviors of rats after disrupting the oral sensory relay to brain with bilateral transection of the chorda tympami and lingual nerve (LNX). LNX rats are expected to lose their sensory information from the anterior two thirds of the tongue. Two weeks after the nerve transections or sham operations, rats were subjected to behavioral sessions to examine anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and the brain monoamine levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Initial weight loss after the surgery was bigger in LNX rats and this effect remained during the whole experimental period, although daily food intake per 100 g body weight became greater in LNX rats. Ambulatory activity was decreased, anxiety-related behaviors during the activity test increased, time spent in the open arms during elevated plus maze test decreased, and immobility duration during Porsolt swim test increased in LNX rats compared with sham rats. LNX rats showed anhedonia with decreased sucrose consumption compared to sham rats. Serotonin levels in the hippocampus were decreased in LNX rats compared with sham rats. Results suggest that disruption of oral sensory relay to brain may lead to the development of depression- and anxiety-related disorders, and decreased serotonergic activity in the hippocampus play a role in its underlying mechanism.
Supported by the NRF (2010-0003642) funded by MOEST
: Human impulsivity is a complex multidimensional construct encompassing cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects. Previous animal studies have suggested that striatal dopamine receptors play a critical role in impulsivity. in this study, we investigated the relationship between self-reported cognitive impulsiveness and dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subdivisions in healthy subjects using high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]raclopride.
Twenty-one participants completed 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution PET scans with [11C]raclopride. The trait of impulsiveness was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Partial correlation analysis was performed between BIS-11 scores and D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subregions, controlling for the confounding effects of temperament characteristics that are conceptually or empirically related to dopamine, which were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory.
The analysis revealed that the non-planning (p = 0.004) and attentional (p = 0.007) impulsiveness subscale scores on the BIS-11 had significant positive correlations with D2/3 receptor availability in the pre-commissural dorsal caudate. There was a tendency toward positive correlation between non-planning impulsiveness score and D2/3 receptor availability in the post-commissural caudate.
These results suggest that cognitive subtrait of impulsivity is associated with D2/3 receptor availability in the associative striatum that plays a critical role in cognitive processes involving attention to detail, judgment of alternative outcomes, and inhibitory control.
It is known that Sexual Dysfunction (SD) is higher in patient with depression than in the general population. Though antidepressant seems to worsen the situation, there are also indications that the gender may play a role on it.
Evaluate the gender effect of sexual function among unmedicated MDD, MDD receiving antidepressant, and healthy controls.
The sample was formed by male and female Taiwanese outpatients in three age and sex matched groups, with sixty nine participants per group: unmedicated MDD, MDD receiving antidepressant, and healthy controls. the diagnoses of depressions were performed according DSM-IV and Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire. SD was evaluated with the Chinese version of the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire. Finally, the data was analyzed using SPSS software v17. Mixed designed ANOVA was used.
There are significant differences between males and females CSFQ results (sex main effect F = 82.44, p < 0.001) and between groups (group main effect F = 3.48, p = 0.034). Additionally, the 2-way interaction between sex and group was also significant (F = 3.40, p = 0.036). Simple main effect analysis shows differences among male participants, between healthy and medicated males (F = 11.41, p = 0.002), but not in female (F = 1.58, p = 0.21). However the statistics weren’t different between females groups, the medicated expresses better results (similar to healthy group) than the unmedicated one.
SD is different between genders in each of the groups. Antidepressant seems to increase SD in man, while improves sexual satisfaction/function among depressive woman. We speculate that psychological improvement after treatment may have different impact between genders on sexual satisfaction.
Suicide rates are high for older persons worldwide. However, no literature could be found on young-old people’s opinions about elderly suicide and the beliefs/expectations that protect them from attempting suicide.
To explore opinions about elderly suicide among community-dwelling young-old people in Taiwan and their reasons for not killing themselves.
A qualitative descriptive design was used. Young-old (65–74 years old) outpatients were recruited by convenience from two randomly selected medical centers in northern Taiwan if they had never expressed suicidal ideas and had no severe cognitive deficit. Data were collected in individual interviews and analysed by content analysis.
Among 31 participating young-old people, most participants (87.1%) had heard of elderly suicide. Their opinions about elderly suicide reflected negative emotional reactions (32.3%), judgmental attitudes (32.3%), could happen after losing the meaning of life (9.7%), and expectations of social welfare (9.7%). Reasons for not killing themselves fell into six major themes: living well (32.3%), suicide cannot resolve problems (22.6%), fear of humiliating their children (16.1%), religious beliefs (12.9%), never thought about suicide (12.9%), and living in harmony with nature (12.9%).
Among the factors that prevented participants from killing themselves, perceptions of living well and of children’s filial behavior, as well as rational thinking could be adjusted. These factors can be addressed and improved by healthcare providers and policy makers to prevent suicide among the young-old. Our findings may also serve as a reference for geriatric researchers in western countries with increasing numbers of elderly ethnic minority immigrants.
The stiffness of conjugated polymers should lead to chain alignment near buried interfaces, even if the polymer film is nominally amorphous. Although simulations predict that this alignment layer is approximately 1.5 times the persistence length, chain alignment at buried interfaces of amorphous polymers has not been experimentally measured. Using Mueller matrix spectroscopy, the optical response of regiorandom poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) was modeled in order to extract the aligned layer thickness. By approximating the optical properties of the aligned layer as that of regioregular P3HT, the data can be effectively modeled. When the film is thicker than 150 nm, optical properties are best described with a 4-nm aligned layer, which is quantitatively consistent with previous predictions.
This research aimed to identify the effects of depressive mood of female high school students on dysmenorrhea and sleep quality.
This research was conducted for 2 months from September 2015 to October 2015. A total of 3 types of self-reported questionnaire were adopted for the research. Control group was separated by Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Each group adopted a self-made questionnaire for research on menstruation and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for research on sleep. Chi2 test and AVOVA analysis through SPSS-21 were used as statistics methods.
Analysis was made on 72 female students who submitted clear answers to the questionnaire. There were 34 students from normal mood group and 38 from depressive mood group. Depressive group presented meaningful results on regularity, pain severity, and drug treatment history of menstruation. Particularly, depressive group had 51.4% among subjects having severe menstrual pain of grade 3 by VMS (verbal multidimensional scoring system), way higher than 27.6% among subjects in the normal group. PSQI for sleep showed a meaningful result that 20.8% of those in the normal group were diagnosed with sleep disorder compared to 86.8% for the depressive group. A meaningful difference was seen in sleep latency, sleep duration, sleep disturbance, use of sleep medication, daytime functional disturbance among 7 items of PSQI.
This research showed that female high school students with depressive mood had high frequency and severity in dysmenorrhea and sleep quality disturbance.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This research examined gender variations in depressive mood for high school students affected by emotional upset and how such depressive mood affect their sleep quality.
Research was conducted from September 2015 to October 2015. Both males and females were divided into normal group and depressive group by Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Each group adopted the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to measure sleep quality.
Analysis was made on a total of 155 students, which were 83 male students and 72 female. The average ZSDS for all high school students was 43.38 and the average PSQI was 5.39. The number of male students in the normal and depressive group who were diagnosed with sleep disorder were 2 (3.8%) and 9 (29.0%), respectively (P < 0.05). But the number of female students in the normal and depressive group who were diagnosed with sleep disorder were 11 (32.4%) and 33 (86.8%), respectively (P < 0.05). Both males and females shared a meaningful result over sleep latency, sleep disturbance, use of sleep medication, and daytime functional disturbance among 7 items of PSQI for sleep quality, and female students had a significantly meaningful result over sleep duration, habitual sleep effects (P < 0.05).
This research showed that sleep quality of all high school students was not too bad but it can be problematic for those with depressive mood. Especially, female students were diagnosed with sleep disorder more than male students.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Although a number of studies have examined the relationship between depression and obesity, it is still insufficient to establish the specific pattern of relationship between depression and body mass index (BMI) categories. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the relationship between depression and BMI categories.
A cross-sectional study was conducted for a cohort of 159,390 Korean based on Kangbuk Samsung Health Study (KSHS). Study participants were classified into 5 groups by Asian-specific cut-off of BMI (18.5, 23, 25 and 30 kg/m2). The presence of depression was determined by Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scales (CES-D) = 16 and = 25. The adjusted odd ratios (ORs) for depression were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis, in which independent variable was 5 categories of BMI and dependent variable was depression. Subgroup analysis was conducted by gender and age.
When normal group was set as a reference, the adjusted ORs for depression formed U-shaped pattern of relationship with BMI categories [underweight: 1.31 (1.14–1.50), overweight: 0.94 (0.85–1.04), obese group: 1.01 (0.91–1.12), severe obese group: 1.28 (1.05–1.54)]. This pattern of relationship was more prominent in female and young age group than male and elderly subgroup. BMI level with the lowest likelihood of depression was 18.5 kg/m2 to 25 kg/m2 in women and 23 kg/m2 to 25 kg/m2 in men.
There was a U-shaped relationship between depression and BMI categories. This finding suggests that both underweight and severe obesity are associated with the increased risk for depression.
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) consist of highly preserved stress proteins that are expressed in response to stress. Two studies were carried out to investigate whether HSP genes in hair follicles from beef calves can be suggested as indicators of heat stress (HS). In study 1, hair follicles were harvested from three male Hanwoo calves (aged 172.2 ± 7.20 days) on six dates over the period of 10 April to 9 August 2017. These days provided varying temperature–humidity indices (THIs). In study 2, 16 Hanwoo male calves (aged 169.6 ± 4.60 days, with a BW of 136.9 ± 6.23 kg) were maintained (4 calves per experiment) in environmentally controlled chambers. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement involving two periods (thermoneutral: TN; HS) and four THI treatment groups (threshold: THI = 68 to 70; mild: THI = 74 to 76; moderate THI = 81 to 83; severe: THI = 88 to 90). The calves in the different group were subjected to ambient temperature (22°C) for 7 days (TN) and subsequently to the temperature and humidity corresponding to the target THI level for 21 days (HS). Every three days (at 1400 h) during both the TN and HS periods, the heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (RT) of each individual were measured, and hair follicles were subsequently collected from the tails of each individual. In study 1, the high variation (P < 0.0001) in THI indicated that the external environment influenced the HS to different extents. The expression levels of the HSP70 and HSP90 genes at the high-THI level were higher (P = 0.0120, P = 0.0002) than those at the low-THI level. In study 2, no differences in the THI (P = 0.2638), HR (P = 0.2181) or RT (P = 0.3846) were found among the groups during the TN period, whereas differences in these indices (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) were observed during the HS period. The expression levels of the HSP70 (P = 0.0010, moderate; P = 0.0065, severe) and HSP90 (P = 0.0040, severe) genes were increased after rapid exposure to heat-stress conditions (moderate and severe levels). We conclude that HSP gene expression in hair follicles provides precise and accurate data for evaluating HS and can be considered a novel indicator of HS in Hanwoo calves maintained in both external and climatic chambers.
To analyse the results of treatment for nasolabial cysts according to whether an intraoral sublabial or endoscopic transnasal approach was used, and to determine the recent surgical trend in our hospital.
Twenty-four patients with a histopathologically and radiologically confirmed nasolabial cyst between January 2010 and December 2017 were enrolled in this study.
Nasolabial cysts were predominant in females (91.7 per cent) and on the left side (54.2 per cent). Treatment involved an intraoral sublabial approach in 12 cases (48.0 per cent) and a transnasal endoscopic approach in 13 cases (52.0 per cent). In 13 cases (52.0 per cent) surgery was performed under local anaesthesia, while in 12 cases (48.0 per cent) it was conducted under general anaesthesia. The most common post-operative complications were numbness of the upper lip or teeth (n = 9, 36.0 per cent). Only one patient (4.0 per cent), who underwent a transnasal endoscopic approach, experienced a reoccurrence.
Surgical resection through an intraoral sublabial or transnasal endoscopic approach is the best treatment for a nasolabial cyst, showing very good results and a low recurrence rate. The recent surgical trend in our hospital is to treat nasolabial cysts using a transnasal endoscopic approach under local anaesthesia.
To investigate the association between parity and the risk of incident dementia in women.
We pooled baseline and follow-up data for community-dwelling women aged 60 or older from six population-based, prospective cohort studies from four European and two Asian countries. We investigated the association between parity and incident dementia using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age, educational level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cohort, with additional analysis by dementia subtype (Alzheimer dementia (AD) and non-Alzheimer dementia (NAD)).
Of 9756 women dementia-free at baseline, 7010 completed one or more follow-up assessments. The mean follow-up duration was 5.4 ± 3.1 years and dementia developed in 550 participants. The number of parities was associated with the risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.13). Grand multiparity (five or more parities) increased the risk of dementia by 30% compared to 1–4 parities (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02–1.67). The risk of NAD increased by 12% for every parity (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02–1.23) and by 60% for grand multiparity (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.00–2.55), but the risk of AD was not significantly associated with parity.
Grand multiparity is a significant risk factor for dementia in women. This may have particularly important implications for women in low and middle-income countries where the fertility rate and prevalence of grand multiparity are high.